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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
IN 2001, THE MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, HOUSTON (MFAH), under the inspired leadership of Director Peter C. Marzio, made a long-term, multi-million dollar commitment to Latin American and Latino art by establishing a curatorial department and its research arm—the International Center for the Arts of the Americas (ICAA)—dedicated to collecting, exhibiting, researching, and...
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PublisherThe Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
Funders of the ICAA Digital Archive Project and Book Series
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PublisherThe Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
Acknowledgments
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
Documents of 20th-Century Latin American and Latino Art (ICAA Documents Project) is a long-term archival, editorial, and bibliographic enterprise dedicated to the recovery and publication of thousands of primary source materials ...
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PublisherThe Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
Project Administration, Staff, and Consultants
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
The Critical Documents of 20th-Century Latin American and Latino Art book series is an extension of the ICAA Digital Archive Project. Hence, the selection of authors and texts for this volume has been dictated by the parameters of the ICAA Documents Project’s editorial framework ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
​AMERICA: FROM DISCOVERY TO INVENTION, from theoretical concoction to practical construct… We have been the subjects of a vast inquiry teeming with both questions and assertions ...
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PublisherThe Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
THE WIDE RANGE OF DOCUMENTS amassed in this comprehensive chapter reflect the shifts and continuities in thought as well as the various agendas that informed writings relating to the “discovery,” “invention,” and finally the construct of “Latin” America. Some of these sources help to dispel long-standing stereotypes; others point to the sheer...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
In what is also known as the Basel epistola, Italian explorer Christopher Columbus (c. 1451–1506) describes to King Ferdinand of Spain the islands and peoples he encountered during his initial journey across the Atlantic Ocean ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
Charles (Carlos) Calvo (1824–1906) was an Argentinean jurist who served as Paraguay’s chargé d’affaires to the courts of France and England ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
In this letter to King Philip II of Spain, Lope de Aguirre (c. 1510–1561)—a Spanish conquistador of Basque extraction who is best remembered for his extreme brutality and treachery in colonial Spanish America ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
In this second excerpt from Males de origem [Rio de Janeiro: H. Garnier, Livreiro-Editor, 1905], Bomfim rallies for a holistic educational system ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
French anarchist and writer Charles Malato de Corné (1857–1938) wrote this brief article on Latin America for the inaugural issue of Les Annales de la Jeunesse Laïque, the official journal for the French youth ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
The following excerpt is from the introduction to O Brasil na América: Caracterização da formação brasileira, which Manoel Bomfim wrote in 1925 and published in 1929 ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
BY 1920, AS POLITICIANS AND INTELLECTUALS​ continued to debate the coordinates for the identity of the region, a new dimension of the problem emerged around the inclusive notion of a “new art” for the continent ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
Better known for his essays and poems, Cuban-born José Martí engaged in art criticism throughout his career, including during his Mexican exile of 1875–76 ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
Cuba’s bimonthly (and later monthly) revista de avance not only fleshed out the direction of the country’s avant-garde tendencies of the late 1920s ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
These two manuscripts by Argentinean artist, writer, and language inventor Xul Solar (born Oscar Agustín Alejandro Schulz Solari, 1887–1963)—who was a member of the Buenos Aires avant-garde ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
AS LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES STARTED TO DEVELOP​ and affirm national identities in the nineteenth century, the United States began to activate a sphere of influence in the region ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
James Monroe (1758–1831), fifth president of the United States, delivered this speech, his seventh State of the Union address, to the U.S. Congress on December 2, 1823 ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
This extract from Ariel, the watershed essay written in Montevideo by Uruguayan poet and essayist José Enrique Rodó (1872–1917) in 1900 ...
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PublisherThe Museum of Fine Arts, Houston

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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
In this letter to the editor of the Buenos Aires daily La Nación, Cuban writer and critic José Martí uses a recent exhibition of watercolors that he saw in New York ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
Prompted by the Department of State’s Division of Cultural Relations, the first Conference on Inter-American Relations in the Field of Art was held on October 11 and 12, 1939 ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
DATING FROM THE MID-1950S THROUGH THE LATE 1970S, the documents gathered in this chapter re-frame the discussion of the nature and features of the “new” Latin American art ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
In this key essay, Luis Valdez (born 1940)—the Chicano playwright, writer, and film director—questions the validity of differentiating appellations such as “Spanish American,” “Mexican American,” or “Latin American” ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
Marta Traba (1923–1983), the influential Argentinean art critic, wrote these two essays in the years after she relocated to Bogotá with her first husband, Colombian writer Alberto Zalamea ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
In this early essay, Marta Traba ponders how Latin American artists can produce art that is “continental” in character at a moment when art world centers are eschewing realism ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
These pivotal questions were posed by the important symposium that accompanied the exhibition 12 Latin American Artists Today/12 artistas latino americanos de hoy at The University of Texas at Austin ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
IN THE 1980s, ARTISTS, ACTIVISTS AND SCHOLARS​ in U.S. Latino communities consolidated the social and cultural agendas from the Civil Rights struggles of the 1960s and 70s ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
Robert L. Weitz (born 1945), professor and founding curator of the University Gallery Program at Chicago State University, and Mexico-born, Chicago-based art historian and curator Víctor A. Sorell ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
The noted Chicano art historian Jacinto Quirarte (born 1931) presents two contrasting viewpoints on Mexican American and Chicano art through this summary of interviews held in the summer of 1970 ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
THE LAST DECADE OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY​ was no less critical for the ongoing effort to (re)define Latin American and Latino art than earlier, especially active and pivotal periods like the 1920s and 1960s ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
This is Guillermo Gómez-Peña’s contribution to the catalogue for the exhibition The Decade Show: Frameworks of Identity in the 1980s organized in 1990 by the Studio Museum in Harlem ...
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PublisherThe Museum of Fine Arts, Houston

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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
Cuban art critic and theorist Gerardo Mosquera (born 1945) introduces the exhibition Ante América—held in Bogotá’s Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango ...
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
Editors' Biographies
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PublisherThe Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
Researcher and Translator Credits
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PublisherThe Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
Index
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Description: Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
Copyright CreditsI.1.7 Edmundo O’Gorman, “The invention of America, an inquiry into the Historical nature of the New World and the Meaning of its History” © 1961. Bloomington: Indiana University press, 1961. Reprinted with the permission of Indiana University Press.
I.2.5 Courtesy of the family of Mário de Andrade
I.2.6 Courtesy of the Instituto Luis Alberto Sánchez Authorization provided by the Fondo de Cultura Económica, for the 1945 Edition: Luis Alberto Sánchez, ¿Existe América Latina?
I.2.7 Courtesy of Mme. Paule Braudel
I.2.8 Courtesy of Jean Casimir
I.2.10 Guy Martinière, “L’invention d’un concept opératoire: la latinité de l’Amérique,” in Guy Martinière, Aspects de la coopération franco-brésilienne : transplantation culturelle et stratégie de la modernité. Paris: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble. Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, 1982.
I.2.11 Alain Rouquié, América Latina—Introducción al Extremo Occidente. México, D.F.: Siglo XXI Editores, 2004 © siglo xxi editor
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Resisting Categories: Latin American and/or Latino?
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