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Description: Antifascism in American Art
Index
PublisherYale University Press
Index
Abstract art, 3, 6, 131, 200, 201
as antifascist strategy, 2, 197
as expression of the universal, 5, 130
during the Popular Front, 40, 41, 53
Stuart Davis on, 68, 69, 74–78, 85, 87, 89, 97, 198, 199
during the Second World War, 135, 142. See also Davis, Stuart, on modernism; Communist party, on modernism; Rothko, Mark; Gottlieb, Adolph
Abstract expressionism, 6, 170, 171, 172, 180, 196, 200, 201
Aissen, A.: Untitled, 12, 13
Allegory, 109
addressing the war, 3, 142
as a response to attacks against social realism, 5, 164–169
in John Steuart Curry’s art, 114, 199
in Thomas Hart Benton’s art, 115, 117, 199
in Philip Evergood’s art, 148–154
in William Gropper’s art, 148, 155, 156, 198
definition of, 154
in Ben Shahn’s art, 162, 163
in Nazi art, 194
Allies, 2, 92, 133, 134, 135, 141, 155, 158, 198, 200
American Artists,’ Congress: political position of, 39–41, 68, 69–70, 73–74, 90, 133, 135, 171
esthetic position of, 40–41, 53, 55, 69, 73–74, 98, 99, 135. See also Davis, Stuart; Evergood, Philip; Shahn, Ben
Anticommunism, 2, 68, 81, 91, 164, 201
Artists for Victory, 135–136, 171–172
Artists League of America, 135, 136, 137, 155
Artists’ Union, 65, 71
Axis, 1, 59, 123, 133, 134, 148, 155, 158, 187
Benton, Thomas Hart, 2, 77, 98, 100, 124, 125, 127, 131, 156, 198, 199. Works: The Year of Peril, 2, 111–125, 126, 129, 156
Sowers, 116, 117, 156
Again, 117, 118
Casualty, 117, 119
Indifference, 117, 119
Starry Night, 117, 119
Harvest, 118, 120
Invasion, 118–120, 121
Exterminate, 120–123, 122
The Silent Service and Marines at War, 126
Persephone, 128
Susannah and the Elders, 128
Achelous and Hercules, 128, 128
Biddle, George, 74, 141, 142, 166
Civilians, 141, 141
Blume, Peter, 37
Eternal City, 2, 35, 36, 54–64, 151, 154
Jack-in-the-Box, 57, 58
Boswell, Peyton, 81, 99, 100
Brooks, Van Wyck, 93, 108
Burck, Jacob, 9, 13, 23, 31
May Day, 12, 13–14, 31
C.E.M.: Adam n’ Eve, 16, 16–17
Calas, Nicolas, 185, 186, 189, 190
Carmack: The Best Answer to Race Persecution, 46, 47
Communist party: on fascism during the Third Period, 2, 8, 11–13
on fascism during the Popular Front, 2, 25, 37–38, 45, 69, 70, 72–73, 74, 90
on capitalism, 8, 11, 12–13, 19, 37–38, 133–134
on modernism, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24–26, 37, 53–54
on proletarian art, 19–20, 21, 22, 23–25, 28, 33, 37
reasons Americans joined, 20–22, 133
five-year plans, 20, 80
and American nationalism, 38, 109, 143–147
and the Spanish Civil War, 39, 74, 46–48
on socialist realism, 41–43
and the politics of the Second World War, 133–135, 136, 140, 171
Crawford, Ralston: Bomber Crash, 142, 143
Curry, John Steuart, 98, 100, 111, 113, 115, 131, 199. Works: The Tragic Prelude, 114
The Return of Private Davis from the Argonne, 114, 114
Parade to War: Allegory, 114, 115
The Light of the World, 114, 115, 156
Plant the Seeds of Victory, 126
Our Good Earth, Keep It Ours, 126, 127
The Farm Is a Battleground Too, 126, 127, 141
Paintings of Army Medicine, 127
Daily Worker, The, 8, 46, 48, 53, 152, 155, 158
Darrow, P.: Buy More War Bonds and Stamps, 141
Daumier, Honoré, 28, 29, 31, 32, 165
Davis, Stuart, 6, 65–97, 197, 198, 199, 200
and the American Artists’ Congress, 39, 40, 65, 68, 69–70, 73, 90
and the Popular Front, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 80
and The Liberator, 67
and The Masses, 67
and Marxism, 67, 68–69, 70, 75–76, 80, 91
and modernism, 67, 68, 74–78, 84, 85, 92, 97
on fascism, 68, 69, 72–73, 76–77, 97
and social realism, 68, 70, 71, 74, 75, 77, 78, 87
and the Communist party, 68, 70, 72–73, 74, 90
and liberalism, 68, 69, 80, 93–94
on esthetics, 70, 73–74, 89, 96–97
on propaganda, 70, 92, 130
on democracy, 72–73, 74–76, 80, 84, 85, 89, 90, 91, 93, 97
on regionalism, 77, 85, 98, 131–132
and the 1939 World’s Fair, 78–82
and jazz, 82–84, 85, 89
and the Soviet invasion of Finland, 90
on totalitarianism, 91, 92, 93
on nationalism and universalism, 93, 94, 97. Works: Artists Against War and Fascism, 65, 66, 67, 69–71, 87
Composition, 71, 72
drawing for Art Front cover, 71, 72
History of Communications, 78–82, 79, 84
Untitled, Municipal Broadcasting Company, WNYC, Studio B, Mural, 82–84, 83
Hot Still-scape for 6 Colors7th Ave. Style, 84, 85–89, 86
Eggbeater No. 2, 87, 87, 88
Eggbeater No. 2. (Hot Still-scape), 89, 89
detail study for Ultramarine, 94, 96
Ultramarine, 94–97, 95
Degenerate Art exhibit, 77, 106, 193
Documentary art, 2, 5, 126–127, 154, 155, 198, 199
Doyle, Jerry: Another Classic Bust Unearthed in Greece, 59, 60
Dürer, Albrecht: Knight, Death and Devil, 152
Dyn, 185
Ellis, Fred, 20, 109
Fighting the Tories—1776–1937, 109, 110
Eubank: Lost Horizon, 46, 47
Europe’s Winter Parade, 46, 47
Evergood, Philip, 137
Boy from Stalingrad, 139, 140
Keep ’Em Flying, 140, 141
and the American Artists’ Congress, 153
on social realism, 164–166
All in a Day’s Work, 141, 141, 153, 154
Fascist Company, 148–154, 149
They Passed This Way, 153
Federation of Modern Painters and Sculptors, 171–172
Flight from Fascist Terror in Almeria, 48, 48
Forain, Jean-Louis, 28, 31
Franco, Francisco, 38, 41, 48, 53, 54, 152
French, Jared: Murder, 142, 143
Gauss, Charles E., 189, 190, 191, 192
George, Harrison: Untitled, 46, 46
Gold, Michael, 20, 24
Gottlieb, Adolph, 170–196, 199, 200, 201
Rape of Persephone, 172, 173, 194–195
Eyes of Oedipus (1941), 173
Hands of Oedipus, 177, 179, 180
Eyes of Oedipus (1945), 182, 183, 183, 193
Expectation of Evil, 182, 184
The Red Bird, 182, 185
Goya, Francisco de, 142, 165
works exhibited in the United States during the 1930s, 32, 53
references to, in William Gropper’s art, 41, 50–51, 64, 137
May 3, 1808 in Madrid: The Executions on the Mountain of the Principe Pio, 50
Winter, 50, 51
Y aún no se van! (And Still They Don’t Go), 50, 52
Gropper, William, 9, 20, 24, 32, 37, 44, 63, 142, 198. Works: Not on Your Tintype, 2, 14, 14–15
Rot Front, 17, 17–19
Untitled (1934), 18, 18, 27, 31
One Must Have the Courage to Deliver Europe from the Bolshevist Plague, 30, 30
Refugees, 34, 35, 45–53, 56, 137, 148
The Little People, 41, 42, 50
Refugees (1937), 48, 49
Untitled (1937), 49, 50
The Invaders, 50, 52
The New Order, 50, 52, 137
The Delaware for Them—The Atlantic for Us, 109, 110
Homeless in Poland, 137, 137
Defenders, 137, 138
Out of Darkness, 137, 138
Partisans, 137, 138
Keep Him on the Run: Buy More Bonds, 141
Paul Bunyan, 145–147, 146
Untitled (1945), 147, 147
Good and Evil, 148, 150, 155–156
Three Men on a Horse, 152, 153
War-Mad, 152, 153
Home, 162–163, 163
Witch Hunt, 167, 168
Grosz, George, 28, 29, 30, 32
Prost Noske! The Young Revolution Is Dead, 30, 31
Social-Democracy, 31, 32
Hilz, Sepp: Bäuerliche Venus, 106, 107, 193
Hirohito, Emperor of Japan, 15, 57, 147
Hitler, Adolf, 12, 91
Hitler-Stalin nonagression pact, 2, 90, 133
American art compared to art in the Third Reich, 5, 129–130, 131
in American art, 14, 17, 18, 27, 31, 41, 46, 57, 141, 152, 156
and the Spanish Civil War, 38, 48, 51
on art, 76–77, 99, 106, 151, 192–194
American analysis of Hitler’s power, 108, 188, 191
Janson, H. W., 99, 128, 131
John Reed clubs, 29, 32, 33, 153, 156
organization, 9, 20–25, 39, 40, 43
journals, 9, 18, 37
Jolas, Eugene, 185, 191
Jones, Howard Mumford, 100, 102, 103, 106, 108, 110, 111, 144, 188
Jung, Carl, 170, 190, 191, 192, 193
Kampf, Arthur: Venus and Adonis, 106, 107, 193
Kantor, Morris: Pieta, 142
Kazin, Alfred, 104
Kent, Rockwell, 29, 39, 90, 145, 146
Kharkov Conference, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25
Kollwitz, Käthe, 29, 31, 32
Kolski, Gan: Untitled, 25, 26, 29
Kootz, Samuel, 90, 129, 130
Kunitz, Joshua, 20, 27
Kwait, John, 23
Left Front, 22
Leftward, 9, 13, 14, 16
Liberalism, 8, 24, 53, 64, 75, 163, 200, 201
and the Spanish Civil War, 38–39
and the Popular Front, 43
and the Second World War, 93–94, 123
the liberal-interventionist circle on fascism, 108–111, 124, 129, 144, 188. See also Davis, Stuart
Lozowick, Louis: reviews of William Gropper, 24, 27, 48, 144
on European illustrators, 28
on revolutionary art, 43–44
on surrealism, 189
Untitled, 25, 26
McCausland, Elizabeth, 29, 44, 53
MacLeish, Archibald, 108, 124
MacRae, John C.: Father I Can Not Tell a Lie: I Cut the Tree, 103, 103
Masses, The, 32, 67
Mastrangelo: Save That Nordic Strain, 15, 16, 31
Modernism. See Abstract art; Davis, Stuart; Communist party
Mostra della rivoluzione fascista (cover of catalog), 57–58, 59
Mumford, Lewis, 108
Mussolini, Benito, 9, 38, 53, 54–64, 106, 148, 188
in American art, 8, 35, 41, 147, 151, 152, 154
Myth painting, 3, 76, 170–196 passim, 200
national myths, 5, 100–111, 113, 125, 143–147, 198
universal myths, 127–128, 199, 201
Nationalism. See Communist party; Davis, Stuart; Myth painting
Nazi art, 76–77, 92, 99, 106, 128, 188, 192–194, 199
Nazis in American art, 16, 37, 113, 117, 120, 137, 140, 142, 158. See also Hitler, Adolf, in American art
Nazism. See Hitler, Adolf; Davis, Stuart, on fascism; Liberalism, and the liberal-interventionist circle on fascism; Communist party, on fascism
New Masses, The, 22, 30, 32, 41, 55
antifascist illustrations published 1927–1935, 8, 9, 13, 17, 18, 19, 25, 57
and the John Reed clubs, 21, 23
reviews of exhibitions, 23, 28
antifascist illustrations published during the Popular Front, 37, 45, 46
antifascist illustrations published during the Second World War, 145, 147
Newman, Barnett, 176, 177, 184, 195
Padua, Paul Mathias: Leda and the Swan, 194, 194–195
Passos, John Dos, 108
Peale, Charles Willson: The Artist in His Museum, 104, 105
Pearl Harbor, 115, 117, 123–124
Picasso, Pablo, 183
Guernica, 40, 53–54
Popular Front, 81, 109, 134
definition of, 2
impact on antifascist art, 3, 5, 98, 156, 199
use of Popular Front artistic strategies during the Second World War, 136, 137, 140, 142, 143, 145, 148, 165. See also Davis, Stuart; Communist party
Produce for Victory!, 162, 163
Proletarian art, 40, 41, 43, 44, 165. See also Communist party
Propaganda, 55, 70, 92, 130
during the early 1930s, 3, 22, 27, 33
defined, 4–5, 154, 156, 197, 198
modernists attack, in the United States, 6, 77, 129, 164, 165, 171, 187
fascist art criticized as, 99, 102
during the Second World War, 124, 126, 134–137, 140, 147–148, 166, 168–169, 199
Rader, Melvin, 94, 188, 199
Read, Herbert, 190, 191, 192
Refregier, Anton: Guernica, 41, 42, 137
Refugee crisis, 40, 45–52
Regionalism, 77–78, 85, 98–132, 195, 196, 198, 199
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 2, 16, 39, 46, 48, 123, 134, 135
Rosenberg, Harold, 6, 44
Rothko, Mark, 170–196 passim
The Syrian Bull, 172
Sacrifice of Iphigenia, 173, 174, 176, 182
Tiresias, 173, 175, 176, 182
Antigone, 173, 176, 177, 178, 180, 193
Omen of the Eagle, 181, 181
Sandburg, Carl, 108
Schapiro, Meyer, 98–99
Schneider, Isidor, 57
Schreiber, George: Those Who Always Pay, 45, 46
Shahn, Ben, 74, 156–164, 166, 168, 199
and the American Artists’ Congress, 156. Works: Passion of Sacco and Vanzetti, 156
Italian Landscape II: Europa, 156, 157, 162–163
Spring, 1940, Peace Offensive, 158
We Fight for a Free World, 158, 158
Concentration Camp, 159, 160
Italian Burial Society, 159, 160
Pacific Landscape, 159, 160
Italian Landscape, 160, 160
Red Stairway, 160, 160, 162
Liberation, 160, 161, 162
Allegory, 166
Second Allegory, 168, 168
Siegel, William: Another Triumph of Free Speech, 8, 9
Smith, Lawrence Beall, Task Force Hornets, 141
Social realism: during the Popular Front, 35, 63
defined, 43–44
and the Spanish Civil War, 48, 54
during the Second World War, 135, 137, 141
and folklore, 142–147
and allegory, 147–169
response to criticisms, 164–169, 198–199
Socialist realism, 41–43
Soviet Union. See Communist party
Soyer, Isaac: Where Next?, 41, 42, 50
Spanish Civil War, 38–39, 40, 41, 48–54, 74, 152, 154
Spring, 13, 14
Spruance, Benton: Souvenir of Lidice, 142, 142
Stalin, Joseph, 11, 80
Hitler-Stalin nonagression pact, 2, 90, 133
attacked by Americans, 91–92, 130, 171
Surrealism, 41, 44, 56, 63, 142, 151, 170–196 passim, 201
United States government: and art during the Second World War, 2, 5, 92, 124, 135, 136, 158
and the Spanish Civil War, 38–39
and the refugee crisis, 45
and the Second World War, 111, 123
Vertical, 185, 191
View, 185, 190
VVV, 185
Ward, Lynd, 98–99
Wecter, Dixon, 144
Wood, Grant, 98–111, 127, 144, 198. Works: Parson Weems’ Fable, 2, 100–111, 101, 113, 125, 145
The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere, 103
Spring in the Country, 113
Spring in Town, 113
Bundles for Britain, 113, 113
Workers Unite, 9–13, 10, 27, 29
Young, Art: Fascisti Finance, 8, 9
Index