Index
Acuña, Cosme de, 42, 45, 47, 52, 198
Adán, Juan, 41
Agustín, Francisco, 51
Alba, duchess of, 27, 104
portrait of, 3, 82
Alcázar, Luis Paret y. See Paret y Alcázar
Alvarez, Domingo, 51, 200
Aparicio, José, 3, 97, 137–38, 142, 149–50, 152
Glories of Spain, 148–49, 156
Redemption of 1,407 Captives . . . , 137–38
Aranda, count of, 22, 24, 80
Aranjuez: Casa del Labrador, 55–59
Church of San Pascual, 29
Gabinete de Platino, 57–58
mutiny of, 27, 94, 95, 129, 135
Arellano, Juan de, 97
Arroyal, León de, Pan y Toros, 175
Asturias, prince of. See Fernando VII
Ayala, Interián de, The Christian and Erudite Painter, 34
Azara, Nicolás de, 50, 55
Barocci, Federico, 32
Basel, Treaty of, 20, 80, 93
Bauzil, Juan Guillermo, 51, 199
Bayeu, Francisco, 2, 29, 34, 37, 97, 104–5, 195
as court painter, 50, 78
portrait of, 49
and Royal Academy, 40, 42
Vision of Saint Francis of Assisi, 32–34
Bayeu, Ramón, 34, 50, 53, 55, 196
Beauharnais, François, 113
Beratón, José, 50, 196
Bonaparte, Joseph, 3, 128–31, 133, 162, 186
Borbón, Luis de (cardinal), 132, 133
Borbón, Luis de (brother of Carlos III), 70, 109
Borbón y Vallabriga, María Teresa de. See Chinchón, countess of
Bosarte, Isidro, 45
Boudeville, Antonio, 200
bourgeoisie, in late eighteenth-century Spain, 26–27, 65–66
Bouton, Josef, 51, 200
Brambilla, Ferdinand, 51, 199
Brunel, Antoine de, 174
Buen Retiro. See Madrid
bullfights, 18, 174–75
Calleja, Andrés de la, 29, 34
Saint Anthony of Padua Kissing the Foot of the Christ Child, 29–30
Camarón y Melia, José, 51, 149–50, 152, 199
Cano, Alonso, 48, 49, 97
Capmany, Antonio, 19, 175
Carducho, Vicente, 97
caricature. See satire
Carlos III, 2, 18, 22, 32, 38
attitude toward nudity in art, 121, 123
patronage of, 28–29, 50–51, 55
Carlos IV, 2, 18, 19, 26, 32, 53, 72
and censorship, 121
coronation of, 78–79, 80
court of, 74, 77
and fiscal crisis, 20–21, 24, 75
patronage of, 16–17, 50–59, 78, 128. See also Aranjuez, mutiny of
Carmona, Manuel Salvador, 48
Carnicero, Antonio, 52, 53, 59, 63, 97, 198
Manuel Godoy, 53
Carnicero, Isidro, 40
Carracci, Annibale, 40, 41, 42, 121
Carreño de la Miranda, Juan, 82
Castelo, Félix, Recapture of Saint Christopher, 14
Castillo, José del, 29, 32, 34, 55
Saint Francis and Saint Dominic Meeting on the Steps of Saint Peter’s, 32, 34–35
Castro, Felipe de, 32
Ceán Bermúdez, J. A., 5, 41, 68
censorship: of nudity in art, 121–22, 126–27
under restoration, 162
in reaction to the French Revolution, 80
Cerezo, Mateo, 30
Cevallos, Pedro de, 93, 112
Charles the Third. See Carlos III
Charles the Fourth. See Carlos IV
Chinchón, countess of, 94, 97, 106, 109–10, 132
Cisneros, Eugenio Ximénez de, 50, 78, 196
Coello, Claudio, 97
Constitution of 1812, 5, 19, 132, 137
Correggio, 40
Cruz y Bahamonde, Nicolás de la, 48, 96
David, Jacques-Louis, 9, 10, 39, 85
Domenichino, 40
Duque y López, Juan de Mata, 52, 55, 197
engravings, as source for Goya’s imagery, 142–46, 170
Enguídanos, José López, 52, 97, 200
Enguídanos, Tomás López, engravings of the Second and Third of May, 139
Enlightenment: in Spain, 15, 17–19, 186–87
promoted by Godoy, 98, 127
reflected in art criticism, 68, 189
Escoíquiz, Juan, 112–13
Escorial affair, 95, 112–13
Esteve, Agustín, 52, 59, 68, 85, 97, 199
Doña Joaquina Tellez-Girón, 53
Godoy as Patron of Education (copy), 113
Ferdinand VII. See Fernando VII
Fernando VII, 3, 19, 26, 127, 129
and Goya, 3, 128, 154
patronage of, 17, 30, 138, 149–56
as prince of Asturias, 72, 94, 95, 112–13
reign as king, 132, 137, 161, 186–87
return to Spain, 132
Ferro, Gregorio, 29, 34, 37, 47, 52
Saint Joseph and the Christ Child, 35–37
Flaxman, John, 120
Floridablanca, count of, 8, 22, 28–29, 34, 42, 80, 129
portrait of, 69
Folch de Cardona, Francisco, 52, 196
as court portraitist, 62–63, 84
Folch de Cardona, José, 50
French Revolution: impact in Spain, 5, 19–27, 51, 74, 79–81
impact on Spanish monarchy, 74–77, 79–80
Spanish response to, 18, 80, 81, 166, 173, 175, 186
Giaquinto, Corrado, 32
Gillray, James, 170
Giordano, Luca, 67, 118–19
Girodet Trioson, A. L., 58
Godoy, Manuel, 3, 26, 80, 93–96, 186
correspondence with María Luisa, 82, 83, 84, 86, 93–94, 108, 109–10
intrigues at court, 24, 74–77, 80, 94
patronage of, 52–53, 55, 63, 96–127
satires against, 76, 116. See also Aranjuez, mutiny of; Portugal, war with
Gómez, Vicente, 50, 52, 78, 196
Goya, Francisco, works: Agriculture, 18, 98–100, 102, 107, 109, 114
Allegory of Madrid, 4, 130–31, 133, 189
Allegory of Poetry, 102–3
Andrés Peral, 49
Antonio Porcel and his Wife (portraits of), 49
Antonio Ricardos, 97
Bernardo de Iriarte, 83
“Black Paintings,” 3, 151, 190
Bullfight in a Village, 19, 160, 163–65, 174–76, 185
Burial of the Sardine, 160, 163–65, 180–85
Caprichos, Los, 2, 3, 4, 5–7, 17, 21, 45, 169
Capture of Maragato, 146
Carlos IV and María Luisa (portraits for Napoleon), 62, 87
Carlos IV and María Luisa (coronation portraits), 77–79
Carlos IV in the Uniform of a Guardia de Corps, 98
Carlos IV on Horseback, 87, 105
Commerce, 18, 98–102, 107, 109, 114
Corral de Locos, 106
Count of Floridablanca, 69
Countess of Chinchón, 94, 97, 106, 109–10
Desastres de la Guerra, 3, 133
Disparates, Los, 2, 185
Duchess of Alba, 3, 82
Duke of Wellington, 106, 130
Emblem of the Pestalozzi Institute, 98, 107, 111
Family of Carlos IV, 4, 14–15, 60–77, 79, 84, 85, 107, 156–89
Family of Don Luis de Borbón, 70
Ferdinand Guillemardet, 49, 53, 90–92
Fernando VII (equestrian portrait), 3, 63, 130–31
Fernando VII in a Royal Mantle, 154–56, 189
Francisco Bayeu, 49
frescoes for San Antonio de la Florida, 6, 78, 114
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, 53, 90–92
Godoy as Commander in the War of the Oranges, 98, 106, 107–8
Godoy as Patron of Education, 98, 107, 111, 113–15
Gossiping Women, 123
Industry, 18, 98–101, 102, 107, 109, 114
Inquisition Scene, 19, 160, 163–65, 167–72, 174, 176–77, 185
Intérieur d’un caverne, 97
Isidro Maiquez, 49
José Folch, 49
Madhouse, 19, 160, 163–65, 177–80
Maja and Celestina, 57
Maja desnuda, 3, 5, 14–15, 18, 53, 97, 115–27
Maja vestida, 3, 5, 18, 53, 98, 107, 115–27
Manuel Godoy (equestrian portrait), 66, 97, 104–7, 130
Manuel Osorio, 74
María Luisa in Court Costume, 98
María Luisa in a Mantilla, 26, 82, 85, 86, 98, 106
María Luisa on Horseback, 82, 86–87, 106
María Teresa de Vallabriga, 66
Marquesa de Villafranca, 49
Pedro Bermúdez, 49
Procession, 19, 160, 163–65, 172–74, 176–77, 185
Royal Company of the Philippines, 156–59, 165, 187, 189, 190
Saint Bernardine of Siena Preaching before Alfonso V of Aragon, 10–14, 28, 29, 37, 189
Saint Francisco de Borja Exorcising the Devil, 44
Saint Isabel Attending the Sick, 151–52
San Fernando como hilan!, 100
Science, 18, 98–99, 102, 107, 109, 114
Second of May 1808, 4, 131–49, 161, 189, 190
Self-Portrait, 106
Simón Viegas, 49
Spain, Time, and History, 102–3
Strolling Players, 24–25, 42, 46, 161
Tauromaquia, 174, 175, 185, 186
Third of May 1808, 4, 131–49, 189
Woman Sleeping, 123
Gros, A.-J., Napoleon at the Battle of Eylau, 147
Guillemardet, Ferdinand, 91
portrait of, 49, 53, 90–92
Guzmán, Eugenio Eulalio de (count of Teba), 46
Hall of Realms. See Madrid, Buen Retiro
Hijar, duke and duchess of, 78
Houasse, M. A., 12, 37
Ingres, J.-A., 15
Inquisition, 125, 133, 161–62, 165–67
and censorship, 2, 18, 121, 126
Iriarte, Bernardo de, 5, 38–43, 48, 49, 96, 97
portrait of, 83
Isabel of Braganza (consort of Fernando VII), 149
Isla, Padre José Francisco de, Fra Gerundio de Campazas, 173
Jappelli, Luis, 51, 52, 55, 57, 59, 198
Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchor de, 4, 5, 19, 90–91, 98
Elogio de la Bellas Artes, 34, 67, 68
as minister of grace and justice, 74–75
portrait of, 53, 90–92
on Velázquez, 67
Kaunitz, Wenceslas-Anthony, 186
López, Vicente, 3, 38, 55, 63, 130, 142, 149–54, 156, 200
Fernando VII, 152–54
St. Hermengild, 151–52
Louis XVI (king of France), 80
Madrazo, José de, 38, 138, 152
Manuel Garcia de la Prada, 162–63
Madrid: Buen Retiro (Hall of Realms), 37, 142
Oratory of the Caballero de Gracia, 37, 52
Pestalozzian Institute, 110–15
Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando, 5, 24–25, 29, 34, 37, 38–50, 59, 77, 96, 97, 121–23
Royal Academy of History, 78, 90
Royal Calcography, 2
San Francisco el Grande, 11, 28–38, 49, 51
Maella, Mariano, 2, 19, 34, 97, 163, 195
as court painter, 3, 50, 52, 78, 152
Four Seasons, 55
Immaculate Conception, 32, 34
María Luisa and the Royal Family, 61–62, 77
and Royal Academy, 40, 42
Manet, Edouard, 73, 115, 143
marcialidad, 120
María Antonia (consort of Fernando, prince of Asturias), 94
María Luisa of Parma (consort of Carlos IV), 2, 24, 26, 53, 72, 75–77
as patron, 63. See also Godoy, Manuel
Marie Antoinette, 75–76
Martínez, Antonio, 200
Martínez, Sebastián, 45, 96, 123
masquerades, 182–83
Mazo, Juan Bautista del, 82
Meléndez, Luis, 50, 52
Meléndez de Múzquiz, Francisca, 197
Meléndez Valdés, Juan, 4, 81, 100–101
Mengs, Antony Raphael, 19, 29, 32, 34, 37, 38, 50–51, 97
Annunciation, 29
and censorship, 121
classification of styles, 90
influence on Royal Academy, 38, 47
Moñino, José. See Floridablanca, count of
Moratín, Leandro Fernández de, 5, 99, 163, 171–72, 177, 186
Muñarriz, José, 46
Mura, Francesco, 35
Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban, 97
Napoleon, 19, 74, 75, 94, 107, 127, 129, 136–37
Napoleonic War, 19, 27, 161
nudity in art, attitudes toward, 116, 121–23, 125–26
Olavide, Pablo, 18
Osuna, duke and duchess of, 78
Paret y Alcázar, Luis, 40, 97
Baile de máscaras, 183
parody, in Goya’s painting, 9, 14–15, 66, 109, 188
Pastor, Jacinto Gómez, 197
patronage, shift in, 129, 130, 160–61, 186–87. See also Carlos III; Carlos IV; Godoy, Manuel; María Luisa of Parma
Peñar, Manuel, 200
Peral, Andrés, 48, 49
Pereda, Antonio, 97
Pérez, Manuel, 55
Pestalozzi, Heinrich, Institute in Madrid, 110–15
Philip IV, 67, 142
Philip V, 22
Picasso, Pablo, 124, 143
Picornell, conspiracy of, 76, 80
Ponz, Antonio, 19, 40, 68, 96, 118
populace. See pueblo
popular culture, interest in, 82, 187
Portugal, war with, 74, 94, 107–9
Poza y Muñoz, A., 200
Prada, Manuel García de la, 162–64, 170–72, 177, 186
processions, 172–74
pueblo, 175–76
defined, 161
as emergent political force, 24–25, 26, 27, 81–82, 161, 186–87
imagery of, 143, 147, 170–71, 176, 184
patriotism of, 136
Quatremère de Quincy, Antoine, possible influence on Goya, 44–45
Quilliet, Frédéric, inventory of Godoy’s collection, 97, 98, 102, 103, 106, 110, 115, 117, 125
Ramos, Francisco, 47, 50, 78, 97, 138, 195
Raphael da Urbino, 12, 15, 40
Rembrandt van Rijn, 71, 156
Christ Healing the Sick, 157
Reni, Guido, 40, 121, 122
Ribalta, Francisco, 97
Ribalta, Juan, 97
Ribelles, José, 139, 167
Ribera, Jusepe de, 48, 97
Ripa, Cesare, 100, 101
Rizi, Francisco, Auto de Fe in the Plaza Mayor of Madrid, 167, 169
Roelas, Juan de, 97
Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando. See Madrid
Rubens, Peter Paul, 97, 100, 121, 122, 143
Saavedra, Francisco, 74
Salesa, Ventura, 51, 199
San Antonio de la Florida. See Goya, frescoes for San Antonio de la Florida
Sánchez, Mariano, 52, 97
San Francisco el Grande. See Madrid
San Ildefonso, Treaty of, 80
satire, 164, 171–72, 176. See also parody
Schmeller, Andrés, 113
Second of May: historical representation of, 135–37
uprising, 133–35
Sepúlveda, Pedro González, diary of, 102, 103, 110, 117–18, 124
Seville, Royal Tobacco Factory, 78, 79
Silva, Pedro de, 40, 43–44, 46
Stuyck y Vandergoten, Livinio, 53
Tiepolo, G. B., 29, 50–51
Tiepolo, G. D., A Dance in the Country, 184–85
Titian, 63, 70, 97, 115, 118–19, 121, 125
Trafalgar, naval defeat at, 27, 94
Tudó, Pepita, 94, 110
two Spains, concept of, 161
Ugena, Manuel Muñoz de, 196
Uranga, Ignacio, 200
Urquijo, Mariano, 74–75
Valencia, Royal Academy of San Carlos, 43, 46
Vallabriga, María Teresa de (wife of Don Luis de Borbón), 66, 70
Velázquez, Antonio González, 29, 32, 34, 40
Saint Bonaventure Assisting in the Translation of the Relics of St. Anthony of Padua, 30–31
Velázquez, Diego de Silva, 17, 155–57
eighteenth-century commentary on, 67–68
influence on Goya, 12–15, 19, 63, 67, 73, 82, 85, 86, 87, 91, 105, 189
influence on other artists, 53, 57
Las Meninas, 14, 15, 60, 63, 68–71, 157–58
Marianna of Austria, 82
paradigmatic of the “natural style,” 71, 90, 156
Philip IV, 85
Surrender of Breda, 12, 143
Venus and Cupid (Rokeby Venus), 118–20
Velázquez, Zacarías González de, 37, 57, 144, 149–50, 152, 199
paintings in the Casa del Labrador, 55, 57, 59
Veronese, P., 121
Villanueva, Juan, 34
Voitel, Francisco, 111, 113
War of the Oranges. See Portugal, war with
Wellington, duke of, 130
West, Benjamin, 99, 100
Zapater, Martin, Goya’s correspondence with, 4, 28–29, 32–34, 104, 175
Zurbarán, Francisco de, 30, 97