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Description: Georges Seurat: The Art of Vision
Index
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00057.009
Index
Note: Page numbers in italic type indicate illustrations.
Adam, Paul, 56, 84–85, 208n27, 213n5, 220n6
Adorno, Theodor, 129
advertisements, 114, 118, 118–19, 132, 134, 137, 137–38, 143–44
Ajalbert, Jean, 66, 76, 143
Alexandre, Arsène, 96, 145, 175, 219n57
Alexis, Paul, 145. See also Paul Alexis
Allard, Émile, 207n21
Aman-Jean, 155–58, 156, 162, 172, 175, 177
Aman-Jean as Pierrot, 153, 153, 194
Anaïs Faivre Haumonté on Her Deathbed, 176, 177–78
Angrand, Charles, 7, 172
Antoine, Jules, 7, 114, 116, 137, 175
art history. See pictorial conventions and the history of art
The Artist’s Mother, 181, 182
Asnières, 79. See also A Bathing Place, Asnières
At the Concert Européen, 113, 190, 190–92, 194–95
At the Concert Parisien, 192, 193
At the Divan Japonais, 113, 190–91, 191
At the Gaîté Rochechouart, 113, 190, 190–91, 194–95
Balzac, Honoré de, La Peau de chagrin, 147–48, 223n47
Barthes, Roland, 197, 199, 211n47, 224n56
Bartholdi, Auguste, 201
A Bathing Place, Asnières, 4, 73, 79, 79–80, 80 (detail), 82, 113, 118, 121, 123, 183, 185, 214n16
Baudelaire, Charles, 209n31
Bayreuth, opera in, 126–30, 127, 128, 195
beaconage. See lighthouses; maritime signaling technology
Beaubourg, Maurice, 34, 37, 66, 66, 73, 100, 196–97, 209n32, 210n35
The Bec du Hoc (Grandcamp), 12, 13, 56, 205n2
binocular vision/disparity, 22, 24–25, 74, 75, 206n19, 207n23
Blanc, Charles, 213n6
Grammaire des arts du dessin, 70–72, 83, 207n20, 221n19. See also Musée des copies, Paris
Bloch, Ernst, 215n25
Boats, 10, 10–11
Bonnard, Pierre, 223n43
borders of art works. See frames, borders, and edges
Botticelli, Sandro, Allegory of Spring, 95 (detail). See also Three Graces
Bourdais, Jules, Design for a monumental lighthouse for Paris, 200, 200–201
Brecht, Bertolt, 129
Brest, 9
Brewster, David, 26
The Bridge of Courbevoie, 80, 82, 105, 106
Cabot Perry, Lilla, 30–31
café-concert, 113, 146, 180, 190–96, 223n48, 224n56. See also popular entertainments
Café Singer, 180
Carriage Driver, 165, 166
Caze, Robert, 177
Cézanne, Paul, 208n27, 217n44
Chahut, 4–5, 113–14, 115, 116, 123, 125, 135, 137–38, 141–47, 149, 187, 205n6, 219n61, 220n8, 224n56
chahut (dance), 141–43, 147, 223n48
The Channel of Gravelines, An Evening, 36, 57–58, 59
The Channel of Gravelines, Direction of the Sea, 57–58, 59, 60
The Channel of Gravelines, Grand Fort Philippe, 57, 58
The Channel of Gravelines, Petit Fort Philippe, 57, 57–58, 60
Chéret, Jules, 137–38, 143–44
Chevreul, Michel-Eugène, 90–91, 110, 216n36
child, motif of, 60–61, 74, 214n11
Christophe, Jules, 34, 56, 76, 108, 173, 219n3
Circus, 4–5, 113–14, 116, 117, 123, 125, 137–38, 143–44, 148–53, 219n61
Cirque Corvi, 116, 118–20, 118, 119, 124–25, 129, 131–32, 134. See also Parade; Parade de cirque; Sketch of the Entrance to the Cirque Corvi
Cirque Fernando, 149, 152, 223n48, 223n55. See also Circus
cognition: 2–5, 20–25, 27–28, 30–31, 33, 35–37, 43, 45, 49–53, 58, 60–61, 68, 71–72, 74–76, 78, 80, 82, 87, 92, 94, 96–98, 118, 120–25, 127–29, 134–35, 138, 141–44, 147–49, 152–53, 163, 165, 167–73, 192, 194, 199–200, 207n23, 208n28
coin, 34, 94
colored chalk, 195–96
color perception, 8, 20, 58, 63, 65, 74, 89–92, 196, 215n30, 216n34. See also optical mixture; Chevreul, Michel-Eugène; complementary colors
complementary colors, 90–91, 110, 125–26, 218n57. See also Chevreul, Michel-Eugène
Condolences, 175, 176, 177, 187–89
conté crayon, 156–58, 162–64, 167, 180, 195
Coppée, François, 197, 199, 200, 225n3
Coquiot, Gustave, 9
Corner of a Basin, Honfleur, 18–19, 21, 94
cover of L’Exposition de Paris de 1889, 201, 202
croqueton, 67, 177–78, 197
Croqueton (Study for A Sunday on the Grande Jatte—1884) (Albright-Knox Art Gallery), 67, 67
Croqueton (Study for A Sunday on the Grande Jatte—1884) (Musée d’Orsay), 67, 67
Croqueton (Study for A Sunday on the Grande Jatte—1884) (National Gallery, London), 67, 67
croquis, 213n3
Cross, Henri-Edmond, 7
curtain, motif of, 3, 135, 149–53
Daguerre, Louis-Jacques-Mandé, 41–43
Boulevard du Temple, 179 (detail), 179–80
Diorama of an Alpine Scene, 42
Diorama of an Alpine Scene II, 42
David, Jacques-Louis, 214n8
Oath of the Horatii, 72, 72–73, 213n8, 214n22
Degas, Edgar, 29, 84, 187–88
Café-Concert, 191, 193
Café-Concert at the Ambassadeurs, 191, 192
Dance Rehearsal on the Stage, 188, 189
Delécluze, Étienne-Jean, 41
Denis, Maurice, Spots of Sunlight on the Terrace, 214n11
depth. See space, perception of; space, representation of; pictorial illusionism
Desclozeaux, Jules, 160
desire: advertising and, 134, 137–38, 143–44
in Balzac’s La Peau de chagrin, 147–48
chahut (dance) and, 142–43
in Joze’s L’Homme à femmes, 146–47
Seurat’s paintings and, 5, 123, 134–35, 137–39, 141–43, 145
vision and, 123, 135, 141
diorama, 41–43, 211n47
disorientation, 2–5, 123, 127, 129, 134, 142, 147, 196. See also cognition; hypnotization; reason, defiance of; unintelligibility, of visual experience
drawings, 5, 155–96
after plaster casts, 185
critical reception of, 157–58, 162, 164, 175, 180, 225n34
execution of, 156–57, 161–64, 167, 170, 177, 180, 183, 185, 195
exhibition of, 5, 157–59, 168, 175, 177, 182, 187–88, 190, 194, 196, 224n1, 225n30
frames, borders, and edges of, 157, 169, 177
interpretations of, 2, 158–59
intimacy and size of, 155–56, 161–62, 175, 177–79
light and dark in, 5, 157–58, 163–64, 168, 171, 177, 181–83, 195–96
of manual activities, 155–56, 165–73
materials of, 156–57, 163, 165, 180, 195–96
paintings compared to, 2, 5, 156–59, 161–63, 173, 175, 177, 183
photographs compared to, 179–82
pointillism and, 158, 161–62, 173, 177
preparatory, 183–87, 225n33
representation of space in, 155, 182–83
time and temporality in, 156, 168, 179
titles of, 224n1
vision and, 155–59, 161, 163–65, 167–72, 181, 183, 187, 196
Duchamp, Marcel, 173
Durand-Ruel, Paul, 29, 32–33
École des Beaux-Arts, 9, 26, 70, 99, 165, 213n6, 214n8, 217n46
Eden Concert, 194, 195
edges of art works. See frames, borders, and edges
Egyptian art, 63, 84–85
Eiffel, Gustave, 200–201, 203
Eiffel Tower, 5, 40, 197–203, 211n47
Eiffel Tower, 5, 40, 197, 198, 199–200, 203
Embroidery, 168, 168, 170–71, 181
Entrance to the Port of Honfleur, 14, 14–15, 19, 35
ephemeral effects. See transient effects
étude/morceau, 31–32, 34–35, 37–38, 67–68, 96–97, 100, 197
exhibition practices and groupings: of Seurat, 3, 7–8, 33–34, 49, 54–55, 67, 80, 101, 113, 116, 133, 135, 141, 157–59, 172, 177, 187–96, 209n32, 212n55, 224n1, 225n30
of Monet, 32–33, 43. See also frames, borders, and edges
fair, itinerant/fairground, 129, 133, 187–88. See also Foire du Trône/Foire au pain d’épice (Gingerbread Fair)
The Fair Performer, 177, 187–88, 188
Fénéon, Félix, 196, 214n16, 215n28
on the Grande Jatte, 1, 63, 75, 172
Henry and, 144
on Impressionism, 30, 211n50
Matisse and, 105
on Monet, 207n25, 211n46
on pointillism/Neo-Impressionist painting, 1, 89–90, 155, 159–61, 172–73
on Parade de cirque, 219n3
on seascapes, 145
on Seurat’s frames and borders, 110, 217n49, 218n54, 218n57, 219n59
flâneur, 33, 209n31
flatness, of images. See space, representation of
Foire du Trône/Foire au pain d’épice (Gingerbread Fair), 113, 116, 124, 130, 131. See also Cirque Corvi
foreshortening. See pictorial illusionism
The Fort Samson (Grandcamp), 11, 11, 205n2
Fouquier, Marcel, 34, 56, 92
frames, borders, and edges, 3–4, 101–11
of A Bathing Place, Asnières, 79
complementary colors on, 218n57
of the drawings, 157, 169, 177
and feminine accoutrements, 217n49
Fénéon on 110, 217n49, 218n54, 218n57, 219n59
functions of, 106, 108–10, 218n54, 219n59, 219n60
of the Grande Jatte, 73, 77, 79, 102
Greenberg on, 105
Kahn on, 106, 108–10
of landscape paintings, 38, 41, 105
Matisse on, 104–5, 125
origins of Seurat’s experimentation with, 102–3
and panoramas, 39–41
of Parade de cirque, 125, 220n8
Pissarro on 217n48
of Poseuses, 96–97, 102–4, 217n48
of seascapes, 10–11, 13, 36
signatures on, 110–11
and spatial illusionism, 104–6, 108–10, 125, 129
staging of Wagnerian opera compared to, 126–29
value contrast in, 125–27, 129, 220n8
of Young Woman Powdering Herself, 140–41
Fresnel, Augustin, 26, 60
Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, 104–5
Gampenrieder, Karl, At the Circus, 150, 150–52
Garnier, Jules-Arsène, Panorama of Constantinople, 39, 40
Geffroy, Gustave, 29–30, 64
Germain, Alphonse, 175, 212n56
Gillot paper, 180
Gingerbread Fair. See Foire du Trône/Foire au pain d’épice
Goncourt, Edmond de, 201
gouache, 177, 195–96
Grandcamp, 9–13, 36, 56, 87
Grandcamp (Evening), 11, 13, 36
Grande Jatte. See A Sunday on the Grande Jatte—1884
Gravelines, 36, 56–60, 209n33
Greenberg, Clement, 105
Grey Weather on the Grande Jatte, 105, 107
The Grues and the Percée, 45, 47, 48, 51, 211n48
Hanslick, Eduard, 127
Harbor Light at Honfleur, 17, 18, 196
Haumonté, Paul, 222n31
Helmholtz, Hermann von, 2–4, 113, 206n11
on active vs. passive perception, 49–50, 121–22
on color perception, 20, 89, 91, 215n30
dissemination in France of work of, 21–24, 206n12, 206n18
language and vision compared by, 37
“On the Relation of Optics to Painting,” 74–76, 91
and phantasmagoria, 113, 121–22, 129
on pictorial representation, 24–25, 74–76, 91
on spatial perception, 20–25, 27–28, 49–50, 74–76, 87, 97, 121–22, 172, 207n23
Treatise on Physiological Optics, 21
Hennequin, Émile, 83, 89, 92
Henry, Charles, 135, 144–45
High C, 113, 154 (detail), 190–92, 191
Hildebrand, Adolf von, 208n27
history of art. See pictorial conventions and the history of art
history painting. See tableau
L’Homme à femmes, 111, 145–146, 146
Honfleur, 13–19, 16, 26, 27, 35, 35–37
horizon: in seascapes, 9–11, 36, 49
in painting, 36, 41, 43, 71–72
in panoramas, 39–41
Horkheimer, Max, 129
The Hospice and Lighthouse of Honfleur, x (detail), 1, 15, 16, 17–18, 35–36, 56
House Painter, 165, 166, 167
Huysmans, Joris-Karl, 56, 177
hypnotization, 122, 124, 127–129, 142, 149, 192. See also cognition; disorientation; reason, defiance of; unintelligibility, of visual experience
illusionism. See pictorial illusionism; space, representation of
Impressionism: compositional techniques of, 29
critical reception of 31–32, 160, 208n27
dioramas compared to, 42–43
figures in works of, 65
model of vision underlying, 27–29, 68
Seurat’s work or Neo-Impressionism in relation to, 14, 27–28, 33, 48–49, 65–68
Signac on procedures of, 159–60
transient effects in, 14, 28–30, 32, 42–43, 48–49, 65–66. See also Monet; Degas
incomprehensibility. See unintelligibility, of visual experience
individuality, of artistic style, 160–61, 173–75, 224n13
Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique, 98–99, 214n8, 217n45, 217n46
Grande Odalisque, 98, 99
The Source, 98, 99, 217n45
The Valpinçon Bather, 98, 99
itinerant fair. See Foire du Trône/Foire au pain d’épice
Japanese art, 141
jetties, 1, 14–15, 16, 17–18, 27, 35, 44, 44, 45, 46, 52, 211n49
Joze, Victor, 223n43
L’Homme à femmes, 111, 145–47, 223n44, 223n45
Kahn, Gustave: on drawings, 158, 175, 180, 225n34
and the Grande Jatte, 85
Henry and, 144
on Neo-Impressionism, 48
obituary by, 158, 174
on Parade de cirque, 131, 219n3
on popular entertainments, 122–23, 149, 192, 194
on Poseuses, 216n43
on seascapes, 56
on Seurat’s appearance and biography, 174
and Seurat’s definition of painting, 25
on Seurat’s frames and borders, 106, 108–10, 125
Knoblock, Madeleine, 54, 135–37, 174, 222n28, 223n45
Laforgue, Jules, 217n49
La Goulue, 130, 131, 223n48
Landscape—The Island of the Grande Jatte (conté crayon), 68, 69
Landscape—The Island of the Grande Jatte (oil), 68, 69, 85
landscape painting tradition, 37–38, 105, 125, 221n19
Le Crotoy, 54–56
Le Crotoy (Downstream), 34, 54–56, 55, 111, 145, 218n54
Le Crotoy (Upstream), 34, 54, 54–56, 102, 111, 145, 218n54
Legrand, Louis, 142, 223n44
Lehmann, Henri, 214n8, 217n46
Le Roux, Hugues, 129
Les Grues, 211n48
Lhote, André, 60
light, 5, 14, 36, 42–43, 58, 60, 86, 89–91, 120, 126–27, 134, 143, 157, 163–64, 170–71, 177, 181–82, 195–96, 200–201
lighthouses, 1, 5, 14–15, 17–18, 26, 27, 35, 52, 57–58, 60, 195–96, 200, 201, 202, 203. See also maritime signaling technology
linear perspective, 4, 26, 37–38, 70–75, 92–94, 131, 133–34, 140, 207n20, 213n5. See also pictorial illusionism; space, representation of
Lorrain, Claude, 37, 221n19
Mallarmé, Stéphane, 109
Man Dining, 177, 178, 190
Manet, Édouard, 221n25
Nana, 139
Man Leaning on a Parapet, 105, 107
Man Polishing Shoes, 165, 166, 179–80
The Maria, Honfleur, 18–19, 20, 35–37
artist’s signature in, 111
text in, 36–37, 111
maritime signaling technology, 5, 14–15, 18, 26–27, 51–52, 57–58, 60, 195–96, 201, 203, 207n21. See also lighthouses
Marx, Roger, 34, 162
Matisse, Henri, 104–5, 125, 217n50
Maus, Octave, 49–50
Maxwell, James Clerk, 89
Michallet paper, 163
Mirbeau, Octave, 29, 32–33
mirrors, motif of, 3, 135, 139, 141, 149–52, 222n32, 223n55
Molyneux, William, and Molyneux’s problem, 208n28
Monet, Claude, 27–33, 37, 43, 224n9
Gare Saint-Lazare, 32
Poplars, 32
Regatta at Argenteuil, 31, 31
Water Lilies, 32, 43
exhibition practices, 33, 43
and vision, 28–31, 33, 208n28. See also Impressionism
Moore, George, 161
Moored Boats and Trees, 104, 104–5, 125, 217n50
morceau. See étude/morceau
Moréas, Jean, 220n6
Morisot, Berthe, Young Woman Powdering Herself, 139
motion parallax, 22
Mouth of the Seine, Evening, 18, 18, 36
Musée des copies, Paris, 213n6
mystification, 124, 127–29, 133. See also cognition; hypnotization; reason, defiance of; unintelligibility, of visual experience
navigation, maritime, 9, 26–27, 45, 51–54, 58–60, 203. See also maritime signaling technology
Neo-Impressionism: conception vs. execution in, 172–73
critical reception of, 48–49, 66, 120, 159–62, 172–74, 211n50, 216n32
frames and, 218n57
Joze and, 145
perceived impersonality of, 160–61, 173–75
and optical theory, 86–92
relationship of sight and touch in, 92, 155, 159–61, 163, 172–73. See also pointillism
Nielsen, C. V., wood engraving of Garnier’s Panorama of Constantinople, 39, 40
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 129
Nineteenth Line Infantry Regiment, 9, 205n4
Nordau, Max, 129
Oath of the Horatii. See David, Jacques-Louis
On the Balcony, 162, 162, 182
opera, 126–29, 127, 128, 195
optical mixture, 58, 63, 86, 88–89, 159–60, 215n30
optics. See color perception; maritime signaling technology; vision
Painter at Work, 155–57, 156
panorama paintings, 38–43, 199, 211n46, 211n47, 223n50
Panorama Rotunda in the Place d’Austerlitz, Paris in Nouvelles Annales de la Construction, 39, 39
Parade (conté crayon), 119–20, 120
Parade de cirque, 4–5, 112 (detail), 113–14, 114, 116, 118–25, 130–135
border of, 125, 220n8
critical reception of, 120, 131, 219n3
exhibition of, 113, 116, 157, 187, 190
model of vision underlying, 121–25, 134, 219n5
nocturnal setting of, 120
and pictorial illusionism, 130–35
Poseuses and, 116, 133–34, 187
and realism, 131
representation of paintings in, 130–34
spatial structure of, 118–20, 129, 131–34, 219n5
and spectatorship, 116, 120, 122
title of, 205n6
parergon, 219n60
Parrhasius, 151
Paul Alexis, 169, 169–70, 175, 177–78, 194–96. See also Alexis, Paul
Paul Signac, 178, 196, 196. See also Signac, Paul
Petit, Georges, 33
phantasmagoria, 86, 113, 121–22, 129, 221n20
Phidias, 85
photography, 179–82
Picasso, Pablo, 95, 216n44
pictorial conventions and the history of art: Circus and, 150–52
the Grande Jatte and, 4, 65, 68, 70, 72–74, 76, 79, 82–87
landscape painting and, 37–38, 105
late figural works and, 114
Poseuses and, 95–100
seascapes and, 26, 100
and spatial representation, 125
window as metaphor for painting, 105–6, 134, 140, 151. See also self-reflexivity; tableau; pictorial illusionism
pictorial depth. See space, representation of; pictorial illusionism
pictorial illusionism, 3–4
Circus and, 150–52
of dioramas, 41–43
and drawings, 163, 165, 183
and foreshortening, 10–11, 77, 120, 133, 140
frames, borders, and edges and, 101, 104–6, 108–11, 129, 219n59
the Grande Jatte and, 4, 65, 68, 70–76, 82–86, 92–94, 213n5
Helmholtz on optics and, 74–76, 91
linear perspective and, 70–71, 74
of panoramas, 39
Parade de cirque and, 114, 120, 125, 130–34
pointillism and, 91–92
Poseuses and, 94–95
and repoussoir, 105, 125, 129, 151, 221n19
seascapes and, 10–11, 25–26, 43
Seurat’s definition of painting and, 25–26
and trompe l’oeil, 132–33, 151
and window as metaphor for painting, 105–6, 109, 134, 140–41, 151
and Young Woman Powdering Herself, 140–41. See also space, representation of
Piero della Francesca, 85
Pissarro, Camille, 92, 161, 217n48, 224n9
Pointe de la Percée, 211n48
pointillism: criticism and scholarship on, 1, 3, 8, 63, 65–66, 86–90, 158–61, 173–74, 224n11
drawings and, 158, 177
and frames and borders, 102, 105
in the Grande Jatte, 63, 65, 86–87
perceived impersonality of, 160–61, 173–74
in Poseuses, 87–88, 102
and signification, 37
and theories of vision, 1, 8, 65, 86–92
popular entertainments: Kahn’s criticism of, 122–23
visual and mental experiences offered by, 2, 4–5, 113, 116, 120–25, 129, 142–43, 147, 149, 152–53, 191–92, 194
world’s fairs as, 203
See also fair, itinerant; café-concert
Port-en-Bessin, 44, 44, 45, 51–52, 46, 47, 53
Port-en-Bessin, A Sunday, 44, 46, 49–50, 53
Port-en-Bessin, Outer Harbor (High Tide), 6 (detail), 45, 47, 48, 50–52, 102
Port-en-Bessin, Outer Harbor (Low Tide), 45, 48, 52
Port-en-Bessin, The Bridge and the Quays, 44–45, 46, 48, 51, 60–61
Port-en-Bessin, The Jetties, 44–45, 45, 48
Poseuses, ii (detail), 4, 88, 87–104, 98 (detail); critical reception of, 97, 114, 217n45
exhibition of, 101, 102, 113, 116, 133, 157, 187, 190
frame, borders, and edges of, 96–97, 102–4, 109, 217n48
the Grande Jatte reprised in, 87, 92–98, 100–102, 104
model of vision underlying, 87–88, 92–96, 123
Parade de cirque and, 113, 116, 133–34, 187
as representation of the artist’s oeuvre, 100–101
self-reflexivity of, 87–88, 92–95, 100–01, 133–34, 140
spatial structure of, 92–93, 97–98, 109
studio setting of, 87–88, 96, 101
relationship between sight and touch in, 97–98
Three Graces and, 95–96
title of, 96, 205n6
posters. See advertisements; Chéret, Jules
Potin, Félix, 137
Poussin, Nicolas, 37–38, 213n8
Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre, 85
Reading, 182, 182–83, 190
reason, defiance of, 2, 5, 123–24, 128–129, 133, 139, 141–42, 149, 153
Renaissance art, 63, 70, 84–85, 133, 213n6, 215n22, 223n47
repoussoir, 105, 125, 129, 151, 221n19. See also pictorial illusionism
Reynaud, Léonce, 207n21
Ribot, Théodule, 22
The Roadstead at Grandcamp, 11, 12, 13
Rodrigues, Eugène, Cours de danse fin de siècle, 113, 142–43
Rood, Ogden, Modern Chromatics, 89
Rubens, Peter Paul, The Three Graces, 95. See also Three Graces
Salon, 33–34, 155, 168
Salon des Artistes Indépendants, 33–34, 54–55, 68, 79, 110, 113, 135, 141, 148, 157, 177, 182, 190, 196
seascapes: café-concert pictures compared to, 195–96
compared to figural paintings, 100–01, 121, 123
criticism and scholarship on, 2, 7–8, 34, 48–50, 56, 59–60, 145, 157, 162, 209n33
figures’ role in, 2, 8, 13–14, 50–51, 60–61
of Grandcamp, 9–13, 36, 56, 87
the Grande Jatte compared to, 68, 71, 80, 82, 87, 100–101, 123
of Gravelines, 36, 56–60
of Honfleur, 1, 13–19, 26–27, 34–37, 56, 94, 111, 196
of Le Crotoy, 34, 54–56, 111, 145, 218n54
locations for, 8–9
Monet’s series of, 32
and navigation, 9, 14–15, 17–18, 26–27, 45, 51–52, 54, 57–58, 60
and perception, 1–4, 8, 10–11, 13, 25–28, 33–37, 43, 45, 49–52, 56, 58, 60–61, 80, 87, 91, 123
of Port-en-Bessin, 44–54, 60–61
and Poseuses, 94, 96, 100–101
text in, 36–37
and time, 28, 33, 41, 48–49, 52–54, 68. See also series
The Seine at Courbevoie, 80, 81, 82, 123
self-reflexivity, 3
Circus and, 135, 149–53
of drawings, 163–65, 167, 169–70, 177, 183, 194–95
the Grande Jatte and, 74, 82, 86–87
Parade de cirque and, 130–35, 140
Poseuses and, 87–88, 92–95, 100–01, 133–34, 140
seascapes and, 17–18, 25–26, 45, 82
Seine at Courbevoie and, 82, 123
of trompe l’oeil painting, 132–33
Young Woman Powdering Herself and, 135, 139–41. See also pictorial conventions and the history of art
semaphores, 51–52, 53. See also maritime navigation technology
Semper, Gottfried, 128
series, 7–61
and exhibition practices, 7, 33–34, 55
of Grandcamp, 9–13, 56, 87
of Gravelines, 56–60
of Honfleur, 1, 13–19, 26–27, 34–37, 56
integrity of, 3, 7, 9
of Le Crotoy, 54–56
logic of, 1, 3, 7–10, 14, 28, 55, 57
Monet’s work in, 27–28, 32–33, 208n30
and panorama paintings, 40–41, 43
of Port-en-Bessin, 44–54
and spatial illusionism, 25–26, 43, 71, 91. See also seascapes
Seurat, Georges, life of: artistic training, 9, 99, 165, 185, 214n8
aunt, 175, 176, 177–78
as basis for character in L’Homme à femmes, 145–47, 223n45
biographical accounts of, 9, 174–75, 223n45
father, 177, 178, 190
Madeleine Knoblock, 54, 135, 136, 137, 174, 223n45
military service, 9
mother, 137, 168, 168, 170, 170–72, 175, 177–78, 181, 182, 190
obituaries, 7, 83, 100, 126, 148, 157–58, 174–75, 206n20, 220n8
uncle, 222n31
Seurat, Georges, oeuvre of: cohesiveness of, 2–3, 5, 100–101
treatment of frames, borders, and edges in, 101–11
and artist’s definition of painting, 25–26, 206n20
painted over self-portrait in, 140–41
signatures in, 110–11, 169–70, 177. See also exhibition practices and groupings
The Shore at Bas Butin, 18–19, 19
Signac, Paul: diagram by, 80, 82, 82
and Gampenrieder’s At the Circus, 150
on the Grande Jatte, 72, 80, 82, 82
on Seurat’s interest in Helmholtz, 21, 206n11
Henry and, 144
Matisse and, 105
on Neo-Impressionism, 159–61, 173, 218n57
portrait of, 178, 196, 196
Seurat’s letter to, 18
on Turner, 224n9. See also Paul Signac
signatures, 110–11, 169–70, 177
simultaneous contrast, 90–91, 216n34. See also color perception
Sketch of the Entrance to the Cirque Corvi, 130, 131
Skirt (Study for A Sunday on the Grande Jatte–1884), 165, 165, 183
Société des Artistes Indépendants, 33–34, 55, 68. See also Salon des Artistes Indépendants
space, perception of: binocular vision and, 22, 24–25, 74–75, 207n23
bodily movement and, 2–3, 22–25, 28, 33, 45, 50, 75, 80, 82, 96–97, 121–23, 200
Helmholtz’s theories on, 2, 4, 20–25, 27–28, 49–50, 74–76, 97, 121–123, 172
seascapes and, 2–4, 8, 10–11, 25–28, 43, 45, 49–50, 58, 61, 80
Taine on, 21–24
vantage points and, 2, 20, 22–25, 27–28, 49–50, 75–76. See also space, representation of; vision
space, representation of: in Chahut, 114, 116, 142
Circus and, 114, 116, 149–52
conventions of, 3–4, 10–11, 26, 65, 70–72, 74–75, 85, 105, 120, 125, 131–133, 140, 151
in drawings, 155, 182–83
frames, borders, and edges and, 104–6, 108–10, 125, 129
the Grande Jatte and, 4, 68, 70–76, 82–86, 92–94, 213n5
Parade de cirque and, 114, 116, 118–21, 125, 131–34
Poseuses and, 92–94, 96–98, 103, 109, 131, 133–34
in seascapes, 2–4, 11, 25–26, 43, 71, 82, 91
Seurat’s definition of painting and 25–26
Seurat’s exploration of different techniques for, 3–4, 25–26, 43, 71, 73–74, 91, 101–110, 125, 129, 131–132, 151
Young Woman Powdering Herself and, 114, 116, 135, 138–141. See also space, perception of; pictorial illusionism
spectacles. See popular entertainments
Statue of Liberty, 201
stereoscopic images, 25, 206n19
Study for A Bathing Place, Asnières (Fondation Beyeler), 183, 184
Study for A Bathing Place, Asnières (Musée du Louvre), 183, 185
Study for A Bathing Place, Asnières (National Galleries of Scotland), 185, 187
Study for A Bathing Place, Asnières (Nationalmuseum, Stockholm), 183, 185, 186
Study for A Bathing Place, Asnières (private collections), 183, 184, 185, 187, 187
Study for A Bathing Place, Asnières (Yale University Art Gallery), 183, 185, 186
Study for Parade de cirque, 124, 125
Study for Poseuses (Musée d’Orsay), 102–3, 103
Study for Poseuses (private collection), 102, 102–3
A Sunday on the Grande Jatte—1884, 63–87, 64, 70
(detail), 77
(detail), 78
(details), 85
(detail), 86
(details), 87
A Bathing Place, Asnières in relation to, 73, 79–80, 82, 121, 123, 214n16
border, frame, and edges of, 73, 77, 79, 102
child in, 61, 74
critical reception of, 1, 63, 65–67, 75–76, 83–86, 212n1
David’s Oath of the Horatii compared to, 72
exhibition of, 63, 65–67, 80, 82, 86, 177
exploratory nature of, 4, 65, 86–87
figures in, 61, 63, 65, 68, 70, 73–76, 78, 80, 82–87
in relation to Impressionism, 65–68
interpretations of, 4, 63, 65, 68, 73–74, 78, 80, 82, 85, 113
Landscape—The Island of the Grande Jatte in relation to, 68
reprised in Poseuses, 87, 92–95, 97–98, 100–102, 104
revision of, 65, 86–87
seascapes compared to, 68, 71, 80, 82, 87, 100–101, 123
Seine at Courbevoie in relation to, 80, 82, 123
representation of space in, 68, 70–76, 80, 82, 85–86, 92–94, 213n5
conventions of tableau in relation to, 4, 65, 68, 71–74, 76–77, 79, 82–86
technique and working process for, 63, 65–68, 85–87
time and, 66–68, 76–77
title of, 66, 68, 80, 87
and vision, 1, 4, 63, 65–66, 68, 71–78, 80, 82, 86–87, 123
Sun Tower, 200, 200–201
tableau: autonomy of, 82, 96–97
étude/morceau vs., 31–32, 37–38, 67–68, 96–97
figures in, 82–84
frames of, 109
the Grande Jatte in relation to, 4, 65, 67–68, 72–74, 76–77, 79, 82–86
Impressionist works compared to, 31–32
intelligibility of, 73, 76
and landscape painting, 37–38, 105
and linear perspective, 71–72, 74
Poseuses in relation to, 93–94, 96–97, 101
vantage point and, 74, 80, 93–94
Taine, Hippolyte, 21–24
telegraphy. See semaphores
temporality. See time and temporality
text, in Seurat’s paintings, 36–37, 111
Three Graces, 95, 95–96, 98
tides, 45, 52–53
tide signals, 15, 18, 26, 35, 50, 51, 51, 57–58. See also maritime navigation technology
time and temporality: Barthes on, 199, 224n56
dioramas and, 41–43
drawings and, 156, 168, 179
Grande Jatte and, 66–68, 76–77
in Impressionism, 29–30, 33, 42–43
measurement of, 53–54
in Neo-Impressionism, 48–49
panoramas and, 41
photography and, 179–80
Poseuses and, 96
in seascapes, 28, 33, 48–49, 52–54
and standard universal time, 53
Tip of the Jetty of Honfleur, 15, 15, 26, 205n7
touch: sight in relation to, 5, 92, 155, 157–60, 163, 165, 167–71, 187
and spatial perception, 22–24, 92, 97–98. See also space, perception of; vision
Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de, 130, 131, 223n43
transient effects, 14, 28–32, 36, 41–43, 48–49, 60, 65–66
trompe l’oeil, 132–33, 151. See also pictorial illusionism
unintelligibility, of visual experience, 36, 50–51, 77–78, 116, 120–24, 132, 139, 149, 152–53, 163, 165, 221n24
Universal Exposition: of 1878, 40
of 1889, 40, 201, 203
of 1900, 203
Valenciennes, Pierre-Henri de, 38
van de Velde, Henry, 126, 161, 220n8
vantage point: for A Bathing Place, Asnières, 80, 82, 123
Circus and, 149
and drawings, 156, 162, 183, 185, 191
and Eiffel Tower, 199–200
the Grande Jatte and, 71–76, 78, 80, 82, 82, 123
and Neo-Impressionist painting, 155, 160, 224n11
panoramas and, 39–41, 43
Poseuses and, 93–96, 101
and perception of space, 2, 20, 22–25, 27–28, 49–50, 75–76
and seascapes, 1, 2, 11, 13, 15, 17–20, 25–28, 43–45, 55, 57–58, 87, 101, 123
for Seine at Courbevoie, 80, 82, 123
The Veil, 164, 165
Verhaeren, Émile: on Chéret, 137
on frames and borders, 126
on the Grande Jatte, 63, 67, 83–85
on late figural works, 116
obituary by, 83, 100, 126
on seascapes, 7, 56
on Seurat’s practice, 34, 100
View through a Balcony Railing, 163–64, 164, 182–83
Vignier, Charles, 84
Les XX (Les Vingt), 49, 194
vision: active vs. passive, 2, 4–5, 49–50, 121–23, 130, 135, 152–53, 172, 194
in Balzac’s La Peau de chagrin, 148
binocular, 22, 24–25, 74–76, 207n23
Chahut and, 2, 4–5, 116, 123, 135, 138, 141–44, 222n36
Circus and, 2, 4–5, 116, 123, 138, 149, 151–53
and cognition, 2–5, 20–28, 30–31, 33, 35–37, 43, 49–52, 58, 60–61, 71–72, 74–76, 77–78, 80, 82, 87, 92–94, 97–98, 116, 120–24, 134–35, 139–41, 143, 149, 152–53, 165, 168–72, 194, 196, 199–200, 206n15, 207n23, 208n27, 208n28
desire and, 5, 123–24, 134–35, 137–39, 141–44, 147–48, 153
different models of in Seurat’s work, 1–5, 65, 74, 86–87, 116, 123
drawings and, 5, 155–59, 161, 163–65, 167–72, 181, 183, 187, 196
the Grande Jatte and, 1, 4, 61, 63, 65–67, 71–78, 80, 82, 86–87, 123
Helmholtz’s theories of, 2, 20–25, 27–28, 37, 49–50, 74–76, 91, 97, 121–122, 129
Impressionist model of, 14, 28–33, 48–49, 66, 68, 208n27
linear perspective and, 71–72, 74–75, 92–94
monocular, 25, 71–75, 82
and Neo-Impressionism, 1, 37, 48–49, 86, 89–92, 159–60, 172–74, 215n29, 216n36
Parade and, 4–5, 116, 120–25, 129–30, 132–35
Poseuses and, 4, 88, 92–100, 123
seascapes and, 1–4, 8, 10–11, 13, 25–28, 33–37, 43, 45, 49–52, 56, 58, 60–61, 80, 87, 91, 123
and time, 28–30, 33, 41–42, 48–49, 52–53, 66, 68, 76–77, 156, 168, 180, 199
touch in relation to, 5, 22–24, 92, 97–98, 155, 159–61, 163, 165, 167–173, 187, 207n24, 208n28
Young Woman Powdering Herself and, 4–5, 135, 137–39, 141
See also space, perception of
Wagner, Richard, 126–30, 195
window: as metaphor for painting, 105–6, 109, 134, 140–41, 151
as motif, 116, 118, 131, 134–35, 163–64, 182–83
Woman in a Carriage, 162, 162–63
Woman Opening Parasol, 165, 166
Woman Reading by Lamplight, 170, 170–71, 181
Woman Sewing, 167, 167–68
Woman with Black Bow, 178, 179
women, clothing or accessories of, 94, 97–98, 104, 165, 179, 216n43, 217n49
Wyzewa, Téodor de, 157
Young, Thomas, 89
Young Woman, 171, 171–72, 190
Young Woman Powdering Herself, 4–5, 135–42, 136, 138
(detail), 140
(detail), 144–45, 187, 217n49
advertisements and, 114, 137–138
artist’s signature on, 111
frame and border of, 125
painted-over self-portrait in, 140–41
representation of space in, 114, 116, 135, 138–141
Zeuxis, 151
Zola, Émile, L’Oeuvre, 216n32
Index
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