Index
abject image, 1, 10, 81–82, 82, (82–83)
abolition: overview, xix, 64, 66, 80, 150, 279–80, 283–86, 288;
colonial French policies and, 11, 12–13, 13, 104, 106, 106–7;
England and, 1, 2, 3, 23, 30, 3031, 32, 66, 267;
Enlightenment and, 284;
France and, 1, 23, 283–85;
racial theories and, 20;
of slave trade, 1, 130, 282, 285;
symbols of, 1, 3, 172, 174, 174–75, 284;
women as black and, 4, 11, 12–13, 13. See also abolition in U.S.; emancipation; equality
abolition in U.S.: overview, 74, 171–72, 284, 285;
anti-abolitionist movement and, 61, 63, 74;
chains as symbol of, 1, 172, 174, 174–75;
child as white and, 4, 4–5;
Mexican War of 1846-1848, 81–82, 82, (82–83);
slave as black woman and, 172, 174–75, 174–75;
Uncle Tom characteristics and, 3, 7, 280. See also abolition
Abyssinia/Abyssinians, 3, 4. See also Egypt/Egyptians
academic conventions. See classical conventions
actor/theater performer, xii, 7–8, 8. See also spectacle as staged
aesthetic/unaesthetic image: overview, 6, 16–17, 286;
American viewpoints and, 191, 192–93, 207;
blacks’ place in white society and, 171, 171;
black-white contrast and, 46, 46–48;
black-white relations and, 251–52;
Enlightenment and, 16, 249, 251, 257, 259;
facial features and, 17, 19–24, 20–21;
French artwork and, 41, 42–43, 207;
hierarchy/social status and, 252, 252–53, 259;
objective observation, 11, 12–13, 13, 16, 104, 106–7, 106–7, 109–10;
otherness and, 11, 12–13, 13, 16;
physiognomy and, 17–22, 18–20, 24–25, 24–27, 27–30, 286;
prognathism, 21–23;
racial theories and, 17–24, 18–21, 24–25, 26–27, 27–30, 286;
skin color, 17, 20–21;
South Africans and, 56–57, 57–59, 59;
Spanish artwork and, 249, 251–52, 252–53, 257, 259;
studies of models and, 41, 42–43, 46, 46–48, 207;
Swiss artwork and, 46, 46–48;
whiteness, 16, 22;
whites, 16. See also stereotypic features
Africa/Africans: overview, 280, 288;
allegory of, xi–xii;
black skin color, xi–xii, xxii;
central, xii, xviii;
colonial, 32–34, 33, 35, 279, 280;
Europeans’ knowledge about, xviii, xxiv;
missionaries in, xviii, 136, 145, 221, 237;
as “noble savage,” 32–33, 33, 54, 55, 136, 145, 259;
North, xiv, xv, xvii, 110, 238–39, 239;
objective observation and, 104, 106–7, 106–7;
salvation and, xviii;
slave trade and, 7, 8, 10, 130–31, 132–33, 203–4, 204, 230, 284–86;
stereotypic characteristics and, 32–33, 33;
stereotypic features and, xxii;
West, xii, xv, xvii, xviii, 131, 132–33. See also African artifacts/artwork; blacks; colonial Europeans; ethnographic marginalization; objective observation in Senegal; Orient, the; persons of African descent; South Africa/Africans
African artifacts/artwork: overview, 237–38, 243–45, 246;
eroticism and, 242–43, 243;
ethnic diversity and, 242–43, 243;
ethnographic marginalization and, 227–29, 228;
European artwork as influenced by, 238–39, 238–39, 241, 241–43, 243;
Magus/Magi narrative and, 241, 241;
racial prejudice, and influences of, 245, 245–46;
studies of models and, 242–43, 243;
virility characteristic and, 242–43, 243. See also Africa/Africans; ethnographic marginalization
Agasse, Jacques-Laurent, The Contrast, 46, 46–48, 48
agility/physical strength. See physical strength/agility
albinism, 250–51, 251
Allouard, Henri, Femme Foulah, 229, 229
American Indians, 4, 54, 61, 74, 234
American viewpoints: overview, 282;
aesthetic/unaesthetic image and, 191, 192–93, 207;
blacks boxing with whites and, 200–201, 200–201;
black-white relations and, 192, 193–94, 194–95, 197, 198–99, 200–201, 200–201;
classical conventions and, 4, 201, 202–3;
dancing and, 192, 193, 194;
equality and, 197, 198–99, 200–201, 200–201;
ethnic diversity and, 197, 198–99, 200;
exoticism, 201, 203, 203;
hierarchy/social status and, 197, 198–99, 200;
interrelationship between blacks, 192, 193, 194;
Jim Crow and, 194–95, 195–97, 196–97, 200;
man/nature harmony, 201, 202–3, 203;
melancholy quality and, 191, 192–95, 195–96, 200, 207;
Middle Passage metaphors, 7, 203–4, 204;
musician and, 192, 193, 194;
nude/half-naked image and, 191, 192–93, 207;
objective observation, 192, 193, 194, 196–97, 196–97;
physiognomy and, 4–5, 204, 205–6, 206;
placement in artwork and, 196–97, 196–97;
studies of models and, 191, 192–93, 207. See also United States
Angas, George French: A Zulu in Visiting Dress, 133, 134–35;
Zulu Woman Making Pottery, 133, 135
anonymity of blacks: overview, 3;
individual identities vs., 5–6, 7, 8–9, 9;
Spanish artwork and, 252, 254;
studies of models and, 11, 12–13, 13
Anonymous, Hanging of Freeman, 71, 72–73, 73–74
Anonymous, Jim Crow, 3, 68, 68
Anonymous, Portrait Study of a Negro (attrib. Géricault), 38, 40–41
Arabs: colonial French policies vs., 33, 34, 35, 94, 96–97, 129;
dress of the Orient and, 92, 93;
equality between blacks and, 90–91, 90–91, (92–93), 95;
Europeans vs., 94, 96–97, 129;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 120–21, 120–22;
racial theories and, 110;
slavery, xvi–xvii;
stereotypic characteristics, 120–21, 120–22;
stereotypic features, 90–91, 90–91, (92–93), 95;
turbaned iconography, 100, 100–101;
woman’s labor and endurance, 122, (123), 124–25. See also Orient, the
Arriens, Carl: Der Zug der Nassamaske . . ., 224, 225;
Trachten derMuntschi (Nigeria), 225, 226–27
artifice of life, 216, 216–17, 218
artwork/artists: overview, ix, xi, xiii, 9–10, 280–83;
African artifacts influences on, 238–39, 238–39, 241, 241–43, 243;
blacks as, xiii, xix, 4–5, 4–5, 204, 205–6, 206;
classical conventions and, 213, 214–15, 216;
hierarchy/social status and, ix, 281;
mulatto, 4–5, 204, 205–6;
naif painters, 235–37, 236–37;
non-illusionistic perspective in, 231, 233, 234;
persons of African descent and, vii, viii, xiv, xix, 5;
photographs as, 3, 4;
romantic ideas about, 104, 220;
sculpture and, 104, 106–7, 106–9, 109–11, 280–81;
self-identification with blacks, 7, 203–4, 204, 218, 218–19, 220, 247–49, 248–49;
self-portrait of, 247–49, 248–49;
technological “backwardness,” 227–30, 228;
white, ix, xiii, xix. See also American viewpoints; British artwork/artists; classical conventions; French artwork/artists; Russian artwork/artists; Spanish artwork/artists; specific styles
Auguste, Jules Robert, Les amies, 158, 160, 162
Austrian artwork/artists, 126, 126–27
Baartman, Saartjie (“Hottentot Venus”), 56–57, 57–59, 59
Baines, Thomas: The Battle of Blauwkrantz, 142–43, 143;
Dance of the Matabele (Ndebele) Warriors, 144, 145;
Ford at Junction of Kat and Brak Rivers, 138, 138–39, 140;
Village near Tete (Mozambique), 140, 140–41;
Working a Coal Seam near Tete (Mozambique) 140, 141, 143;
A Zulu War Dance, 143, 144, 145
Barye, Antoine-Louis, Gaia, 104, 106
Bazille, Frederic: La nègresse auxpivoines, 207, 208, 218;
La toilette, 207, 208–9, 211
Belisário, Isaac Mendes, Sketches of Character . . ., 8, 8–9
Bell, John, The Octoroon, 172, 174, 174–75
Bellows, Georbe, Both Members of This Club, 200–201, 200–201
Belly, Léon, Study for Fellahs halant une dahbiek (Egypte), 118, 118
Benjamin-Constant, Jean-Joseph, Les Chérifas, 182̵83, (183)
Benoist, Marie-Guilhelmine, Portrait dune nègresse, 11, 12–13, 13, 16
Bible, xv–xvi, xvii, 176, (176–77), 176–79, 178, 182. See also specific names
black-black relations, 192, 193, 194
blackface minstrel show, 69, 266, 266
black image in Western art, viii–ix, xi, xiii–xv, 280, 281, 288
blackness: overview, xii, xv–xvi, xix, 280, 283;
anonymity and, 252, 254;
coloristic composition and, 162, 163;
devil and, 16;
guard/soldier and, 180–81, 181;
harem and, 87, 151, 152, 178, 243;
negative image and, 249, 251, 252, 254, 254, 283;
nude/half-naked image and, 250–51, 251;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 120–21, 120–22;
Spanish artwork and, 249, 250–51, 251–52, 254–55, 257, 258–59, 259–60;
stain of, 250–51, 251–52, 254, 254;
“whitening” of blacks, 85, 85–86, 250–51, 251, 257, 258–59, 259–60
blacks: overview and use of term, xiii–xv, xvii–xix, 282–83;
artistic production, and effects on, vii–x;
as artists, xiii, xix, 4–5, 4–5, 204, 205–6;
and gratitude for emancipation due to whites’ benevolence, 1, 64, 66, 280;
history of, 2–4, 7;
identities of, 5–7, 8–9, 9;
Muslims compared with, xvii;
Negro, use of term, xiv, 279–80, 282–83;
Old Testament and, xv–xvi;
in the Orient, 94–95, 98–99;
slave as synonym for, 279–80;
whites boxing with, 34–35, 34–37, 200–201, 200–201. See also Africa/Africans; child as black; man as black; man/nature harmony; melancholy quality; mulattoes/octoroons; “noble savage”; persons of African descent; physical strength/agility; servant as man; slave as man; virility characteristic; woman as black
blacks’ place in white society: overview, 281;
aesthetic/ unaesthetic image and, 171, 171;
Europeans’ studies of models and, 216, 216–17, 218;
freedmen in U.S. and, 6–7, 7;
genre scene in British artwork and, 85, 86–87;
genre scene in U.S. and, 82, 84–85, 84–85;
isolation of blacks, 216, 216–17, 218;
nude/half-naked image and, 171, 171;
objective observation in U.S. and, 61–70, 62–68;
outsiders’ objective observation of, 61, 62–63;
Russian artwork and, 61, 62–63;
studies of models and, 171, 171, 216, 216–17, 218
black-white contrast: overview, xiv–xv, 46;
aesthetic/ unaesthetic image and, 46, 46–48;
child as white and, 4, 4–5;
colonial French policies and, 11, 12–13, 13;
coloristic composition and, 158, 160;
eroticism and, 158, 160;
eunuch harem guards and, 160–61, 161–62;
the Orient and, 182, 182–83;
racial theories and, 24, 279–80;
Russian artwork and, 264–66, 265–66;
sexual act metaphor and, 158, 158–59, 160;
slave as black woman and, 170–71, 170–71;
slave as white woman and, 167–68, 168–71, 170–71, 170–71;
stereotypic characteristics and, 158, 158–59, 160;
stereotypic characteristics of Arabs and, 158, 158–59, 160;
studies of models and, 46, 46–48;
Swiss artwork and, 46, 46–48;
white women in harem and, 158, 158–61, 160–62, 182, 182–83;
woman as white, 158, 158–59, 160
black-white physical contact: between black and white women, 158, 160, 186, 186–87, 189;
between black man and white woman, 158, 158–59, 160, 184–85, 184–86, 273, 274;
eroticism between women and, 158, 160, 186, 186–87, 189. See also black-white relations
black-white relations: overview, viii, xv–xvi;
aesthetic/unaesthetic image and, 251–52;
American viewpoints and, 192, 193–94, 194–95, 197, 198–99, 200–201, 200–201;
rejection of classical conventions and, 231, 232;
Spanish artwork and, 251–52. See also black-white physical contact
Blauvelt, Charles Felix, The German Immigrant 82, 84–85, 84–85
Blechen, Carl, Der Negerkorporal, 48, 48
Bompard, Maurice, Harem Scene, 184–85, 184–86
Bonham, Horace, Nearing the Issue at the Cockpit, 197, 198–99, 200
Bonnat, Léon-Joseph-Florentin, 118–19, 219
boxer/boxing, 34–35, 34–37, 44, 45, 200–201, 200–201, 246
Boyne, John, A Meeting of Connoisseurs, 24, 25, 26
Breitner, George Hendrick, Deurwachter, 213, 214
British artwork/artists: boxers and, 44, 45;
caricature and, 3, 24, 25, 26, 66, 66–67;
coloristic composition and, 45, 46;
dress of Europeans and, 48, 49–50;
dress of the Orient and, 48, 49–50;
genre scene and, 48, 49–50;
genre scene in U.S. and, 66–67, 67;
historical events and, 1, 2;
“noble savage” and, 145, 146;
nude/ half-naked image and, 44, 45;
objective observation and, 145, 146, 147, 150;
physical strength/agility and, 44, 45;
servant as man and, 13–14, 13–15;
spectacle as staged and, 145, 146, 147, 150;
studies of models and, 13, 13–14, 24–25, 24–27, 27–29, 30, 30–31, 32–33, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49–50. See also colonial British policies; England/English; genre scenes in British artwork
Briullov, Karl: Alexander Pushkin, 271;
Alexandra and Olga Shishmareva, 268, 268–69, 271;
Anatole Demidov . . ., 264–65, 265–66;
Bathsheba, 266, 266;
Count Antonio Litta264, 264–65;
Giulia Samoilova 261, 262, 263–64, 267, 271;
Ibrahim Embracing the Countess, 273, 274;
Pricesses Sophia and Yelizaveta Volkonskaya, 270–71, 271
Buchser, Frank: Nackte Sklavin, 174–75, 175;
Schwar-zesMädchen im Bach, 171, 171
Buss, Robert William, The Art of Love, 66, 66–67
Cameron, Julia Margaret, King Theodores Son and Captain Speedy, 3, 4
Camper, Petrus, 18–19, 18–19, 248
caricature: overview, 3, 5, 64, 64–65, 68, 246, 281;
British artwork and, 3, 24, 25, 26, 66, 66–67;
colonial West Indies and, 3, 7–8, 8;
freedmen and, 3, 66, 66–67;
genre scenes in U.S. and, 66, 66–67, 77, 77–78;
objective observation in U.S. and, 3, 61, 64, 64–65;
physical strength/agility and, 24, 25, 26;
slave as black woman and, 172;
South Africans and, 136, 137;
studies of models and, 24, 25, 26, 218, 218–19. See also stereotypic characteristics
Carpeaux, Jean-Baptiste, 172, 172–73
Catholicism. See Christianity
Caucasian, use of term, 17, 110, 280. See also whites
central Africa/Africans, xii, xviii. See also Africa/Africans; Congo/Congolese
Cézanne, Paul, Le nègre Scipion, 210–11, 211
chain image, 1, 2, 7, 172, 174–75, 174–76, 285
Chassériau, Théodore: Esther Adorning Herself . . ., 160–61, 161–62;
Othello beside Desdemonas corpse, 158, 158–59, 160;
Study of a Black Nude, 43–44, 43–45
child as black: dress of Europeans and, 48, 49–50;
genre scenes in U.S. and, 66–67, 67, 74, 76, 77;
German artwork and, 147, 148–49;
objective observation and, 74, 76, 77;
servant and, 261, 262, 263–64, 264–65, 265, 267, 271;
studies of models and, 48, 49–50
child as white: abolition in U.S. and, 4, 4–5;
black-white contrast and, 4, 4–5;
objective observation by, 74, 76, 77, 197;
as observer of staged spectacles, 147, 148–49;
as observer in genre scenes, 74, 76, 77, 85, 86–87, 197;
Russian artwork and, 261, 262, 263–65, 264–67, 267, 270–71, 271;
unprejudiced viewpoints of, 74, 76, 77, 197
Christianity: overview, xv, xvii;
evangelization and, xviii, 136, 145, 221, 237, 281;
Jews and, xvii;
Magus narrative and, ix, xvii, 241, 241, 284;
Methodists, 61, 63;
Muslims and, xvii, 150;
objective observation in U.S. and, 61, 63;
Protestantism, xix, 176;
slave as black woman and, 175, 175–76;
slavery and, xix, 272, 280, 284
Civil War, viii, 1, 7, 285, 287
classical conventions: overview, xi, xiii, xvii, 104, 285;
American viewpoints and, 4, 201, 202–3;
Greco-Roman era and, 17–19, 20–21, 21, 24, 26, 35, 285;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 118–19, 119;
slave as white woman and, 168, 168–69, 170, 172;
South Africans and, 138, 138–39, 140;
Spanish rejection of, 247–49, 248–49, 279;
symbols of, 213, 214–15, 216. See also neoclassical style; rejection of classical conventions; specific styles
Clay, Edward Williams, Life in Philadelphia, 3, 64, 64–65
climate, and racial theories, 17–18. See also racial theories
Clonney, James Goodwyn: In the Cornfield, 74, 74–75, 197;
Study for Militia Training . . ., 77, 77–78
colonial Belgian policies, 280, 286
colonial British policies: overview, 1, 3, 279;
chain and, 1, 2;
West Indies and, 3, 7–9, 7–10, 176, 176–77, (176–77), 178, 285. See also British artwork/artists; South Africa/Africans
colonial Europeans: overview, 279, 280;
Nubian slaves and, 32–34, 33, 35;
objective observation and, 104, 106–7, 106–7;
slave as white woman and, 168, 168–69, 170. See also Europe/Europeans; specific countries
colonial French policies: overview, 279, 288;
abolition and, 11, 12–13, 13, 104, 106, 106–7;
Arabs vs., 33, 34, 35, 94, 96–97, 129;
black-white contrast and, 11, 12–13, 13;
dark/black skin color and, 91, 93, 94;
equality and, 10, 11, 12–13, 13, 131, 132–33, 282, 284–85;
ethnographic marginalization and, 229, 229;
eunuch harem guards and, 94, 96–97, 129;
harem and, 94, 96–97, 129;
Muslim landowners, 131–32, 133;
“noble savage” and, 91, 93, 94;
nude/ half-naked image and, 91, 93, 94;
objective observation in the Orient, 86–87, 88–91, 90–92, (92–93), 95;
objective observation in Senegal and, 128–29, 129–31;
the Orient and, 86–87, 88–89, 287, 288;
placement in artwork and, 91, 93, 94;
rejection of classical conventions and, 231, 232;
servant as woman, 45, 46;
slavery and, 11, 12–13, 13, 32–34, 33, 35, 45, 46, 131–32, 133;
slave trade, 130, 131, 132–33;
studies of models and, 11, 12–13, 13, 32–34, 33, 35, 45, 46;
whites’ benevolence/blacks’ gratitude for emancipation, 1. See also France, and abolition; French artwork/artists
colonial German policies, 224–27, 225. See also German artwork/artists
colonial Spanish policies, 111–12, 112–13, 114. See also Spanish artwork/artists
colonial West Indies, 3, 7–9, 7–10, 176, 176–77, (176–77), 178, 285
coloristic composition: overview, 14;
blackness and, 162, 163, 164–65, 174, 207, 231;
black-white contrast and, 158, 160, 162, 164–65, 174, 207, 231;
British artwork and, 45, 46;
dark/black skin color and, 38, 38–39, 40–41, 42;
dress of Europeans and, 38, 40–41;
eroticism and, 158, 160, 162, 163;
placement in artwork and, 162, 163;
rejection of classical conventions and, 231, 232, 233, 234;
rococo art and, 162, 164–65, 174, 207, 231;
servant as woman, 162, 164–65, 174, 207, 231;
South Pacific and, 240, 240–41, 241;
studies of models and, 14, 38, 38–41, 42, 45, 46, 218, 218–19, 220;
whiteness, 162, 163, 164–65, 174, 207, 231
commissions/patrons, 281–82
commonness vs. exoticism, 13, 13–14, 38, 40–41. See also exoticism
Congo/Congolese: colonial Africa and, 229, 238, 241, 243, 280, 286, 288;
ethnographic marginalization and, 224–27, 225, 227–30, 228;
Europeans’ contact with, xviii;
the Orient and, 287
contact between blacks and whites. See black-white physical contact; black-white relations
Copley, John Singleton, Head of a Negro, 14, 14–15
Cordier, Charles: Nègre du Darfour (Nègre de Tombouctou), 106–7, 106–7;
Nègre en costume algérien, 108–9, 109, 229;
Vénus africaine (Négresse des côtes dAfrique), 106–7, 107, 109–10
Corinth, Lovis, Un Othello, 212–13, 213
Cornicelius, Georg, Musizierende Kunstreiterbuben, 146–47, 147
dancing: American viewpoints and, 192, 193, 194;
Europeans’ studies of models and, 218, 218–19;
genre scene in U.S. and, 66–68, 67–68;
German artwork and, 145, 146, 147;
Jim Crow and, 66–68, 67–68;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 112, 116, 116;
objective observation in Senegal and, 128–29, 129–31;
objective observation in US. and, 69
Daniell, Samuel: Booshuana Women . . ., 53, 54–55;
Bushmen Hottentots . . ., 52–53, 53;
Korah Man . . ., 52, 53
Danish artwork/artists, 48, 48–49
dark/black skin color: overview, xi–xii, xv–xvi;
colonial French policies and, 91, 93, 94;
coloristic composition and, 38, 38–39, 40–41, 42;
French artwork and, 38–39, 42;
genre scenes in British artwork and, 85, 85–86;
negative image and, xi–xii, xv–xvi, 16, 85, 85–86;
in the Orient, 87, 88–89, 91, 93, 94;
rejection of classical conventions and, 234–36, 235–36;
Spanish artwork and, 249, 250;
studies of models and, 33, 34, 35, 38–39, 42. See also skin color
Da Rocha, Joaquin Manuel, 250–51, 251
Darwinism, xix, 109, 150, 220–21, 280
Dawe, George, A Negro Overpowering a Buffalo, 30, 30–31, 32–33
dead man image vs. virility characteristic, 178, 178–79, 181–82, 281–83, 189
Decaen, Alfred-Charles, Prise de la smalah . . . (after Vernet), 94, 96–97, 129
Decamps, Alexandre-Gabriel, The Punishment of the Hooks, 94–95, 98–99
Decker, Joseph, Our Gang, 197, 198–99
Degas, Edgar, Miss La La at the Cirque Fernando, 216, 216–17, 218
Dehodencq, Alfred: Black Musician, 116, 116–17, 118;
Danse des nègres à Tanger, 112, 116, 116;
L’exécution delà juive, 112, 114–15
Delacroix, Eugène: The Death of Sardanapalus, 87, 151, 152, 178, 243;
Head of a Black Wearing a Turban, 38–39, 42;
“Noir qui baignait un cheval noir,” 87, 88;
Portrait of Aspasie . . ., 41, 42–43, 207;
Sketches for The Death of Sardanapalus, 151, 153;
Sultan of Morocco . . ., 87, 88–89, 90;
Women of Algiers in Their Apartment (1834), 103, 151, 154–55, 156;
Women of Algiers in Their Apartment (1849), 156, 157, 158
De Meillon, Henry Clifford, 54–56, 56–57
Deutsch, Ludwig: The Guards of the Harem, 181, 181–82;
Nubian Guard, 180–81, 181
devil/Satan/evil, 16, 43–44, 43–45, 85, 85–86, 136, 137
Die Brücke, 239–41, 240–41, 243
dress of Europeans: British artwork and, 48, 49–50;
child as black and, 48, 49–50;
coloristic composition and, 38, 40–41;
England and, 3, 66;
Europeans’ studies of models and, 206, 207;
freedmen and, 3, 66;
French artwork and, 38, 40–41;
genre scenes in U.S. and, 77, 77–78, 80, 80;
headdress and, 229, 229;
mimicry of whites and, 3–4, 61, 64, 64–66, 6667, 68;
objective observation in U.S. and, 3, 61, 64, 64–65;
Russian artwork and, 273, 274;
South Africans and, 54–56, 56–57, 133, 134–35;
studies of models and, 48, 49–50;
turqueries style and, 102, 102–3. See also dress of the Orient; turbaned iconography
dress of the Orient: Arabs and, 90–91, 90–91, (92–93), 95;
British artwork and, 48, 49–50;
ethnographic marginalization and, 229, 229;
French artwork and, 36, 37;
guard/soldier and, 180–81, 181;
headdress and, 112, 112–13;
nude/half-naked image as contrast with, 168, 168–69;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 112, 112–13, 120–21, 120–22;
rejection of classical conventions and, 234–35, 235–36;
Russian artwork and, 264, 264–65, 266–68, 267, 271;
South Africans and, 54–56, 56–57, 133, 134–35. See also dress of Europeans; turbaned iconography
Duncanson, Robert, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Uncle Tom and Little Eva, 4, 4–5
Eakins, Thomas: Negro Boy Dancing, 192, 193, 194;
Portrait of a Black Woman, 191, 192–93, 207;
Portrait of Henry Ossawa Tanner, 4–5, 204, 204–5, 206
East Africa/Africans, xvii, 245
Egypt/Egyptians: overview, xv, xvi, xvii;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 100–101, 100–101, 104, 118, 118, 126, 126–27;
picturesqueness and, 166–67, 166–67;
slave as man and, 176, 176–77, (176–77), 178;
slave market and, 166–67, 166–67;
woman as black slave and, 166–67, 166–67. See also Abyssinia/Abyssinians; Nubia/Nubians
emancipation: colonial policies and, 1, 11, 12–13, 13, 131, 132–33;
German artwork and, 218, 218–19, 220;
whites’ benevolence/blacks’ gratitude for, 1, 64, 66, 280;
woman as black and, 11, 12–13, 13. See also abolition; equality
England/English: overview, xiii, xix;
abolition in, 1, 2, 3, 23, 30, 30–31, 32, 66, 267;
blackface minstrel show and, 69;
blacks boxing with whites and, 34–35;
dress of Europeans and, 3, 66;
human condition and, 7, 68–69;
slavery and, xix;
slave trade and, 1, 7, 282, 284, 285. See also British artwork/artists
Enlightenment: overview, xi, xii, 16, 279, 284;
abolition and, 284;
aesthetic/unaesthetic image and, 16, 249, 251, 257, 259;
albinism and, 250–51, 251;
racial theories and, 19, 248;
Spanish artwork and, 248–49, 250–51, 251, 257, 258–59, 259–60;
“whitening” of blacks, 85, 85-86, 250–51, 251, 257, 258–59, 259–60
Ensor, James, Masques regardant un nègre bateleur, 213, 214–15, 216
Epstein, Jacob, Cursed Be the Day . . ., 245, 245–46
equality: overview, 1, 281;
American viewpoints and, 3, 4, 7, 197, 198–99, 200–201, 200–201;
blacks and Arab, 90–91, 90–91, (92–93), 95;
blacks boxing with whites and, 34–35, 35–37;
black-white physical contact between women and, 158, 160, 186, 186–87, 189;
colonial French policies and, 10, 11, 12–13, 13, 131, 132–33, 284–85;
colonial West Indies and, 3, 7–8, 8;
Europeans’ studies of models and, 218, 218–19, 220;
for men, 4;
racial theories vs., 280;
whites’ benevolence/blacks’ gratitude for emancipation and, 1, 64, 66;
for women, 4, 11, 12–13, 13. See also abolition; emancipation
Ernst, Rudolph, The Master ‘s Favorite, 184, 184–85
eroticism: African artifacts and, 242–43, 243;
black-white contrast and, 158, 160;
black-white physical contact between women and, 158, 160, 186, 186–87, 189;
coloristic composition and, 158, 160, 162, 163;
harem and, 87, 151, 152–53, 160–61, 161–62, 178, 182–84, 183, 243;
the Orient and, 182, 182–83;
slave as black woman and, 170–71, 170–71, 174–75, 175–76;
slave as white woman and, 167–68, 168–71, 170–71, 242–43, 243;
South Pacific and, 240–41;
studies of models and, 188, 189–90;
symbols of woman as black and, 188, 189;
symbols of woman as white and, 188, 189–90;
white women in harem and, 160–61, 161–62, 182–84, 183, 184–85, 184–86
Esther (biblical queen), 160–61, 161–62
Ethiopia/Ethiopians, xiv, xv, xvi, xvi, xvii
ethnic diversity: African artifacts and, 242–43, 243;
American viewpoints and, 197, 198–99, 200;
objective observation in the Orient and, 90–91, 90–91, (92–93), 95;
objective observation in Senegal and, 128–29, 129–31;
rejection of classical conventions and, 234–35, 235–36. See also mulattoes/octoroons
ethnographic marginalization: overview, 220–21, 223–25;
African artwork and, 227–29, 228;
colonial policies and, 224–27, 225, 229, 229;
Congo and, 224–27, 225, 227–30, 228;
dress of the Orient and, 229, 229;
headdress and, 229, 229;
jewelry and, 229, 229;
nude/half-naked image and, 229, 229;
objective observation and, 221, 222–23, 224–27, 225;
stereotypic characteristics and, 227–29, 228;
technological “backwardness” and, 227–30, 228. See also Africa/Africans; African artifacts/artwork; racial prejudice
études (studies of models). See studies of models (études)
eunuch harem guards: overview, 246;
black-white contrast and, 160–61, 161–62;
colonial French policies and, 94, 96–97, 129;
dead man image vs. virility characteristic and, 181, 181–82, 189;
the Orient and, 94, 96–97, 129;
placement in artwork and, 154–56, 156–57, 158, 181, 185;
sexual act metaphor and, 181, 181–82. See also guard/soldier
European artwork/artists: overview, 281–82;
African artifacts’ influences on, 238–39, 238–39, 241, 241–43, 243;
blackness as negative and, 283;
studies of models and, 283, 288. See also Europeans’ studies of models; rejection of classical conventions
Europeans’ studies of models: overview, 207, 280, 283, 288;
artifice of life and, 216, 216–17, 218;
blacks’ place in white society and, 216, 216–17, 218;
caricature and, 218, 218–19;
coloristic composition and, 218, 218–19, 220;
dancing and, 218, 218–19;
dress of Europeans and, 206, 207;
equality and, 218, 218–19, 220;
jewelry and, 206, 207;
man as black and, 209–15, 211, 213, 216;
mixed marriages and, 220, 220–21;
nude/half-naked image and, 207, 208–9, 211;
physical strength/agility and, 218, 218–19;
physiognomy and, 206, 207, 211;
sailor as model and, 212–13, 213;
servant as woman and, 207, 208–9, 211;
symbols of classical conventions and, 213, 214–15, 216;
woman as black and, 206–9, 207, 211, 218;
woman as white and, 207, 208–9, 211. See also European artwork/artists; rejection of classical conventions; studies of models (études)
Europe/Europeans: as absent from artwork, 95, 126, 143, 287;
Africans, and contact with, xviii, xxiv;
Arabs vs., 94, 96–97, 129;
Muslims’ contact with, xvii;
patron/commission and, 282;
vision of blacks of, 10, 64, 66, 69–70;
Western, use of term, xii–xiii. See also colonial Europeans; dress of Europeans
evangelization, xviii, 136, 145, 221, 237, 281
evil/devil/Satan, 16, 43–44, 43–45, 85, 85–86, 136, 137
executioner role, 112, 114–15, 180–81, 181
exhibition specimens, 56–57, 57–59, 59. See also spectacle as staged
exoticism: overview, xii, xviii, 287;
American viewpoints, 201, 203, 203;
commonness vs., 13, 13–14, 38, 40–41;
ethnic diversity and, 234–35, 235–36;
French artwork and, 59, 60–61;
harem and, 87, 151, 152–53, 154–55, 156, 178, 243;
negative image and, 33, 34, 35;
objective observation vs., 59, 60–61;
rejection of classical conventions and, 234;
Russian artwork and, 267–68, 268, 271;
slave as black woman and, 170–71, 170–71;
slave as white woman and, 170–71, 170–71;
South Africans and, 59, 60–61
expressionism, 239–41, 240–41
facial features: overview, xiv–xv, 279;
aesthetic/unaesthetic image and, 17, 19–24, 20–21;
American Indians and, 4;
French artwork and, 33, 34, 35;
idealization of, 1–2, 2;
lips, xiv–xv, 14, 120–21, 120–22, 247–49, 248–49;
nose, xiv–xv, 14, 247–49, 248–49;
realistic, xv, xvi, xvi;
Spanish artwork and, 247–49, 248–49;
stereotypic characteristics as reflection of, 19–20, 20–21;
studies of models and, 23–24, 24–25, 33, 34, 35. See also prognathism; stereotypic features
fatalism in the Orient: harem and, 87, 151, 152, 154–55, 156, 178, 243;
slave as man and, 178, 178–79, 182. See also Orient, the
fauve art, 238, 241
Fischer-Derenburg, Friedrich Wilhelm, Konkomba Männer im Federschmuck (Nord-Togo), 224, 225
Fortuny y Marsal, Mariano, Portrait of a Moroccan Black, 111–12, 112–13, 114
France, and abolition, 1, 11, 12–13, 13, 23, 104, 106, 106–7, 283–85. See also colonial French policies; French artwork/artists
freedmen: overview, viii, xviii, 1;
caricature and, 3, 66, 66–67;
dress of Europeans and, 3, 66;
historical events and, 1, 2;
otherness and, 11, 12–13, 13;
place in white society for, 6–7, 7;
portrait of murderers in U.S. and, 71, 72–73, 73–74;
studies of models and, 30, 30–31, 32
French artwork/artists: overview, 282;
aesthetic/unaesthetic image and, 41, 42–43, 207;
blacks boxing with whites and, 34–35, 35–37;
dark/black skin color and, 38–39, 42;
dress of Europeans and, 36, 40–41;
dress of the Orient and, 36, 37;
exoticism vs. objective observation and, 59, 60–61;
facial features and, 33, 34, 35;
melancholy quality and, 37, 37–38, 41, 42–43, 207;
objective observation and, 11, 12–13, 13, 16, 38, 40–41, 57, 57–59, 59, 150;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 119–20, 120–21, 122, (123), (124), 124–25, 126–27;
objective observation in the Orient and, 86–87, 88–89, 90;
physical strength/agility and, 33, 34, 35;
physiognomy and, 57, 57–59, 59;
spectacle as staged and, 150;
studies of models and, 11, 12–13, 13, 16, 34–43, 35–38, 42–45;
turbaned iconography and, 38–39, 42. See also colonial French policies; France, and abolition
Fromentin, Eugène: Bateleurs nègres dans les tribus, 120–21, 120–22;
Femmes rabes en voyage, 122, (123), 124, 124–25
Gauguin, Paul: Aux mangos . . ., 231, 232;
Manao Tupapau, 231, 233, 234
genre scenes: overview, 71;
in colonial West Indies, 3, 7–8, 8, 10;
in Spanish artwork, 254–55, 257. See also genre scenes in British artwork; genre scenes in U.S.
genre scenes in British artwork: anti-abolitionist movement in U.S. and, 61, 63, 74;
blacks’ place in white society and, 85, 86–87;
devil and, 85, 85–86;
negative image and, 85, 85–86;
romantic art and, 71;
studies of models and, 48, 49–50;
white child as observer in, 85, 86–87. See also genre scenes
genre scenes in U.S.: overview, 71;
blacks’ place in white society and, 82, 84–85, 84–85;
British artwork and, 66–67, 67;
caricature and, 66, 66–67, 77, 77–78;
child as black and, 66–67, 67;
dancing and, 66–68, 67–68;
dress of Europeans and, 77, 77–78, 80, 80;
Europeans’ vision of blacks and, 10, 64, 66, 69–70;
humorous character and, 66–68, 67–69;
immigrants’ place in society and, 82, 84–85, 84–85;
man/nature harmony and, 74, 74–76, 77, 197;
musician and, 80, 80;
objective observation and, 74, 76–80, 78, 80, 197;
picturesqueness and, 197, 198;
placement in artwork and, 74, 74–76, 77, 197;
portrait of murderer and, 71, 72–73, 73–74;
social injustice of slavery and, 81–82, 82, (82–83);
white child as observer in, 74, 76, 77, 197. See also genre scenes
Gentz, Karl Wilhelm, Sklavenmarkt in Kairo, 167–68, 168
Géricault, Theodore: Boxers, 34–35, 35–37;
Negro Soldier Holding a Lance, 36, 37;
Portrait of a Black Man (Joseph), 37, 37–38;
Portrait Study of a Negro (attrib.), 38, 40–41
German artwork/artists: African artifacts as influence on, 241, 241;
blackface minstrel show and, 69;
coloristic composition and, 218, 218–19, 220;
dancing and, 145, 146, 147;
Die Brücke and, 239–41, 240–41, 243;
emancipation and, 218, 218–19, 220;
musician and, 145, 146–47, 147;
“noble savage” and, 145, 146, 147;
objective observation and, 145, 146–48, 147;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 127;
picturesqueness and, 48, 48;
self-identification with blacks and, 218, 218–19, 220;
spectacle as staged and, 145, 146–49, 147;
studies of models and, 48, 48;
white child as observer and, 147, 148–49;
wildlife and, 147, 149. See also colonial German policies
Gérôme, Jean-Léon: Bashi-Bazouk, 112, 112–13;
Slave Market, 168, 168–69
Ginotti, Giacomo, Lemancipazione dalla schiavitu, 175, 175–76
Girodet, Anne-Louis, Study for La révolte du Caire, 32–33, 33
Gleyre, Charles, Nubienne, 101–2, 102
Goya, Francisco de: Black Holding Iguana, 256, 257;
Black Holding Serpent, 256, 257;
The Blind Guitarist, 254–55, 257;
Duchess of Alba with Maria de la Luz, 257, 258–59, 259–60;
Maria Luisa, queen of Spain, 252, 252–53, 259;
Que Sacrificio, 252, 254;
Self-portrait in letter to Zapater, 247–49, 248–49
Greco-Roman era: overview, xv, xvi, xvii;
classical conventions and, 17–19, 20–21, 21, 24, 26, 35;
Ethiopian, use of term, xiv;
nude/half-naked image and, 35;
slavery and, xvii;
studies of models and, 24, 26–27, 27–29
Gros, Antoine-Jean, Harangue du général Bonaparte . . ., 33, 34, 35
guard/soldier, 178, 179–81, 181, 266–68, 267, 270–71, 271. See also eunuch harem guards
Guillaumet, Gustave, Marché arabe . . ., 124, 125, (125)
hair, xiv–xv, 4, 14, 101–2, 102, 247–49, 248–49, 279. See also stereotypic features
Hare, St. George, The Victory of Faith, 186, 186–87
harem: overview, 103–4, 287;
blackness and, 87, 151, 152, 178, 243;
colonial French policies and, 94, 96–97, 129;
eroticism and, 87, 151, 152–53, 160–61, 161–62, 178, 182–84, 183, 243;
exoticism and, 87, 151, 152–53, 154–55, 156, 178, 243;
fatalism in the Orient and, 87, 151, 152, 154–55, 156, 178, 243;
guard/soldier and, 178, 179, 181;
master as black and, 182–85, 183–84;
“noble savage” and, 87, 151, 152–53, 178, 243;
nude/half-naked image and, 182–84, 183;
objective observation and, 103, 151, 15455, 156;
in the Orient, 94, 96–97, 129;
physical strength/agility and, 151, 153;
placement in artwork and, 151, 154–55, 156, 157, 158;
romantic art and, 87, 151, 152, 178, 243;
Russian artwork and, 270–71, 271;
servant as woman and, 103–4, 104–5, 151, 154–55, 156, 157, 158;
sexual act metaphor and, 158, 158–59, 160;
slave as black woman and, 151, 154–55, 156;
Spanish artwork and, 252, 254;
studies of models and, 151, 154–55, 156, 182–84, 183;
virility characteristic and, 182–85, 183–84, 287. See also eunuch harem guards; white women in harem
Haydon, Benjamin Robert, 24, 26–27, 27–29
headdress, 112, 112–13, 229, 229. See also dress of Europeans; dress of the Orient; turbaned iconography
head shapes (phrenology), 21, 285, 286
Hellenistic period, xv, xvi, xvii
hierarchy/social status: overview, ix, xv, xvi, 7, 279;
aesthetic/unaesthetic image and, 252, 252–53, 259;
American viewpoints and, 197, 198–99, 200;
artwork and, ix, 281;
Spanish artwork and, 252, 25253, 259;
white superiority and, 1, 64, 66, 100, 100–101, 111, 279–80, 288
historical events, 1, 2, 6–7, 142–43, 143, 286
Hoffman, Malvina, Shilluk Warrior, 242–43, 243
Holocaust, 3, 7, 245, 245–46, 280, 288
Homer, Winslow: The Conch Divers, 201, 203, 203;
The Cotton Pickers, 196–97, 196–97;
Dressing for the Carnival, 194–95, 195–96, 200;
The Gulf Stream (1899), 7, 203–4, 204;
Under a Palm Tree, 201, 202–3;
A Visit from the Old Mistress, 194, 194–95
Hovenden, Thomas, Sunday Morning, 197, 198
Huet le Jeune, Nicolas, 57, 57, 59
human condition, 7, 10, 68–69
humorous character, 66–68, 67–69
Hunt, William Henry: Full-length study of a black model, 44, 45;
Master James Crow (Fairland after), 66–67, 67;
Miss Jim-ima Crow (Fairland after), 66–67, 67
ideal features of whites: man, 22, 271, 272–73;
woman, 22, 151, 152–53, 154–56, 156–57, 158, 178, 181, 185, 243. See also whites
image, use of term, 281
immigrants’ place in U.S. society, 82, 84–85, 84–85
India/Indians, xv, xvi, xvi–xvii
individual identities, 5–6, 7, 8–9, 9. See also anonymity of blacks
Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique, Odalisque with a Slave, 154–56, 156–57, 158, 181, 185
Islam/Muslims: overview and use of term, xiv;
blacks compared with, xvii;
Christianity and, xvii, 150;
European contact with, xvii;
Jews and, xvii, 112, 114–15;
objective observation in Senegal and, 131–32, 133;
slavery and, xvii, 95, 131–32, 133, 168, 168–69, 174–75, 175
jewelry, 184–85, 184–86, 206, 207, 229, 229
Jews, xvii, 42, 112, 114–15
Jim Crow: American viewpoints and, 194–95, 195–97, 196–97, 200;
dancing and, 66–68, 67–68;
objective observation in U.S. and, 66–68, 67–68;
slave as man and, 176, 176–77, (176–77), 178. See also dancing; racial prejudice
Josephine (empress of France), 45
Kiprensky, Orest, Countesses Maria Potoskaya and Sophia Shuvalova, 263, 267–68, 268, 271
Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig, Schlafende Milli, 240, 240–41, 241
Krimmel, John Lewis (after), 70–71, 70–71, 78
Ladurner, Adolf, Grand Duke Constantine . . ., 266–267, 267, 271
landscapes: idyllic, 171, 171;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 95, 120, 120–21, 120–22, 126, 126–27;
objective observation in Senegal and, 128–29, 129–31;
South Africa and, 52–55, 53–54, 56–57, 57–59, 59, 133, 134–35, 138, 138–41, 140
Latin language, xiv
Lecomte du Nouy, Jules-Jean-Antoine: Les porteurs de mauvaises nouvelles, 178, 178–79, 182;
La porte du sérail . . ., 178, 179, 181
Leopold II (king of Belgium), 227
Leprince, Auguste-Xavier, Lion Hunt, 59, 60–61
Le Quesne, Fernande, Les deux perles, 186, 187, 189
Lewis, John Frederick, The Harem, 104, 104–5
lips, xiv–xv, 14, 120–21, 120–22, 247–49, 248–49. See also facial features
literature: black image, xvi, 5–9, 280;
Othello (Shakespeare), xiv, 20–21, 68–69, 158, 158–59, 160, 186
L’Ons, Frederick Timpson: Portrait of Maqoma, 136–37, 138;
Portrait of Sandilla, 136–37, 138;
Reach on the Kowie River, 138, 138;
Witch Doctor . . ., 136, 137
Louis-Philippe (king of France), 87, 90, 94, 129
Magus/Magi narrative, ix, xvii, 241, 241, 284
Makart, Hans, Death of Cleopatra, 182, 182–83
Maks, Cornelis Johannes “Kees,” Familiegroep, 220, 220–21
Malaquais, Jean, ix–x
man as black: Europeans’ studies of models and, 209–15, 211, 213, 216;
master of harem and, 182–85, 183–84;
sailor as model and, 212–13, 213;
woman as white, and contact with, 158, 158–59, 160, 184–85, 184–86, 273, 274. See also freedmen; man/nature harmony; “noble savage”; persons of African descent; physical strength/agility; servant as man; slave as man; virility characteristic
man as white: blacks boxing with whites and, 34–35, 34–37, 200–201, 200–201;
caricature of, 3;
equality for, 4;
ideal features of, 22, 271, 272–73;
mimicry of, 3–4, 61, 64, 64–66, 66–67, 68
Manet, Edouard: Olympia, 162, 164–65, 174, 207, 231;
Portrait of the Negress Laura, 206, 207
man/nature harmony: American viewpoints, 201, 202–3, 203;
genre scenes in U.S. and, 74, 74–76, 77, 197;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 124, 125, (125);
rejection of classical conventions and, 234–35, 235–36;
South Africans and, 5255, 53–54. See also blacks
Marihat Prosper, La sultane noire, 102, 102–3
Marinelli, Vincenzo, Il Ballo delVApe, 170–71, 170–71
master of harem, 182–85, 183–84
master/slave relations, ix, xviii
Matisse, Henri: The Blue Nude…, 238, 238, 239, 241;
Deux juenes filles Targui (photograph), 238–39, 239;
Two Negresses, 238, 239
melancholy quality: American viewpoints and, 191, 192–93, 194–95, 195–96, 200, 207;
French artwork and, 37, 37–38, 41, 42–43, 207;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 101–2, 102;
studies of models and, 37, 37–38, 41, 42–43, 207
memories of scenes, 119–22, 120–21, 123–27, 124, 126–27
Menil Collection, vii–x
Menzel, Adolph von, Die Zulus, 145, 146, 147
Methodists, 61, 63. See also Christianity
Mexican War of 1846-1848, 81–82, 82, (82–83). See also abolition in U.S.
Meyerheim, Paul: In der Tierbude, 147, 149;
Die Wilden, 147, 148
Middle Passage, 7, 8, 10, 130, 203–4, 204, 230, 284–86
mimicry of whites, 3–4, 61, 64, 64–66, 66–67, 68
missionaries in Africa, xviii, 136, 145, 221, 237
mixed marriages, xviii, 220, 220–21. See also mulattoes/octoroons
Mont, William Sidney: The Banjo Player, 80, 80;
Eel Spearing at Setauket, 74, 76, 77;
The Power of Music, 78, 78–79
Moors, xiv. See also blacks
mulattoes/octoroons: as artists, 4–5, 283;
mixed marriages and, xviii, 220, 220–21;
objective observation in the Orient and, 87, 88–89, 90;
objective observation in Senegal and, 128–29, 129–31;
physiognomy of, 4–5, 204, 205–6, 206;
slave as black woman and, 172, 174, 174–75;
studies of models and, 41, 42–43, 207. See also ethnic diversity; persons of African descent
Müller, Leopold Carl, Markt in Kairo, 126, 126–27
Müller, William James: Eastern Letter Writer, 100, 100–101;
Slave Market, Cairo, 166–67, 166–67;
A Study of Five Negro Heads, 100–101, 101, 104
Mulready, William, The Toy Seller, 85, 85–86
musicians: American viewpoints and, 192, 193, 194;
blackface minstrel show and, 69, 266, 266;
genre scenes in U.S. and, 80, 80;
German artwork and, 145, 146–47, 147;
objective observation and, 145, 146–47, 147;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 116, 116–17, 118, 120–21, 120–22;
objective observation in U.S. and, 69, 70–71, 70–71, 78;
rejection of classical conventions and, 234–35, 235–36;
Russian artwork and, 267–68, 268, 271;
white women in harem and, 184–85, 184–86
Muslims/Islam. See Islam/Muslims
naïf painters, 235–37, 236–37
Napoleon Bonaparte (emperor of France), 33, 34, 35, 45, 94
Napoleon III (emperor of France), 109, 172
naturalistic image (realistic features), xv, xvi, xvi. See also facial features
nature: vegetation, 59, 60–61, 140, 140–41, 231, 232;
wildlife, 59, 60–61, 147, 149, 234–36, 235–36, 256, 257. See also man/nature harmony
negative image: overview and, 24, 283;
blackness and, 249, 251, 252, 254, 254, 283;
dark/black skin color and, xi–xii, xv–xvi, 16, 85, 85–86, 249, 250;
devil and, 16, 43–44, 43–45, 85, 85–86, 136, 137;
European artwork and, 85, 85–86, 283;
exoticism and, 33, 34, 35;
nude/half-naked image and, 33, 34, 35;
Spanish artwork and, 249, 251, 252, 254, 254. See also positive image
Negro, use of term, xiv, 279–80, 282–83. See also blacks; mulattoes/octoroons
neoclassical style, 16, 42, 111, 279. See also classical conventions
neorococo art, 66, 66, 66–67. See also rococo art
New Testament, ix, xv, xvii. See also specific stories
Nicholas I (czar of Russia), 263, 267
“noble savage”: overview, 246;
Africans as, 32–33, 33;
American Indians as prototype for, 54, 234;
British artwork and, 145, 146;
colonial French policies and, 91, 93, 94;
German artwork and, 145, 146, 147;
harem and, 87, 151, 152, 152–53, 178, 243;
objective observation and, 143, 143–44, 145, 146, 146–48, 147, 150;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 112, 112–13, 114–15;
in the Orient, 91, 93, 94–95, 98–99;
slave as man and, 178, 178–79, 182;
South Africans and, 52–55, 53–54;
Spanish artwork and, 257, 258–59, 259–60;
“whitening” of blacks and, 257, 258–59, 259–60. See also stereotypic characteristics
non-illusionistic perspective, 231, 233, 234
non-posed image, 231, 233, 234
North Africa/Africans, xiv, xv, xvii, 110, 238–39, 239. See also Africa/Africans; Orient, the
nose, xiv–xv, 14, 247–49, 248–49. See also facial features
Nousveaux, Edouard-Auguste: Maison d’esclaves à Gorée, 131–32, 133;
Le prince de Joinville . . ., 128–29, 129–31;
Village de Diodoumé, 131, 132–33
Nubia/Nubians, xvi, 32–34, 33, 35, 48, 48–49. See also Egypt/Egyptians
nude/half-naked image: American viewpoints and, 191, 192–93, 207;
blackness and, 250–51, 251;
blacks’ place in white society and, 171, 171;
black-white physical contact between women and, 158, 160, 186, 186–87, 189;
British artwork and, 44, 45;
colonial French policies and, 91, 93, 94;
Danish artwork and, 48, 48–49;
dress of the Orient as contrast with, 168, 168–69;
ethnographic marginalization and, 229, 229;
Europeans’ studies of models and, 207, 208–9, 211;
Greco-Roman era and, 35;
harem and, 182–84, 183;
negative image and, 33, 34, 35;
the Orient and, 91, 93, 94;
racial theories and, 250–51, 251;
slave as black woman and, 170–71, 170–71;
slave as white woman and, 168, 168–69, 170–71, 170–71;
slave market and, 168, 168–69;
South Africans and, 59, 60–61, 140, 141, 143;
Spanish artwork and, 250–51, 251;
studies of models and, 33, 34, 35, 44, 45, 48, 48–49;
whiteness and, 250–51, 251;
white women in harem and, 154–56, 156–57, 182–85, 183–84, 185;
woman as black and, 207, 208–9, 211;
woman as white and, 207, 208–9, 211
objective observation: overview, 6, 43, 51;
aesthetic/ unaesthetic image and, 11, 12–13, 13, 16, 104, 106–7, 106–7, 109–10;
American viewpoints and, 192, 193, 194, 196–97, 196–97;
British artwork and, 145, 146, 147, 150;
by child as white, 74, 76, 77, 197;
colonial Africa and, 104, 106–7, 106–7;
ethnic diversity and, 86–87, 88–91, 90–92, (92–93), 93, 95;
ethnographic marginalization and, 221, 222–23, 224–27, 225;
executioner role and, 180–81, 181;
French artwork and, 11, 12–13, 13, 16, 38, 40–41, 57, 57–61, 59;
genre scenes in U.S. and, 74, 76–80, 78, 80, 197, 198;
German artwork and, 145, 146–47, 146–48, 147;
harem and, 103, 151, 154–55, 156;
musician and, 145, 146–47, 147;
“noble savage” and, 143, 143–44, 145, 146, 146–48, 147, 150;
in the Orient, 86–87, 88–91, 90–92, (92–93), 93, 95;
photographs and, 110;
racial theories and, 104, 106–7, 106–9, 109–10, 229;
romantic art vs., 112;
sculpture as Orientalist and, 104, 106–7, 106–9, 109–11;
of South Africans, 52–57, 52–60, 59, 133, 134–37, 138, 140, 141–44, 143, 145;
Spanish artwork and, 257, 258–59, 259–60;
spectacle as staged and, 143, 143–44, 145, 146–48, 147, 150;
stereotypic characteristics vs., 33, 106–7, 106–7;
studies of models and, 11, 12–13, 13, 16, 38, 40–41, 42–43, 43–45;
white superiority and, 111;
white women in harem and, 103, 151, 154–55, 156. See also objective observation in Orientalist paintings; objective observation in Senegal; objective observation in U.S.
objective observation in Orientalist paintings: overview, 95, 119–20, 126–27, 150;
Arabs and, 120–21, 120–22;
Austrian artwork and, 126, 126–27;
blackness and, 120–21, 120–22;
classical conventions and, 118–19, 119;
colonial Spanish policies and, 111–12, 112–13, 114;
dancing and, 112, 116, 116;
dress of the Orient and, 112, 112–13, 120–21, 120–22;
Egypt and, 100–101, 100–101, 104, 118, 118, 126, 126–27;
Europeans as absent from artwork and, 95, 126, 143, 287;
executioner role and, 112, 114–15;
French artwork and, 119–20, 120–21, 122, (123), (124), 124–25, 126–27;
German artwork and, 127;
hair and, 101–2, 102;
headdress and, 112, 112–13;
Jewish woman’s persecution and, 112, 114–15;
landscapes and, 95, 120, 120–21, 120–22, 126, 126–27;
man/ nature harmony and, 124, 125, (125);
melancholy quality and, 101–2, 102;
memories of scenes and, 119–22, 120–21, 123–27, 124, 126–27;
musician and, 116, 116–17, 118, 120–21, 120–22;
“noble savage” and, 112, 112–13, 114–15;
physiognomy and, 100–101, 101–2, 102, 104;
rococo art and, 102, 102–3;
romantic art and, 127;
slave as black woman and, 122, (123), 124–25;
stereotypic characteristics and, 100, 100–101, 112, 116, 116–17, 118;
stereotypic features and, 112, 116, 116, 120–21, 120–22;
studies of models and, 100–101, 101, 104, 112, 112–13, 119, 126, 126–27;
turbaned iconography and, 100–101, 100–101, 104, 120–21, 120–22;
turqueries style and, 102, 102–3;
white superiority and, 100, 100–101;
woman as black and, 122, (123), 124–25. See also objective observation; objective
observation in Senegal objective observation in Senegal: overview, 51, 147;
colonial French policies and, 128–29, 129–31;
dancing and, 128–29, 129–31;
ethnic diversity and, 128–29, 129–31;
Europeans as absent from artwork and, 143;
landscapes and, 128–29, 129–31;
Muslims and, 131–32, 133;
slavery and, 131–32, 133;
witch doctor activities and, 136, 137. See also Africa/Africans; objective observation; objective observation in Orientalist paintings
objective observation in U.S.: blackface minstrel show and, 69;
blacks’ place in white society and, 61–70, 62–68;
caricature and, 3, 61, 64, 64–65;
dancing and, 69;
dress of Europeans and, 3, 61, 64, 64–65;
genre scenes and, 74, 76–80, 78, 80, 197;
Jim Crow and, 66–68, 67–68;
Methodist practices and, 61, 63;
musicians and, 69, 70–71, 70–71, 78;
outsiders’, 46, 61, 62–63, 70–71;
stereotypic characteristics and, 61, 62–63. See also genre scenes in U.S.; objective observation
Oceania, 231, 232–33, 234, 239–41, 240–41
octoroons/mulattoes. See mulattoes/octoroons
odalisque. See white women in harem
Old Testament, xv–xvi, xvii, 176, (176–77), 176–79, 178, 182. See also specific names
Oiler y Cestero, Francisco, El Velorio, 6–7, 7
Orient, the: overview, 86, 287;
blacks in, 94–95, 98–99;
black-white contrast and, 182, 182–83;
dark/black skin color in, 87, 88–89, 91, 93, 94;
dead man image vs. virility characteristic and, 178, 178–79, 181–82, 181–83, 189;
eroticism and, 182, 182–83;
eunuch harem guards in, 94, 96–97, 129;
Europe vs. Arabs in, 94, 96–97, 129;
French artwork and, 36, 37;
harem in, 94, 96–97, 129;
“noble savage” in, 91, 93, 94–95, 98–99, 182, 182–83;
nude/half-naked image in, 91, 93, 94, 182, 182–83;
placement in artwork of, 91, 93, 94;
slave as man and, 178, 178–79, 182;
Spanish artwork and, 252, 254;
studies of models and, 36, 37. See also Arabs; dress of the Orient; eunuch harem guards; fatalism in the Orient; harem; slave as white woman; turbaned iconography; white women in harem
otherness/Other/outsider: overview, xi, xiv–xv, xix, 14, 16, 281;
aesthetic/unaesthetic image and, 11, 12–13, 13, 16;
freedmen and, 11, 12–13, 13;
self-identification of artists with blacks and, 247–49, 248–49;
servant as man and, ix, xi–xii, 13–14, 13–15;
Spanish artwork and, 247–49, 248–49;
woman as black and, 11, 12–13, 13
outsiders’ vision of blacks in white society, 46, 61, 62–63, 70–71
Parrott, William, The Nigger Boat Builder, 85, 86–87
paternalism: naïf painters and, 235–37, 236–37;
whites’ benevolence/blacks’ gratitude for emancipation and, 1, 64, 66, 280
patrons/commissions, 281–82
persons of African descent: artwork and, vii, viii, xiv, xix, 5;
black, use of term for people of, xiii;
Russian artwork and, 261, 271, 272;
self-identification and, 261, 271, 272;
slavery in colonial West Indies and, 7, 8–9, 9;
stereotypic characteristics and, xii;
stereotypic features and, xii. See also man as black; mulattoes/octoroons; woman as black
Peter the Great (czar of Russia), 261, 263, 267
philanthropy, and whites, 1, 64, 66, 279–80, 286, 288
photographs: overview, xii, 5–6, 8, 281, 287;
African artwork influences and, 238–39, 239;
as art, 3, 4;
objective observation and, 110;
South Africans and, 143
phrenology (head shapes), 21, 285, 286
physical contact: between black and white women, 158, 160, 186, 186–87, 189;
between black man and white woman, 158, 158–59, 160, 184–85, 184–86, 273, 274
physical strength/agility: British artwork and, 44, 45;
caricature and, 24, 25, 26;
Europeans’ studies of models and, 218, 218–19;
French artwork and, 33, 34, 35;
harem and, 151, 153;
racial theories and, 23;
studies of models and, 24, 26–27, 27–29, 44, 45. See also man as black
physical violence. See “noble savage”
physiognomy: overview, 279;
aesthetic/unaesthetic image and, 17–22, 18–20, 20–22, 24–25, 24–27, 27–30, 286;
American viewpoints and, 4–5, 204, 205–6, 206;
French artwork and, 57, 57–59, 59;
mulattoes/ octoroons and, 4–5, 204, 205–6, 206;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 100–101, 101–2, 102, 104;
racial theories and, 17–22, 18–19, 286;
South Africans and, 54–56, 56–57, 59, 59, 133, 134–35;
steatopygia and, 51, 56–57, 57–59, 59;
studies of models and, 17–22, 18–20, 24–25, 24–27, 27–30, 206, 207, 211, 286;
tablier and, 51, 56–57. See also stereotypic features
picturesqueness: genre scenes in U.S. and, 197, 198;
German artwork and, 48, 48;
slave as black woman and, 166–67, 166–67;
slave market and, 166–67, 166–67;
studies of models and, 48, 48
placement in artwork: American viewpoints and, 196–97, 196–97;
colonial French policies and, 91, 93, 94;
coloristic composition and, 162, 163;
eunuch harem guards and, 154–56, 156–57, 158, 181, 185;
genre scenes in U.S. and, 74, 74–76, 77, 197;
harem and, 151, 154–55, 156, 157, 158;
human condition metaphors and, 10;
the Orient and, 91, 93, 94;
Russian artwork and, 268, 268–69, 271;
white women in harem and, 156, 157, 158
portraits: of freedmen as murderers in U.S., 71, 72–73, 73–74;
of prostitute, 162, 164–65, 174, 207, 231;
self-portrait of artist and, 247–49, 248–49;
of South Africans, 59, 59, 136–37, 138;
studies of models and, 206, 207;
of upper class in Russia, 261, 262, 264–68, 264–73, 267, 271, 274;
of woman as black, 206, 207
positive image, vii, xv–xvi, 6, 16. See also negative image
postcolonialism, 2–3
Poynter, Edward John, Israel in Egypt, 176, 176–77, (176–77), 178
prognathism: overview, 18;
aesthetic/unaesthetic image and, 21–23;
negative image and, 24;
racial theories and, 18–19, 18–19, 21–24, 24–25;
self-identification with blacks and, 247–49, 248–49, 271, 272;
Spanish artwork and, 247–49, 248–49;
studies of models and, 18–19, 18–19, 21–24, 23–24, 24–25. See also facial features; racial theories
prostitutes/prostitution, 162, 164–65, 172, 174–75, 174–75, 207, 231
Protestantism, xix, 176. See also Christianity
Pushkin, Alexander, 271, 272
racial prejudice: overview, vii–x, xii, xvii–xix, 3–4, 279;
African artifacts and, 245, 245–46;
Holocaust and, 3, 7, 245, 245–46;
white child’s unprejudiced observation vs., 74, 76, 77, 197. See also ethnographic marginalization; Jim Crow; racial theories
racial theories: overview, xii, xviii–xix, 17–24, 279–80, 286;
abolition and, 20;
aesthetic/unaesthetic image and, 17–24, 18–21, 24, 24–25, 26–27, 27–30, 286;
albinism and, 250–51, 251;
Arabs and, 110;
black-white contrast and, 24, 279–80;
Enlightenment and, 19, 248;
equality vs., 280;
interrelationship with climate, 17–18;
North Africans and, 110;
nude/half-naked image and, 250–51, 251;
objective observation and, 104, 106–7, 106–9, 109–10, 229;
phrenology and, 21, 285, 286;
physical strength/ agility and, 23;
physiognomy and, 17–22, 18–19, 286;
prognathism and, 18–19, 18–19, 21–24, 24–25;
Spanish artwork and, 248, 250–51, 251;
studies of models and, 18–19, 18–19, 21–24, 23–24, 24–25, 32–33;
virility characteristic and, 24;
whites and, 17, 24, 279–80. See also prognathism; racial prejudice
realistic features (naturalistic image), xv, xvi, xvi. See also facial features
rejection of classical conventions: overview, 230–31, 279;
black-white relations and, 231, 232;
colonial French policies and, 231, 232;
coloristic composition and, 231, 232, 233, 234;
dark/black skin color and, 234–36, 235–36;
dress of the Orient and, 234–35, 235–36;
ethnic diversity and, 234–35, 235–36;
exoticism and, 234–35, 235–36;
man/nature harmony and, 234–35, 235–36;
musicians and, 234–35, 235–36;
non-illusionistic perspective and, 231, 233, 234;
non-posed image and, 231, 233, 234;
South Pacific and, 231, 232–33, 234;
vegetation and, 231, 232;
wildlife and, 234–36, 235–36;
woman as black and, 231, 232. See also European artwork/artists; Europeans’ studies of models; specific styles
Reynolds, Joshua, Study of a Black Man, 13, 13–14
RØrbye, Martinus, Seated Nubian, 48, 48–49
rococo art: coloristic composition, 162, 164–65, 174, 207, 231;
neorococo art and, 66, 66, 66–67;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 102, 102–3;
studies of models and, 16
Roman era: overview, xv, xvi, xvii;
black, use of term, xiv;
classical conventions, 17–19, 20–21, 21, 24, 26, 35, 285;
slavery and, xvii;
studies of models and, 24, 26–27, 27–29
romantic art: overview, 237, 239–40;
artworks as, 104, 220;
boxing and, 34–35, 35–37;
genre scenes in British artwork and, 71;
harem and, 87, 151, 152, 178, 243;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 127;
objective observation vs., 112;
South Pacific and, 239–40, 240–41
Rosetti, Dante Gabriel, The Bride (or The Beloved), 162, 163
Rousseau, Henri: The Sleeping Gypsy, 234–35, 235–36, 236;
Virgin Forest 236, 236–37
Russian artwork/artists: overview, 261, 274;
blackface inversion and, 266, 266;
black man-white woman physical contact and, 273, 274;
blacks’ place in U.S. white society and, 61, 62–63;
black-white contrast and, 264–66, 265–66;
child as white and, 261, 262, 263–65, 264–67, 267, 270–71, 271;
dress of Europeans and, 273, 274;
dress of the Orient and, 264, 264–65, 266–68, 267, 271;
exoticism and, 267–68, 268, 271;
guard/soldier and, 266–68, 267, 270–71, 271;
harem and, 270–71, 271;
ideal features of whites and, 271, 272–73;
musicians and, 267–68, 268, 271;
persons of African descent and, 261, 271, 272;
placement in artwork and, 268, 268–69, 271;
portraits of upper class and, 261, 262, 264–68, 264–73, 267, 271, 274;
self-identification of Russians with blacks and, 261, 262, 263–64, 267–68, 268, 271, 272;
servant as child and, 261, 262, 263–64, 264–65, 265, 267, 271;
servant as man and, 264, 264–65, 266, 266–67, 267–68, 268–69, 271;
servant as woman and, 266, 266, 267–68, 268, 271;
slave collar and, 261, 262, 263–64, 267, 271;
stereotypic characteristics and, 61, 62–63;
turbaned iconography and, 267–68, 268, 271
sailor as model, 212–13, 213
saints, xv, xvii, 71, 72–73, 73–74, 284
salvation, ix, xv, xvii, xviii. See also Enlightenment
Sartorio, Aristide: Diana d’Efeso e gli schiavi, 188, 189;
La Gorgone egli eroi, 188, 189–90
Satan/evil/devil, 16, 43–44, 43–45, 85, 85–86, 136, 137
satire. See caricature
Schadow, Johann Gottfried, 23–24, 24–25
Schmidt-Rottluff, Karl, The Three Kings, 241, 241
Schweinfurth, Georg August, Düd, ein Djur, 221, 222–23
scientific racism, xii, xix
sculpture as Orientalist, 104, 106–7, 106–9, 109–11
self-identification: of artists with blacks, 7, 203–4, 204, 218, 218–19, 220, 247–49, 248–49;
of Russians with blacks, 261, 262, 263–64, 267–68, 268, 271, 272
semiotic theory (symbols). See symbols
servant as child, 261, 262, 263–64, 264–65, 265, 267, 271
servant as man: British artwork and, 13–14, 13–15;
otherness and, ix, xi–xii, 13–14, 13–15;
Russian artwork and, 264, 264–65, 266, 266–67, 267–68, 268–69, 271;
studies of models and, 13–14, 13–15. See also man as black
servant as woman: overview, xviii;
colonial French policies and, 45, 46;
coloristic composition and, 162, 164–65, 174, 207, 231;
harem and, 103–4, 104–5, 151, 154–55, 156, 157, 158;
Russian artwork and, 266, 266, 267–68, 268, 271;
studies of models and, 45, 46, 207, 208–9, 211;
turbaned iconography and, xviii. See also woman as black
sexual act metaphor: black-white contrast and, 158, 158–59, 160;
eunuch harem guards and, 181, 181–82;
harem and, 158, 158–59, 160;
slave as black woman and, 172, 172–73, 174–75, 174–75;
white women in harem and, 158, 158–59, 160
sexual assault metaphor, 167–68, 168
Shakespeare, William, Othello, xiv, 20–21, 68–69, 158, 158–59, 160, 186, 280
Sheba (biblical queen), xv–xvi, 162, 163
Simpson, John Philip, The Captive Slave, 1, 2
skin color, xiv, 17, 18, 20–21. See also dark/black skin color
slave as black woman: overview, 246;
abolition in U.S. and, 172, 174–75, 174–75;
black-white contrast and, 170–71, 170–71;
caricature and, 172;
chain and, 1, 172, 174–75, 174–76;
Christianity and, 175, 175–76;
eroticism and, 170–71, 170–71, 174–75, 175–76;
exoticism and, 170–71, 170–71;
harem and, 151, 154–55, 156;
nude/half-naked image and, 170–71, 170–71;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 122, (123), 124–25;
picturesqueness of slave market and, 166–67, 166–67;
prostitution and, 172, 174–75, 174–75;
sexual act metaphor and, 172, 172–73, 174–75, 174–75;
spectacle as staged and, 170–71, 170–71;
studies of models and, 171, 171;
symbols of slavery and, 172, 172–73. See also woman as black
slave as man: overview, 246;
biblical stories and, 176, (176–77), 176–79, 178, 182;
colonial West Indies and, 176, 176–77, (176–77), 178;
dead man image vs. virility characteristic and, 178, 178–79, 182, 189;
Egypt and, 176, 176–77, (176–77), 178;
fatalism in the Orient and, 178, 178–79, 182;
Jim Crow and, 176, 176–77, (176–77), 178;
“noble savage” and, 178, 178–79, 182;
U.S. and, 176, 176–77, (176–77), 178
slave as white woman: overview, 95, 165–66, 246;
black-white contrast and, 167–68, 168–71, 170–71, 170–71;
chain and, 172;
classical conventions and, 168, 168–69, 170, 172;
colonial Europeans and, 168, 168–69, 170;
dressed/nude contrast and, 168, 168–69;
eroticism and, 167–68, 168–71, 170–71, 242–43, 243;
exoticism and, 170–71, 170–71;
nude/half-naked image and, 168, 168–69, 170–71, 170–71;
sexual assault metaphor and, 167–68, 168;
slave market and, 167–68, 168–69;
spectacle as staged and, 170–71, 170–71. See also Orient, the; slave/slavery
slave collar, xii, xviii, 261, 262, 263–64, 267, 271
slave market, 166–68, 166–69
slaves/slavery: overview, xvi–xix, 7;
Arabs and, xvi–xvii;
blacks/Negroes as synonym for, 279–80;
chain and, 1, 2, 7, 172, 174–75, 174–76, 285;
Christianity and, xix, 272, 280, 284;
colonial French policies and, 11, 12–13, 13, 32–34, 33, 35, 45, 46, 131–32, 133;
England and, xix;
Greco-Roman era and, xvii;
master/slave relations and, ix, xviii;
Muslims and, xvii, 95, 131–32, 133, 168, 168–69, 174–75, 175;
objective observation in Senegal and, 131–32, 133;
persons of African descent and, 7, 8–9, 9;
slave market and, 166–68, 166–69;
social injustice in U.S. genre scenes and, 81–82, 82, (82–83);
South Africans and, 140, 141, 143;
symbols of, 172, 172–73. See also eunuch harem guards; harem; slave as black woman; slave as man; slave as white woman; white women in harem
slave trade: overview, xii, xvi–xviii, 279, 285;
abolition of, 1, 130, 282, 285;
Africa and, 7, 8, 10, 130–31, 132–33, 203–4, 204, 230, 284–86;
Europe and, 1, 7, 131, 285;
Middle Passage and, 7, 8, 10, 130, 203–4, 204, 230, 284–86
Slevogt, Max, Der Sieger, 242–43, 243
social injustice, and slavery, 81–82, 82, (82–83)
social status/hierarchy. See hierarchy/social status
soldier/guard, 178, 179–81, 181, 266–68, 267, 270–71, 271. See also eunuch harem guards
Solomon (biblical king), xv–xvi
South Africa/Africans: overview, 51–53, 133;
aesthetic/unaesthetic image and, 56–57, 57–59, 59;
caricature and, 136, 137;
classical conventions and, 138, 138–39, 140;
dress of, 54–56, 56–57, 133, 134–35;
as exhibition specimens, 56–57, 57–59, 59;
exoticism and, 59, 60–61;
historical events and, 142–43, 143;
landscapes and, 52–55, 53–54, 56–57, 57–59, 59, 133, 134–35, 138, 138–41, 140;
man/nature harmony and, 52–55, 53–54;
“noble savage” and, 52–55, 53–54;
nude/half-naked image and, 59, 60–61, 140, 141, 143;
objective observation of, 52–57, 52–60, 59, 133, 134–37, 138, 140, 141–44, 143, 145;
photographs and, 143;
physiognomy of, 54–56, 56–57, 59, 59, 133, 134–35;
portraits of tribal leaders and, 136–37, 138;
slavery and, 140, 141, 143;
spectacle as staged and, 143, 143–44, 145;
steatopygia and, 51, 56–57, 57–59, 59;
studies of models and, 52, 53, 59, 59–61;
tablier and, 51, 56–57;
vegetation and, 59, 60–61, 140, 140–41;
wildlife and, 59, 60–61. See also Africa/Africans; colonial British policies
South Pacific, 231, 232–33, 234, 239–41, 240–41
Spanish artwork/artists: aesthetic/unaesthetic image and, 249, 251–52, 252–53, 257, 259;
albinism and, 250–51, 251;
anonymity and, 252, 254;
blackness and, 249, 250–51, 251–52, 254–55, 257, 258–59, 259–60;
black-white relations and, 251–52;
colonial Spanish policies and, 111–12, 112–13, 114;
dark/black skin color and, 249, 250;
Enlightenment and, 248–49, 250–51, 251, 257, 258–59, 259–60;
facial features and, 247–49, 248–49;
genre scenes in, 254–55, 257;
hair and, 247–49, 248–49;
harem and, 252, 254;
hierarchy/social status and, 252, 252–53, 259;
lips and, 247–49, 248–49;
negative image and, 249, 250, 252, 254;
“noble savage” and, 257, 258–59, 259–60;
nose and, 247–49, 248–49;
nude/half-naked image and, 250–51, 251;
objective observation and, 257, 258–59, 259–60;
the Orient and, 252, 254;
otherness and, 247–49, 248–49;
racial theories and, 247–49, 248–51, 251;
rejection of classical conventions by, 247–49, 248–49, 279;
self-identification with blacks and, 247–49, 248–49;
stain of black and, 250–51, 251–52, 254, 254;
stereotypic features of blacks and, 247–49, 248–49;
theater performers and, 256, 257;
turbaned iconography and, 252, 254;
whiteness and, 250–51, 251;
“whitening” of blacks and, 250–51, 251, 257, 258–59, 259–60;
wildlife and, 256, 257. See also colonial Spanish policies
spectacle as staged: British artwork and, 145, 146, 147, 150;
French artwork and, 150;
German artwork and, 145, 146–49, 147;
objective observation and, 143, 143–44, 145, 146–48, 147, 150;
slave as black woman and, 170–71, 170–71;
slave as white woman and, 170–71, 170–71;
South Africans and, 143, 143–44, 145;
white child as observer of, 147, 148–49. See also exhibition specimens
stain of blackness, 250–51, 251–52, 254, 254
steatopygia, 51, 56–57, 57–59, 59
stereotypic characteristics: overview, xii, xix, 3–4, 6, 7, 280;
Africans and, 32–33, 33;
blacks boxing with whites and, 34–35, 35–37;
black-white contrast and, 158, 158–59, 160;
ethnographic marginalization and, 227–29, 228;
facial features as reflection of, 19–20, 20–21;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 100, 100–101, 112, 116, 116–17, 118;
objective observation in U.S. and, 61, 62–63;
objective observation vs., 33, 106–7, 106–7;
persons of African descent and, xii;
Russian artwork and, 61, 62–63;
Uncle Tom character and, 3, 7, 280. See also “noble savage”; virility characteristic
stereotypic characteristics of Arabs, 120–21, 120–22, 158, 158–59, 160
stereotypic features: overview, ix, xi–xiii, xix, 6, 279, 281–82;
of Africans, xxii;
hair, xiv–xv, 4, 14, 101–2, 102, 247–49, 248–49, 279;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 112, 116, 116, 120–21, 120–22;
persons of African descent and, xii;
racial theories and, 17–24, 18–21;
self-portrait of artist with, 247–49, 248–49;
Spanish artwork and, 247–49, 248–49;
steatopygia as, 51, 56–57, 57–59, 59;
tablier as, 51, 56–57. See also aesthetic/unaesthetic image; facial features; physiognomy
studies of models (études): overview and use of term, 14, 16, 32–33, 38, 42, 246, 286;
abolition in England and, 30, 30–31, 32;
aesthetic/unaesthetic image and, 41, 42–43, 46, 46–48, 207;
African artifacts and, 242–43, 243;
American viewpoints and, 191, 192–93, 207;
anonymity of blacks and, 11, 12–13, 13;
blacks’ place in white society and, 216, 216–17, 218;
black-white contrast and, 46, 46–48;
boxers and, 34–35, 35–37, 44, 45;
British artwork and, 13, 13–14, 24–25, 24–27, 27–29, 30, 30–31, 32–33, 48, 49–50;
caricature and, 24, 25, 26, 218, 218–19;
child as black and, 48, 49–50;
colonial French policies and, 11, 12–13, 13, 32–34, 33, 35, 45, 46;
coloristic composition and, 14, 38, 38–41, 42, 45, 46, 218, 218–19, 220;
commonness vs. exoticism and, 13, 13–14, 38, 40–41;
Danish artwork and, 48, 48–49;
dark/black skin color, 33, 34, 35, 38–39, 42;
devil and, 43–44, 43–45;
dress of Europeans, 48, 49–50;
eroticism and, 188, 189–90;
facial features and, 23–24, 24–25, 33, 34, 35;
freedmen and, 30, 30–31, 32;
French artwork and, 34–43, 35–38, 42–45;
German artwork and, 48, 48;
Greco-Roman era and, 24, 26–27, 27–29;
harem and, 151, 154–55, 156, 182–84, 183;
Jews and, 42;
melancholy quality and, 37, 37–38, 41, 42–43, 207;
mulattoes/octoroons and, 41, 42–43, 207;
Nubians and, 48, 48–49;
nude/half-naked image and, 33, 34, 35, 44, 45, 48, 48–49;
objective observation and, 11, 12–13, 13, 16, 38, 40–41, 42–43, 43–45;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 100–101, 101, 104, 112, 112–13, 119, 126, 126–27;
the Orient and, 36, 37;
physical strength/agility and, 24, 26–27, 27–29, 44, 45;
physiognomy and, 17–22, 18–20, 24–25, 24–27, 27–30, 286;
picturesqueness and, 48, 48;
portraits of woman as black and, 206, 207;
prostitutes and, 41, 42–43, 162, 164–65, 174, 207, 231;
rococo art and, 16;
sailor as model, 212–13, 213;
sculpture as Orientalist and, 104, 106–7, 106–9, 109–11;
servant as man and, 13–14, 13–15;
servant as woman and, 45, 46, 207, 208–9, 211;
slave as black woman and, 171, 171;
South Africans and, 52, 53, 59, 59–61;
Swiss artwork and, 46, 46–48;
turbaned iconography and, 38–39, 42;
white women in harem and, 154–56, 156–57, 185. See also Europeans’ studies of models
subaltern voice, 2–4, 7
sub-Saharan Africa. See objective observation in Senegal
Svinin, Pavel Petrovich, “Worldly Folk” . . ., 61, 62–63, 70–71
Swiss artwork/artists, 46, 46–48
symbols: overview, 2, 6–7, 10;
of abolition, 1, 3, 172, 174, 174–75, 284;
of blackness, 252, 254, 264–65, 264–66;
classical conventions and, 213, 214–15, 216;
eroticism and, 188, 189–90;
Europeans’ studies of models and, 213, 214–15, 216;
of slavery, 172, 172–73;
woman as black and, 172, 172–73, 188, 189;
woman as white and, 188, 189–90
tablier, 51, 56–57
theater performer/actor, xii, 7–8, 8, 256, 257
Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de, Footit et Chocolat, 218, 218–19
Trübner, Heinrich Wilhelm, Ein Mohr, die Zeitung Iesend, 218, 218–19, 220
turbaned iconography: overview, xviii;
Arabs and, 100, 100–101;
French artwork and, 38–39, 42;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 100–101, 100–101, 104, 120–21, 120–22;
Russian artwork and, 267–68, 268, 271;
servant as woman and, xviii;
Spanish artwork and, 252, 254;
studies of models and, 38–39, 42. See also dress of the Orient; headdress; Orient, the
turqueries style, 102, 102–3
United States: overview, 285–86;
American Indians and, 4, 54, 61, 74, 234;
black defined, 282–83;
Civil War and, viii, 1, 7, 285, 287;
equality and, 3, 4, 7;
idyllic landscapes and, 171, 171;
immigrants’ place in society and, 82, 84–85, 84–85;
Negro defined, 282–83;
outsider’s view of blacks’ place in white society in, 61, 62–63;
patrons/commissions and, 282;
portraits of freedmen as murderers in, 71, 72–73, 73–74;
slave as man in, 176, 176–77, (176–77), 178;
whites’ benevolence/blacks’ gratitude for emancipation and, 64, 66. See also abolition in U.S.; American viewpoints; genre scenes in U.S.; objective observation in U.S.
vegetation, 59, 60–61, 140, 140–41, 231, 232
Vernet, Horace: The Arab Tale-Teller, 90–91, 90–91, (92–93), 95;
The Lion Hunt, 92, 93;
Prise de la smalah . . . (Decaen after), 94, 96–97, 129
View of Herbert Ward’s studio, 227, 229
violence. See “noble savage”
virility characteristic: African artifacts and, 242–43, 243;
dead man image vs., 178, 178–79, 181–82, 181–83, 189;
harem and, 182–85, 183–84, 287;
racial theories and, 24;
South Pacific and, 240–41. See also stereotypic characteristics
Wailly, Léon de, 58–59, 59
Ward, James: The Fire Maker, 227, 228, 230;
The Idol Maker, 227–30, 228;
Three Views of the Head of a Native . . ., 59, 59;
View of Herbert Ward’s studio, 227, 229
W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African
American Research, vii, viii, x
Weekes, Henry, Mary Seacole, 1–2, 2
West Africa/Africans, xii, xv, xvii, xviii, 131, 132–33.
See also Africa/Africans; slave trade
Western, use of term, xii–xiii
Western art, ix, xi, xiii–xv
West Indies, 3, 7–9, 7–10, 176, 176–77, (176–77), 178, 285
“white Negro.” See mulattoes/octoroons
whiteness: aesthetic/unaesthetic image and, 16, 22;
albinism and, 250–51, 251;
coloristic composition and, 162, 163, 164–65, 174, 207, 231;
nude/half-naked image and, 250–51, 251;
as positive, 16;
Spanish artwork and, 250–51, 251;
“whitening” of blacks and, 85, 85–86, 250–51, 251, 257, 258–59, 259–60
whites: overview and use of term, xiv–xvi;
aesthetic/unaesthetic image and, 16;
benevolence of, 1, 64, 66, 280;
Caucasian, use of term, 17, 110, 280;
equality with, 4;
mimicry of, 3–4, 61, 64, 64–66, 66–67, 68;
philanthropy of, 1, 64, 66, 279–80, 286, 288. See also black-white contrast; black-white physical contact; black-white relations; child as white; ideal features of whites; man as white; woman as white
white superiority, 1, 64, 66, 100, 100–101, 111, 279–80, 288. See also hierarchy/social status
white women in harem: overview, 103–4;
black-white contrast and, 160–62, 182, 182–83;
eroticism and, 160–61, 161–62, 182–84, 183, 184–85, 184–86;
jewelry and, 184–85, 184–86;
musicians and, 184–85, 184–86;
nude/half-naked image and, 154–56, 156–57, 182–85, 183–85;
objective observation and, 103, 151, 154–55, 156;
placement in artwork and, 156, 157, 158;
prostitutes’ portraits and, 162, 164–65, 174, 207, 231;
sexual act metaphor and, 158, 158–59, 160;
studies of models and, 154–56, 156–57, 185. See also woman as white
wildlife, 59, 60–61, 147, 149, 234–36, 235–36, 256, 257
Wilkie, David, Study for The Empress Josephine 45, 46, 71
Windus, William Lindsay, Black Boy, 48, 49–50
witch doctor activities, 136, 137
woman as Arab, 122, (123), 124–25
woman as black: abolition and, 4, 11, 12–13, 13;
colonial French policies and, 11, 12–13, 13;
emancipation and, 11, 12–13, 13;
Europeans’ studies of models and, 206–9, 207, 211, 218;
labor and endurance by, 122, (123), 124–25;
nude/half-naked image and, 207, 208–9, 211;
objective observation in Orientalist paintings and, 122, (123), 124–25;
otherness and, 11, 12–13, 13;
physical contact between woman as white and, 158, 160, 186, 186–87, 189;
rejection of classical conventions and, 231, 232;
steatopygia and, 51, 56–57, 57–59, 59;
tablier and, 51, 56–57. See also man/nature harmony; persons of African descent; servant as woman; slave as black woman
woman as white: black men’s contact with, 158, 158–59, 160, 184–85, 184–86;
conversion to Islam by Jews and, 112, 114–15;
equality between woman as black and, 158, 160, 186, 186–87, 189;
Europeans’ studies of models and, 207, 208–9, 211;
ideal features and, 22, 151, 152–53, 154–56, 156–57, 158, 178, 181, 185, 243;
man as black, and contact with, 158, 158–59, 160, 184–85, 184–86, 273, 274;
mimicry of, 3–4, 61, 64, 64–66, 66–67, 68;
nude/half-naked image and, 207, 208–9, 211;
physical contact between woman as black and, 158, 160, 186, 186–87, 189. See also white women in harem
women, and equality, 4, 11, 12–13, 13. See also woman as Arab; woman as black; woman as white
Woodville, Richard Caton, War News from Mexico, 81–82, 82, (82–83)