Index
Page numbers in bold indicate illustrations
Aalto, Alvar, 146, 156, 157, 196
Abbey, Edwin Austin, 74, 75
Adams, George Burton, 57–58
Adams, Henry, 3, 25
aestheticism of, 7, 13, 42n32
The Education of Henry Adams, 55, 61, 62, 63, 65
History of the United States of America During the Jefferson and Madison Administrations, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63–64, 67–69
A Letter to Teachers of American History, 57
on Francis Parkman, 66–67
scientific history of, 6–8, 12, 55, 56–57, 58–59, 60–65, 67–69
Adams, Thomas, 92
Aestheticism, 7, 12, 13, 30, 74–75
Albers, Josef, 21, 187, 191, 203
Alberti, Leon Battista, 73
Americanism, 39
American studies, 6, 19
Amon Carter Museum (Johnson), 248
Anderson, Sherwood, 98
Antioch College, 109
Archetype, 16–17
Architectural criticism (Jordy): Americanness of, 39
connection to European culture, 39
contextual approach, 11
cultural analysis, 1, 2, 3, 12
essentialist arguments, 20, 26
formalist analysis, 1, 16, 17, 33
humanist approach, 27–28
methods and perspectives, 1–2, 38–39
pragmatic outlook, 38
“situationist,” 15, 17. See also Formalism
Architectural Forum, 5, 16, 19
Architectural Review, 15, 18, 19, 33, 153, 196
Architectural theory: Baukunst, 16, 22–23, 227, 231, 234
Beaux-Arts, 15, 18, 33–34, 39, 148, 236
fact and factuality in modern, 21
“inmost essence” of modern, 22, 139, 141
metaphysical character of modern, 21, 139, 140, 141
mythic ideal of modern, 21
neue Sachlichkeit, 22, 24
of objectivity, 189
poetic meaning in modern, 21–22
presentism of modern, 20–21, 24, 25
Stilarchitektur, 22–23. See also Symbolic objectivity
Architecture, American: aestheticism in, 12, 72, 74–75
Art Deco, 113, 116, 181
Bay Area Style, 81, 196–197, 198
Beaux-Arts, 12, 15, 18, 33–34, 45n71, 248
Chicago School, 14, 29, 210
corporate dimension in, 79–80
corporate neoclassicism, 287, 288, 289
European modernism, influence on, 189–191
functionalism in, 12, 17, 143–144, 179
“hero architect,” 263–264
housing developments (See Willow Run [Bomber City] project, Michigan)
late modernism, 19, 20, 37–38
Le Corbusier, influence on, 188–189
monumentality in, 247, 248–249, 250
naturalism in, 12, 71, 75–79
New York school, 35
order in, 12, 73–74
organic tradition in, 12, 14, 39
Pop imagery, 35–37, 264–266
popularization of modern movement, 213–215
postmodernism, 33–35, 37, 261, 267–268
prefabrication in, 5–6, 27, 112, 216
regionalism in, 81, 87–89, 196–197
skyscrapers, 6, 27, 227–229
technological advances and, 27
Victorian, 30, 71–72. See also Architectural theory; Bauhaus émigrés; International Style; specific names
Architecture, modern European: Art Deco, 77
Beaux-Arts, 140, 148
Constructivism, 157–158, 217, 267
De Stijl, 9, 178, 243
devaluation of, 135
extension to U.S., 192–193
functionalism in, 137, 143, 144
futurism in, 136
Jordy’s firsthand encounter with, 8–10
monumentality in, 152, 156, 198
neoclassical monumentality in, 156, 198, 199
Neo-Rationalism, 267
prefabrication in, 142, 154, 216–217
radical reorientation of, 27, 138–139, 149
social housing, 9
symbolic objectivity as goal of early modernism, 138–141, 144–145
technological basis for, 20, 135–137, 138, 140
traditional imagery in, 196
vernacular expression in, 34, 146–148, 155, 196
Vienna Secession, 267
Wright, criticism of, 87–88, 194–195, 265
Wright, influence on, 151, 189–191. See also Architectural theory; Bauhaus; International Style; Symbolic objectivity; specific names
Architecture and Urbanism, 37
Armory Show, 97
Arnold, Matthew, 13
Art: Bauhaus influence on, 187
Cubism, 86, 97
Dada, 97
The Eight, 97, 98
Fauvism, 86
kinesthetic response to, 24
largeness of form, 73–74
mannerism, 86
modernist, 86, 97–98
poetic dimension of, 21–22
pop art imagery in Venturi’s architecture, 35–37, 264–266, 269–270
realism, 97, 98
regionalism in, 81, 85–87, 86, 94, 94, 96–97, 102n32
Surrealism, 86
Art Deco, 113, 116, 181, 287
Art history, 4, 16
Art Nouveau, 77
Augur, Tracy, 111, 112
Banham, Reyner, 139, 147, 247
on Jordy’s “situationist” criticism, 15
“Machine Aesthetic,” 25
Theory and Design in the First Machine Age, 20, 22, 25–26, 135–137
Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong (Pei), 276, 277–293, 279, 280, 282, 292
banking hall, 288–289
compared to Seagram Building, 293
corporate neoclassicism, 287, 288, 289–290
entrance and lobby, 286–288, 287, 290–291
gardens of, 290–291
height of, 291
modules and modular units of, 278, 283–285
site of, 277, 278, 283, 286
structural design of, 38, 281–283, 291, 293
structural elements of, 38, 278–281
Barcelona Pavilion (Mies), 152, 156, 217, 233
Barr, Alfred, 151, 193
Bauhaus, 189, 192
educational program of, 202–203
flight from Hitler’s Germany, 192–193, 199
Museum of Modern Art exhibitions, 200, 203
Bauhaus, Dessau (Gropius), 202, 215
Bauhaus émigrés, 15, 28, 29, 187
achievement of, 219–220
American regionalism, influence on, 82–83, 188, 197–198, 210–212
American structural tradition, influence on, 216–219
house designs of, 209–212
publications, influence of, 199–201
quality of American work, 213–216
schools established by, 203–204
teaching programs of, 188, 201–209
Baukunst theory, 16, 22–23, 227, 231, 234
Bay Area Style, 81, 196–197, 198
Bayer, Herbert, 187, 200, 201
Baym, Max I., 7
Beaux-Arts theory and design, 12, 15, 18, 33–34, 39, 45n72, 140, 236, 248
Behrendt, Walter Curt, 201
Modern Building, 200
Behrens, Peter, 22, 218
Bennett, Edward, 92
Benton, Thomas Hart, 81, 85–86, 94, 94, 98, 102n32
An Artist in America, 96
Bianculli, Mario, 116
Bill-Ding Board project (Venturi), 266, 269
Black Mountain College, 203
Blake, Peter, God’s Own Junkyard, 264, 266
Bletter, Rosemarie Haag, 270
Bomber City See Willow Run (Bomber City) project, Michigan
Boston City Hall (Kallmann, McKinnell & Knowles), 144
Boston Public Library (McKim), 12, 71, 72–73, 73, 75, 77–79, 78, 80
Bötticher, Karl, 22, 23
Boulder (Hoover) Dam, 103, 113, 115
Bourke-White, Margaret, 81, 93
Breuer, Marcel, 15, 27–28, 29, 81, 192, 201
on American efficiency, 191
on Bauhaus idea, 202, 203
constructivism of, 158, 217
Dolderthal Apartments, Zurich, 152, 155
Ferry Cooperative Dormitory, Vassar College, 28
furniture design of, 197–198, 205
Gane’s Exhibition Pavilion, 197, 197, 210, 211
-Gropius collaboration, 152, 154, 155, 203, 209
Hagerty House, Cohasset, 28, 154, 155
Harnischmacher House, Wiesbaden, 28, 82, 152, 153, 154, 211, 214, 215, 216, 217
regional influences on, 81, 197, 198, 210–211
Robinson (Preston) House, Williamstown, 82–83, 210–211, 211, 212, 214, 216
teaching at Harvard, 188, 205–206
Brise-soleil, 145, 157
Broadacre City (Wright), 81, 88–89, 89, 109, 173
Brown, Richard, 248, 251, 253
Brown University, 10–11, 29, 52n154
Bunshaft, Gordon, 16, 264
Lever House, 228, 229, 231, 232
Burnham, Daniel, 8, 13, 29, 92
Caldwell, Erskine, 81
Carnegie Study of the Arts of the United States, 11
Case study method, 1, 11
Cassirer, Ernst, 22
Chambless, Edgar, 94
Chandigarh project, India (Le Corbusier), 145, 147, 148, 169–170
Cheney, Sheldon, The New World Architecture, 200
Chermayeff, Serge, 223
Cherokee Dam, TVA, 103
Chicago School, 14, 29, 210
Choisy, Auguste, 148, 148
Chrystie-Forsyth Street Housing, New York (Lescaze and Frey), 35, 180, 181
Cincinnati Terminal (Feldheimer & Wagner), 113
City Beautiful movement, 8, 12–13, 39
City planning, 26–27
of autoless neighborhoods, 101n26
Broadacre City (Wright), 81, 88–89, 89, 109
City Beautiful movement, 8, 12–13, 39
city center, 27
decentralization, 27
European, 9–10
Gropius’s scheme, 208, 209
Hilberseimer’s scheme, 207–208, 208
Jacobs (Jane) on, 27, 263
Le Corbusier’s Algiers plan, 147, 157
Lynch (Kevin) on, 27, 262–263
TVA model towns, 110, 111–112. See also Willow Run (Bomber City) project, Michigan
Civic space, 12–13
Classicism, 2, 34
Coe, Ralph, 14
Cole, Thomas, 124, 125
Collins, George, 28
Collins, Peter, 10
Colquhoun, Alan, 26
Commager, Henry Steele, 8
Commonwealth Apartments (Mies), 228
Comte, Auguste, 7, 55–56
Constructivism, 157–158, 217, 267
Crabtree, William, 152
Craven, Thomas, 97
Creese, Walter, TVA’s Public Planning, 120
Creighton, Thomas, 17
Cret, Paul Philippe, 34, 248
Croce, Benedetto, 7, 25
Crosby, Sumner, 8
Cubism, 86, 97
Cultural analysis, 2, 3, 39
Curry, John Steuart, 81, 85, 86, 87, 96–97, 98, 102n32
Dacca Capitol (Kahn), 248, 254
Dada, 143
Dams: Boulder (Hoover), 103, 113, 115. See also Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) dams
Davidson, Donald, 81, 84, 89–90
Davis, Stuart, 97
“Decorated shed,” of Venturi, 36–37, 265–266, 268
de Mandrot House (Le Corbusier), 147, 147, 156, 195–196, 197, 210, 211, 212, 214
Design Laboratory, 203
De Stijl, 9, 178, 243, 267
Dewey, John, 1, 24
Dolderthal Apartments, Zurich (Breuer), 152, 154, 155
Dorner, Alexander, 201
The Way Beyond “Art,” 200
Douglas Dam, TVA, 103
Dove, Arthur, 97
Draper, Earle, 111, 112, 113
Drexler, Arthur, 232
Duchamp, Marcel, 97
Dymaxion car (Fuller), 136, 136
Dymaxion House (Fuller), 136
Eakins, Thomas, 73
Eidlitz, Leopold, 15
Eight, The, 97, 98
Eisenman, Peter, 35
Empson, William, Seven Types of Ambiguity, 262
Esplanade Apartments (Mies), 228
Evans, Walker, 81, 93, 93, 98, 104–105
Farnsworth House (Mies), 227, 233, 246
Feldheimer & Wagner, Cincinnati Terminal, 113
Ferriss, Hugh, 17
Metropolis of Tomorrow, 287
Ferry Cooperative Dormitory, Vassar College (Breuer), 28
Field (Frederick Vanderbilt) House, New Hartford (Lescaze), 35, 172, 173–177, 176
Fish, Hamilton, 4
Flagg, Ernest, 34
Fleischner, Richard, 29
Fleming, Donald, 10
“Flivver houses,” 5
Focillon, Henri, 22
The Life of Forms in Art, 21, 24
Fontana Dam, TVA, 31, 31, 103, 116–117, 117
Ford, Edsel, 5, 127
Ford, Henry, 190
Ford Motor Company, 5, 127–129
Formalism, 1, 28
architects associated with, 15–16, 19
within evolutionary perspective, 37
of Kahn, 18–19
of Mies, 16–17
postmodernism and, 35
Yale University School of Architecture and Design and, 19, 26
Foster, Norman, 286, 287
Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, 281
Franklin memorial, Philadelphia (Venturi), 268–269
Frey, Albert, 35, 180, 181
Frugès, Henry, 9
Fry, Maxwell, 152
Fugitive, The, 83
Fuller, Buckminster, 26
Dymaxion car, 136, 136
Dymaxion House, 136
Functionalism, 2, 17, 25, 137, 143–144
Furness, Frank, 30, 71
Furniture design, 196, 197–198, 205
Futurism, 136
Gabriel, Ralph, 6
Gane’s Exhibition Pavilion (Breuer), 197, 197, 210, 211
Geddes, Patrick, 90, 91–92
Gehry, Frank, 37, 178
German idealism, 22
Getty Tomb, Chicago (Sullivan), 74–75, 76
Giedion, Sigfried, 1, 196, 209–210
Space, Time and Architecture, 25, 29, 201, 206
Gill, Irving, 11
Goethe, Wolfgang von, 22
Goldsmith, John, 3
Goodman, Percival, 28
Goodwin and Stone, 152
Goto, Joseph, 29
Graves, Michael, 35, 36, 178
Greek Revival, 289
Greenberg, Clement, 16
Greene and Greene, 11
Gropius, Walter, 15, 28, 29, 190, 192, 201
on American efficiency, 191
American Embassy, Athens, 215
automobile design of, 136, 136
Bauhaus, Dessau, 202, 215
-Breuer collaboration, 152, 154, 155, 203, 209
Harvard Graduate Center, 214, 215
The New Architecture and the Bauhaus, 200
prefabrication experiments of, 216–217
regional influences on, 81, 197, 198
teaching program at Harvard, 188, 202, 204–205, 206
Guaranty Building, Buffalo (Sullivan), 71, 72, 72, 75, 77, 79, 80
Guérin, Jules, 73–74
Guggenheim Museum, New York (Wright), 29
Guild House, Philadelphia (Venturi), 35–36, 37, 270–271, 271
Gwathmey, Charles, 5
Haber, Samuel, 6
Hagerty House, Cohasset (Breuer), 18, 154, 155
Hamilton, George Heard, 6, 8, 21–22
Hancock Building, Chicago (Skidmore, Owings & Merrill), 281
Harnischmacher House, Wiesbaden (Breuer), 28, 82, 152, 153, 154, 211, 214, 215, 216, 217
Harvard Graduate Center (Gropius), 214, 215
Harvard University, Bauhaus émigrés at, 202, 204–206
Hejduk, John, 35
Hessian Hill School, Croton-on-Hudson (Lescaze), 177–178, 179
Hilberseimer, Ludwig, 187, 207–208
Historic preservation, 32, 39
Historiography, 2
History: literary approach to, 55, 56, 59–61, 65–67, 68–69
objectification of, 146–148
professionalism of, 56
History, scientific: criticism of, 58, 62
factions in, 55–56
of Henry Adams, 6–8, 12, 55, 56–57, 58–59, 60–65, 67–69
vs. literary history, 55, 56
social sciences and, 57–58
Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, 1, 11, 16, 25, 28
American Architectural Books, 8
Architecture: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, 137
In the Nature of Materials, 190
The International Style: Architecture Since 1922, 20, 137, 151, 152, 153, 193–194, 195
Modern Architecture, Romanticism and Reintegration, 200
Painting Toward Architecture, 26
Hiwassee Dam, TVA, 103, 117
Hofmann, Hans, 187, 191
Hopper, Edward, 97, 98
Horta, Victor, 8, 10
Howe, George, 15, 19, 171, 176. See also Philadelphia Saving Fund Society Building (Howe and Lescaze)
Idealism, German, 22
Illinois Institute of Technology, Bauhaus émigrés at, 188, 204, 206–207
Illinois Institute of Technology campus (Mies), 206, 246
I’ll Take My Stand, 81, 83, 84
Inland Steel Building (Skidmore, Owings & Merrill), 234
Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (Kahn), 248
International Style, 23–24, 135
Americanization of, 15, 27–29, 212–220
constructivism in, 157–158, 217
formal approach to, 137–138
functionalism in, 137
Lescaze and, 34–35, 173–174, 179
Museum of Modern Art exhibition (Modern Architecture: International Exhibition), 87, 193–194
neoclassical monumentality in, 156, 198, 199
Neutra and, 15, 34, 155, 173, 174
after 1932, 152–158
principles of, 151, 152, 153, 158, 193–194
“psychologizing tendency” within, 153–154
regional/vernacular influences on, 155–157
in Scandinavian architecture, 196
technological advance and, 154–155
Wright’s criticism of, 87, 194–195, 265
Izenour, Steven, 265
Jackson, John Brinckerhoff, 30
Jacobs, Jane, 27
The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 262, 263
James, Henry, The American Scene, 78
James, William, 1
“What Pragmatism Means,” 24
Johns, Jasper, Three Flags, 36, 271, 272
Johnson, Philip, 15, 16, 19, 25, 156, 200, 233
Amon Carter Museum, 248
Glass House, 145–146
at Harvard University, 205
The International Style: Architecture Since 1922, 20, 137, 151, 152, 153, 193–194, 195
Johnson Wax Company, Racine (Wright), 244, 244
Jordy, Sarah “Sal” Spock, 4, 5
Jordy, William H.: art (sculpture) criticism of, 29
book reviews of, 15, 30, 32, 37
on Brown University faculty, 10–11, 29, 52n154
Carnegie Study of the Arts of the United States, consultant to, 11
critical method of (See Architectural criticism [(Jordy])
dissertation on Henry Adams, 6
education at Bard College, 3–4
education at Institute of Fine Arts, 4
education at Yale University, 6
European study tour of, 8–10
exhibition catalogues of, 29, 31, 32
as historic preservation advocate, 32, 39
influences on, 1, 24–26
as journalist, 4–6
landscape architecture, interest in, 32
marriage of, 4
Mies, meeting with, 17–18
military service of, 4, 5–6
mural paintings by, 2, 3
pictured, xii, 5, 11, 13, 28
on poetry and visual arts, 12
postmodernism, interest in, 33
West Coast tour of, 11
on Yale University faculty, 6, 8, 10
publications: “The Aftermath of the Bauhaus in America,” 28, 29, 187–224
“American Architecture Between World’s Fairs: Richardson, Sullivan and McKim,” 12, 72–80
American Architecture and Other Writings, 14
American Buildings and Their Architects, 11–12, 13, 15, 18, 19, 28, 30, 37
“Architecture of the Federal Period and the Nineteenth Century,” 11
“Bank of China Tower,” 37–38, 277–293
Buildings of Rhode Island, 37, 38
“Fiasco at Willow Run,” 4–5, 127–132
“Flivver Houses,” 5
“The Formal Image: USA,” 16
“Four Approaches to Regionalism in the Visual Arts of the 1930s,” 30, 81–99
“The Genius of Place,” 32
Henry Adams: Scientific Historian, 6–8
“Henry Adams and Francis Parkman,” 55
“Humanism in Contemporary Architecture: Tough-and Tender-Minded,” 27
“‘I Am Alone’: Le Corbusier, Bathrooms, and Airplanes,” 34, 159–170
“The International Style in the 1930s,” 27, 151–158
“Kahn at Yale,” 33
“Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas; Library, Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, New Hampshire,” 33, 247–260
“The Laconic Splendor of the Metal Frame,” 16, 17
“Medical Research Building for Pennsylvania University, Philadelphia,” 18–19, 235–246
“Mies-less Johnson,” 16
“Neutra and the International Style,” 34
“PSFS: Its Development and Its Significance in Modern Architecture,” 15
Right to be Proud: History of the 65th Division’s March Across Germany, 5
“Robert Venturi and the Decorated Shed,” 35, 261–275
“Seagram Assessed,” 16–17, 227–234
“Symbolic Essence of Modern European Architecture of the Twenties and Its Continuing Influence,” 20, 23–24, 28, 135–150
“Two Temperaments in History: Scientific and Literary,” 7, 55–69
“Where Are We? The ‘International Style’ Revisited,” 23–24, 25
William Lescaze Reconsidered,” 34–35, 171–186
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 15
Kahn, Albert, 153
Kahn, Louis, 5, 15, 16, 18–19, 37, 145, 263–264
Ahmedabad Institute of Management, 248, 254
Beaux-Arts and, 33, 248
Dacca Capitol, 248, 254
folded metal detail of, 253
Louis Kahn—Silence and Light, 33
monumental aspirations of, 247, 248, 250
Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, 19, 148, 149, 247, 248
on Seagram Building, 280–281, 293
on Stonorov and Kahn, 5. See also Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth (Kahn); Phillips Exeter Academy library, New Hampshire (Kahn); Richards (Alfred Newton) Medical Research Building, Philadelphia (Kahn)
Kallmann, McKinnell & Knowles, Boston City Hall, 144
Kaufmann, Gordon B., 113
Kelly, Richard, 253
Kepes, Gyorgy, 146
Kiesler, Frederick, 187, 188
Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth (Kahn), 18, 33, 248, 249, 250–253, 251, 259–260
comparison with Amon Carter Museum, 248
Le Corbusier, influence of, 249
modular units in, 250, 251, 252
monumentality of, 248, 251
natural light in, 253–254
“served” and “servant” elements in, 18, 33, 252–253
vaulted gallery space, 250, 250–252
Komendant, August, 242, 252
Kramer, Hilton, 16, 33
Krautheimer, Richard, 4
Krefeld project (Mies), 199, 218, 243n2
Kubler, George, 8, 24–25
The Shape of Time, 25
Kuh, Katharine, 29, 210
Labrouste, Henri, 72, 79
Lake Shore Drive Apartments (Mies), 16, 17, 218, 219, 220, 228, 231, 231–232, 232, 246
Landscape, 30
Landscape architecture: Bank of China Tower, 290–291
Jordy’s interest in, 32
objectification of “nature,” 144, 145–146, 146
at TVA dams, 116–117
Lange, Dorothea, 81, 93, 94
“Law of the meander,” 34, 167–169
Le Corbusier, 8, 27, 220
airplane, theme of, 164–166, 168, 169
brise-soleil, 145, 157
cell theme of, 163–164, 165
Chandigarh project, India, 145, 147, 148, 169–170
constructivist projects of, 157–158
de Mandrot House, 147, 147, 156, 195–196, 197, 210, 211, 212, 214
drawings of aerial views, 166–167, 167, 169
esprit nouveau, 189
L’Esprit Nouveau, 161
housing projects, 9, 10
isometric approach, 147–148
Kahn, influence on, 18, 236, 237, 249
landscape architecture, 145, 146, 146, 147
“law of the meander,” 34, 167–169
on mechanization of modern life, 161–163
museum, ideal, 169–170
Oeuvre complete, 188
Ozenfant Studio, 21, 141–143, 142, 145, 163
Pavillon de l’Esprit Nouveau, 157
Philips Pavilion, 169
psychic and mythic character of work, 23
regional vernacular, shift to, 34, 147, 147, 156
Savoye Villa, 145, 177
sketchbooks of, 34, 159–160, 160, 163
on skyscraper, 189, 190, 214, 228
symbolic forms of, 25–26
Unité d’Habitation, Marseilles, 9, 10, 164
in U.S., 190
Vers une architecture, 23, 139, 148, 149, 151, 161, 162, 163, 188–189, 190, 201
Weekend House, 157
Ledoux, Claude-Nicolas, 106
Léger, Fernand, 25
Lehmann, Karl, 4
Lescaze, William, 15, 34–35, 176
Chrystie-Forsyth Street Housing Development, New York (with Frey), 35, 180, 181
Field (Frederick Vanderbilt) House, New Hartford, 35, 172, 173–177, 176
House of the Future project, 172–173
Museum of Modern Art project (with Frey), 35, 172, 180–181
received “look” from European modernism, 172, 179
school designs, 177, 177–178, 179–180
Spreter (Roy) Studio and Garage, Ardmore, 178
Ten Eyck Houses, Brooklyn, 181, 182
townhouses of, 182–185, 183
Wertheim (Maurice) House project, 178. See also Philadelphia Saving Fund Society Building (Howe and Lescaze)
Lever House (Bunshaft), 228, 229, 231, 232
Lewis, Sinclair, 98
Lilienthal, David, 31, 95, 106, 107, 108, 112, 118–119
Lipps, Theodor, 24
Loos, Adolf, 272
Low, Will, Love Disarmed?, 78
Lynch, Kevin, 27
The Image of the City, 262–263
MacKaye, Benton, 99
The New Exploration, 81, 90–91, 92, 93
“The Townless Highway,” 94
Manson, Grant, 11
Markelius, Sven, 196
MARS Group, 27
Marsh, Reginald, 98
Marshall Field Warehouse Store, Chicago (Richardson), 14, 71–72, 71, 74, 79, 80, 234
May, Ernst, 9
Maybeck, Bernard, 11
Mayne, Thorn, 37
McKim, Charles Follen, 11
Boston Public Library, 12, 71, 72–73, 73, 75, 77–79, 78, 80
McKim, Mead & White, 77, 138
Low (William) House, 270
Racquet Club, 232
Mead, William Rutherford, 73
Meeks, Carroll, 6, 8
Meier, Richard, 35, 178, 267
Mendelsohn, Eric, 156, 187, 188, 190–191, 198
Synagogue, Cleveland, 215, 216
Miami River Conservancy, TVA, 108–109
Michelet, Jules, 7
Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig, 2, 9, 15, 16, 29, 37
aesthetic theory of Baukunst, 23
American technology and, 216, 217–219
Barcelona Pavilion, 152, 156, 217, 233
Brick Country House project, 21, 140, 141, 211–212, 212
on Chicago School, 210
Commonwealth Apartments, 228
Esplanade Apartments, 228
Farnsworth House, 227, 233, 246
garden court house, 144, 145
I-beams, 21, 143, 145, 231, 231–232
Illinois Institute of Technology campus, 206, 246
International Style and, 152
Jordy, meeting with, 17–18
Kahn, influence on, 18, 236, 237–238
Krefeld project, 199, 218, 234n2
Lake Shore Drive Apartments, 16, 17, 218, 219, 220, 231, 231–232, 246
Museum for a Small City, 234n2
in Nazi Germany, 199, 222–223n28
neoclassical approach, 156, 198, 198, 199
Reichsbank project, 199, 224n48
Resor House project, 234n1
teaching program at Illinois Institute of Technology, 188, 204, 206–207
on technology, 191–192
Wright, influence on, 212. See also Seagram Building, New York, (Mies)
“Modern Architecture Symposium: The Decade 1929–1939,” 27, 28
Moholy-Nagy, László, 187, 192, 201
New Bauhaus, 203–204
The New Vision, 200
Moholy-Nagy, Sibyl, 204–205
Molecular Biology Building, Princeton University (Venturi), 261
Monadnock Building (Root), 234
Monkhouse, Christopher P., 32
Monumentality: of Kahn, 247, 248–249, 250
neoclassical, 152, 156, 198
Moore, Charles, 33
Morgan, Arthur E., 31, 107, 108–109, 112, 118, 119
Morgan, Harcourt, 107, 107, 111, 119
Morris, William, 39
Morrison, Hugh, 200
Mount, William Sidney, 73
Mullett, Alfred B., 80
Mumford, Lewis, 12, 14
Brown Decades, 200
The Culture of Cities, 81, 91, 92
on Jordy, 6
Jordy, influence on, 1, 7, 31
RPAA and, 91, 92–93
on Schuyler, 44n54
on Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), 32, 51n137
Muscle Shoals (Wilson) Dam, TVA, 109–111
Museum of Modern Art (Goodwin and Stone), 152
Museum of Modern Art exhibitions: Aalto, 196
Bauhaus, 200, 203
Ecole des Beaux-Arts, 33
International Style (Modern Architecture: International Exhibition), 87, 193
Machine Art, 200
Wright, 190
Museum of Modern Art project (Lescaze and Frey), 35, 172, 180–181
Muthesius, Hermann, 25
Stilarchitektur und Baukunst, 22–23
Nation, 4–5
Naturalism: in American architecture, 12, 71, 75–79
modernist challenge to, 189
Neoclassicism: corporate, 287, 288, 289–290
monumentality, 152, 156, 198
Venturi on, 267–268
Neo-Platonic geometry, 265
Neo-Rationalism, 267
Neue Sachlichkeit concept, 22, 24
Neumann, Dietrich, 18
Neutra, Richard, 1, 11, 113, 155
on American building methods, 191
Lovell House, 15, 34, 173, 174
New Bauhaus, Chicago, 203–204
New Criterion, 33, 34, 35, 39
New Criticism, 262
New Empiricism, 196
New York school, 35
Norman, Dorothy, 184
Norris Dam, TVA, 103, 105, 106, 107, 111, 113, 114, 115, 116
Norris Village, TVA, 110, 111–112, 120
Norton, Charles Eliot, 13
Nowicki, Matthew, 17
Oak Lane Country Day School, Philadelphia (Lescaze), 177, 177, 178, 179
Object-image, 21–22
Odum, Harold, 81
Olmsted, Frederick Law, 32
Order in American architecture, 73–74
Oud, J. J. P., 8–9, 143, 146, 152
Ozenfant, Amédée, 161
Ozenfant Studio (Le Corbusier), 21, 141–143, 142, 145, 163
Palladio, Andrea, 8, 9
Pan Am Building, New York, 214, 215
Panofsky, Erwin, 4, 19, 22
Paradise Cemetery, TVA, 125–126
Parkman, Francis, 7, 58, 59–61, 65–67
Pavillon de l’Esprit Nouveau (Le Corbusier), 157
Pei, I. M., 37–38. See also Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong (Pei)
Peirce, Charles, 1
Perry, Clarence, 129–130
Perspecta, 19
Peterhans, Walter, 187, 206–207
Pevsner, Nikolaus, 1, 39, 201
Pioneers of Modern Design, 25, 200
Philadelphia Saving Fund Society Building (Howe and Lescaze), 15, 35, 152, 171, 171–172, 175, 181, 233
constructivism in, 158
curved volume in, 174
functionalism of, 179
Phillips Exeter Academy library, New Hampshire (Kahn), 18, 33, 37, 249, 254–260, 255
brick, role of, 248–249, 254–255
central space, 258, 258, 259
monumentality of, 248, 250
“served” and “servant” spaces in, 18, 33
structural span of, 256–259
study carrels, 255, 256
Photography: realist, 98
regionalist, 81, 93
of TVA, 104–105
Pickwick Dam, TVA, 116
Pierson, William, 11
Planning. See City planning; Regionalism; Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Platt, Charles Adams, 34
Poetry: in architecture, 77
in art, 21–22
Polk, Willis, 11
Pommer, Richard, 35
Pop art imagery, of Venturi, 35–37, 264–266, 270, 274
Postmodernism, 33–35, 37, 261, 267–268
Potter, David, 11
Pragmatism, 1, 24
Prefabrication, 5–6, 112, 154, 216–217
Presentism, 20–21, 24, 25
Price, Edison, 253
Pugin, Augustus Welby, 39
Raccoon Mountain, TVA, 32, 122, 122–124, 123, 124
Radiant City, 189
Ranke, Leopold von, 7, 55, 56, 58
Ransom, John Crowe, 84
Rauschenberg, Robert, 203, 264
Regionalism, 30–31, 81–102
approaches to, 90
Bauhaus émigrés and, 81–83, 197–198, 210–212
Bay Area Style, 81, 196–197, 198
dying rurality and, 98–99
foci in visual arts, 82
idealism of, 197
International Style and, 155–157
literature on, 81, 83–85
in painting, 81, 84–87, 86, 94, 94, 96–97, 102n32
in photography, 81, 93
RPAA thesis of, 92–93
site, concern for, 156–157
Southern Agrarian movement, 83–85, 89–90, 96, 197
of Wright, 81, 87–88, 195
Regional planning: automobile and, 93–94
balance of city and country, 90–91
Geddes theory of, 90, 91–92
greenbelt town, 91, 111–112
highway and, 94
Le Corbusier’s linear concept of, 167
RPAA’s thesis of, 92–93. See also Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Regional Planning Association of America (RPAA), 91, 92–93
Renaissance architecture, 24, 25, 138
Resor, Stanley, 199
Richards (Alfred Newton) Medical Research Building, Philadelphia (Kahn), 143–144, 235, 235–246, 236, 242, 247
Beaux-Arts influence on, 18, 33, 236
floor plan, 238
folded metal detail, 253
form and design, differentiation of, 239
frame construction, 242–243
interior, 243–245
Le Corbusier, influence of, 18, 236, 237
Mies, influence of, 18, 235, 237–238
reinforced concrete structure, 241–242
“served” and “servant” spaces, 18, 33, 240–241
site of, 235–236
as work in progress, 19
Wright, influence of, 18, 235, 237, 244
Richardson, Henry Hobson, 7, 12, 39
Marshall Field Warehouse Store, 14, 71–72, 71, 74, 79, 80, 234
Rietveld, Gerrit, 8–9
Robertson, Leslie, 38, 278, 280, 281
Robie House (Wright), 212, 213
Robinson, James Harvey, 58
Robinson (Preston) House, Williamstown (Breuer), 82–83, 210–211, 211, 212, 214, 216
Rockefeller Center, 27
Rodgers, John B., 206, 207
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 95, 108, 109, 118
Root, John Wellborn, Monadnock Building, 234
Rotondi, Michael, 37
Rowe, Colin, 8, 14, 16, 18, 26, 28
The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa, 26
“Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal,” 26
Rudloff, C. H., 9
Rudolph, Paul, 16, 264
Ruskin, John, 12, 14, 17, 30
Saarinen, Eero, 264
Saarinen and Swanson, 5
Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla (Kahn), 19, 148, 149, 247, 248
Sant’Elia, Antonio, 26, 139
Savoye Villa (Le Corbusier), 9, 145, 177
Scanga, Italo, 29
Schawinsky, Alexander (“Xanti”), 192, 202
Scheffler, Karl, 22
Schindler, Rudolph, 113
Schinkel, Karl-Friedrich, 22, 23, 198
Schuyler, Montgomery, 14, 29–30, 44n54, 71
Schweikher, Paul, 16
“Scientific” history. See History, scientific
Scott, Geoffrey, 16, 24
The Architecture of Humanism, 138
Scott Brown, Denise, 264–265
A View from the Campidoglio, 261–262, 266–267
Scully, Vincent, 1, 11, 19, 25, 28, 38, 148, 151, 214
on archetype, 16–17
Modern Architecture, 137–138
The Shingle Style, 264, 270
at Yale University, 8, 10
Seagram Building, New York (Mies), 15, 227, 227–234, 229
Baukunst aesthetic of, 16, 227, 231, 234
classical proportion of, 232
compared to Bank of China Tower; compared to Lake Shore Drive Apartments, 17, 228, 231, 231–232, 232
compared to Lever House, 228, 229–230, 232
curtain wall, 228, 230–232
formalist approach, 17
Hellenism of, 229, 233–234
hierarchical massing, 232–233
interiors, 233
Kahn’s criticism of, 280–281, 293
plaza and lobby, 229–230, 230
visual weight of, 17, 227
Sekler, Eduard, 28
Sert, José Luis, 25
Shapiro, Joel, 29
Sinclair, Upton, 5
“Situationist” criticism, 15, 17
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, 16, 119–120, 143, 228
Hancock Building, Chicago, 281
Inland Steel Building, 234n2
Skidmore, Owings, Merrill & Andrews, 5
Skyscrapers, 6, 27, 37
brise-soleil, 157
diagonal structure in, 280–281, 293
heights, 291
Jordy’s writing on, 30
Le Corbusier on, 189, 190, 214, 228
metal and glass, 227–228
weightlessness, 228. See also Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong (Pei); Philadelphia Saving Fund Society Building (Howe and Lescaze); Seagram Building, New York, (Mies)
Sloan, John, 98
Slutzky, Robert, 26
Southern Agrarian movement, 83–85, 89–90, 96
Southern California School of Design, 203
Spock, Benjamin, 4, 11, 39
Spreter (Roy) Studio and Garage, Ardmore (Lescaze), 178
Stein, Clarence, 91, 101n26
Stern, Robert A. M., 15, 152, 154
Stieglitz, Alfred, 97, 98, 184
Stilarchitektur, 22–23
Stone, Edward Durrell, 16
Stonovov and Kahn, 5
Sullivan, Louis, 11, 39, 190
Getty Tomb, Chicago, 74–75, 76
Guaranty Building, Buffalo, 71, 72, 72, 75, 77, 79, 80
Kindergarten Chats, 72, 234
naturalism of, 77
ornament of, 12, 72, 77
Surrealism, 86, 143
Survey Graphic, 91, 92
Symbol: fact and, 21–22, 24, 26
vs. function, 25, 26
psychic manifestations of, 23
in Renaissance forms, 25
Symbolic objectivity, 19, 34, 39, 189
contribution to modernism, 24, 26
defined, 20, 24, 139, 141
duality of myths, 21
of early European modernism, 138–141, 144–145
of history, 146–148
influences on Jordy’s thinking, 24–26
interconnection of fact and symbol, 21–22, 23, 24, 26, 141–143
in landscape architecture, 144, 145–146, 146
Mies’s aesthetic of Baukunst and, 23
Synagogue design, 215, 216
Tafuri, Manfredo, 38
Tate, Allen, 84
Taut, Bruno, Modern Architecture, 200
Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 190
Taylor, Paul, 81
Ten Eyck Houses, Brooklyn (Lescaze), 181, 182
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), 31, 94–96, 103–126
board members of, 107, 107, 108–109, 112, 118–119
components of, 95
destabilization of original vision, 118–121
electrification and, 110
flume powerhouses at, 121–122
geography of, 103, 104, 105
Homeplace, 125
ideological context for, 31–32, 37, 95, 106–107
Miami River conservancy, 108–109
mission of, 107–108, 118
Norris Village, 110, 111–112, 120
Paradise Cemetery, 125–126
photography of, 104–105
Raccoon Mountain, 32, 122, 122–124, 123
as regional enterprise, 82
Vortex Tower, 32, 122, 124
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) dams, 103–104
Cherokee, 103
Douglas, 103
Fontana, 31, 31, 103, 116–117, 117
Hiwassee, 103, 117
Muscle Shoals (Wilson), 109–111
Norris, 103, 105, 106, 107, 111, 113, 114, 115, 116
Pickwick, 116
Terragni, Giuseppi, Casa del Popolo, Como, 152, 156
Todorov, Tzvetan, 22
Town planning. See City planning
Tunnard, Christopher, 6, 12
Unité d’Habitation, Marseilles (Le Corbusier), 9, 10, 164
United Nations Secretariat, 228
Urban, Joseph, 113, 180
Urban planning. See City planning
Usonian houses, 81, 88
Utzon, Jørn, 146
Venturi, Robert: appliqué, use of, 273
Best shopping center, Oxford Valley, 273
Bill-Ding Board project, 266, 269
Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture, 2, 33, 35, 261, 262, 264, 266, 271
flat pattern ornament of, 272–274
Franklin memorial, Philadelphia, 268–269
Guild House, Philadelphia, 35–36, 37, 270–271, 271
Institute for Scientific Information, Philadelphia, 273
Learning from Las Vegas, 264–265, 266, 274
Molecular Biology Building, Princeton University, 261
Nantucket houses, 268, 269
Pop imagery of commercial Strip, 35–37, 264–266, 268, 274
postmodernism and, 261, 267–268
Scully, influence on, 264
signboard, use of, 269–270, 271
A View from the Campidoglio, 261–262, 266–267
Wu (Gordon) Hall, Princeton University, 261, 268, 271–272
Venturi, Rauch, and Scott Brown, retrospective exhibition, 35, 36, 261–262
Vernacular influence, 34, 146–148, 155, 196, 210
Victorian architecture, 14, 29–30, 50n131, 71–72
Vienna Secession, 267
Viollet-le-Duc, Eugène-Emmanuel, 14
Vortex Tower, TVA, 32, 122, 124
Wachsmann, Konrad, 217
Wagner, Otto, 113
Walker, Ralph, 30
Wank, Roland, 113, 116
Warren, Robert Penn, 84
Webb, W. P., 81
Wertheim (Maurice) House project (Lescaze), 178
Whistler, J. A. M., 73, 74
Whitehead, Alfred, 56
Whitman, Walt, 3, 12, 24, 77
Willow Run (Bomber City) project, Michigan, 4–5
Ford’s opposition to, 129
location of, 127–129, 128
plan for, 129–130, 131
shift to temporary housing, 130–132
Wittkower, Rudolf, 16
Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism, 25, 138
Wölfflin, Heinrich, 16
Wong, Kellogg, 285
Wood, Grant, 81, 85, 86, 87, 97, 98, 102n32
World’s Columbian Exposition, 14, 74, 80
World Trade Center, New York, 38
Worringer, Wilhelm, 24
WPA housing projects, 271
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 11, 27, 39, 178, 216
Ausgeführte Bauten, 190
Broadacre City, 81, 88–89, 89, 109, 173
The Disappearing City, 200
European modernism, criticism of, 87–88, 194–195, 265
European modernism, influence on, 151, 189–191
Guggenheim Museum, 29
Johnson Wax Company, Racine, 244, 244
Kahn, influence on, 18, 236, 237, 244
landscapes of, 146
Museum of Modern Art exhibition, 190
as regionalist, 81, 87–89, 156, 195
Robie House, 212, 213
Usonian houses, 81, 88
Willitts House, 137
Wright, Henry, 91, 101n26
Wu (Gordon) Hall, Princeton University (Venturi), 261, 268, 271–272
Yale University: American studies program at, 6, 19
art history department at, 8, 10
School of Architecture and Design, 19
Yale University Art Gallery, Object and Image in Modern Art and Poetry, 21
Yorke, F. R. S., 197