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List of illustrations

  • Interaction of Color: plate IV-1
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Free
Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
Table of Contents
PublisherYale University Press
Free
Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
It is now fifty years since Interaction of Color was published and, almost immediately, began to change the way people all over the world thought about seeing...
PublisherYale University Press
Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
The book “Interaction of Color” is a record of an experimental way of
studying color and of teaching color...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.1-2

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
If one says “Red” (the name of a color)
and there are 50 people listening,
it can be expected that there will be 50 reds in their minds...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.3-3
https://doi.org/I. Color recollection—visual memory

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
The concept that “the simpler the form of a letter the simpler its reading”
was an obsession of beginning constructivism. It became something
like a dogma, and is still followed by “modernistic” typographers...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.4-5
https://doi.org/II. Color reading and contexture

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~When, more than 20 years ago, this systematic study of color was begun,
it occurred almost as a matter of course that the studies would be done
in color papers. At that same time there was some concern among teachers
that students might be reluctant to substitute paper for paint.
Since then, obviously, the attitude of students—and of...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.6-7
https://doi.org/III. Why color paper—instead of pigment and paint

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
Imagine in front of us 3 pots containing water, from left to right...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.8-11
https://doi.org/IV. A color has many faces—the relativity of color

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~If one is not able to distinguish the difference between a higher tone
and a lower tone, one probably should not make music.
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.12-17
https://doi.org/V. Lighter and / or darker—light intensity, lightness

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~Having presented, in the previous problem, a very detailed explanation
of a step-by-step method of teaching and learning, the following problem
permits a briefer description.
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.18-19
https://doi.org/VI. 1 color appears as 2—looking like the reversed grounds

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~The fact that one and the same color can perform many different roles
is well known and is consciously applied.
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.20-21
https://doi.org/VII. 2 different colors look alike—subtraction of color

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~For a better understanding of why colors read differently
from what they really (physically) are, we show now
the cause of most color illusions.
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.22-23
https://doi.org/VIII. Why color deception?—after-image, simultaneous contrast

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~It is obvious that in working with color paper there is no way
of mixing the colors mechanically, as paint and pigment permit,
and as they invite one to do on a palette or in a container.
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.24-26
https://doi.org/IX. Color mixture in paper—illusion of transparence

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~Though the color class (as a rule) abstains from the use of colorants
(meaning pigments and paints) for reasons explained before,
the color studies in paper are related to the actual use of paint
as often as possible.
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.27-28
https://doi.org/X. Factual mixtures—additive and subtractive

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~A study of color mixture in paper leads to 3 important discoveries.
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.29-32
https://doi.org/XI. Transparence and space-illusion Color boundaries and plastic action

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~In contrast to after-image, so far the main concern of our studies, here
is another very different color illusion called “optical mixture.”
Instead of 2 (or more) colors changing each other, “pulling” or “pushing”
each other into different appearances (toward both greater difference and greater...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.33-33
https://doi.org/XII. Optical mixture—after-image revised

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
There is a special kind of optical mixture, the Bezold Effect, named after its
discoverer, Wilhelm von Bezold (1837–1907)...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.33-33
https://doi.org/XIII. The Bezold Effect

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~The tune of “Good morning to you” consists of 4 tones. It can be sung
in a high soprano, a low basso, and in all in-between voices, as well as
on many levels and in many keys. It can be played on innumerable instruments.
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.34-36
https://doi.org/XIV. Color intervals and transformation

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~Our studies of illusionary transparence have shown how difficult it is
to find a middle mixture.
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.37-38

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
Color systems usually lead to the conclusion
that certain constellations within a system provide color harmony...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.39-44
https://doi.org/XVI. Color juxtaposition—harmony—quantity

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~Usually, we think of an apple as being red.
This is not the same red as that of a cherry or tomato.
A lemon is yellow and an orange is like its name.
Bricks vary from beige to yellow to orange,
and from ochre to brown to deep violet.
Foliage appears in innumerable shades of green.
In all these cases the colors named are...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.45-46
https://doi.org/XVII. Film color and volume color—2 natural effects

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~The previous chapters deal mostly with tasks to be solved as
class problems. Through them, all class members work in 1
direction only. This means they compete for the solution of
1 given problem at a time—that of a single color effect.
Although the solutions may differ considerably, and especially so
in their presentation,...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.47-51
https://doi.org/XVIII. Free studies—a challenge to imagination

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~It should be clear by now that our way of studying color
does not start with the past—neither with works of the past
nor with its theories.
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.52-53
https://doi.org/XIX. The Masters—color instrumentation

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~In order to obtain a graduated scale of greys, M. E. Chevreul,
the author of the famous book “The Laws of Contrast of Colour,”
gave the following instructions (from the English translation of 1868,
page 5, paragraph 11):
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.54-58
https://doi.org/XX. The Weber-Fechner Law—the measure in mixture

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~Earlier, when explaining light intensity as lightness and color intensity
as brightness, we found that agreement is easier in the first case,
and difficult in the second.
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.59-60
https://doi.org/XXI. From color temperature to humidity in color

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~As a deception, this effect is related to our earlier experience
in which 2 colors appeared as 3 or 4 colors.
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.61-61
https://doi.org/XXII. Vibrating boundaries—enforced contours

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~Though rarely perceived, it is a fact that articulate boundaries
between colors can be made nearly unrecognizable, or made practically
invisible—through the choice of color alone.
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.62-64
https://doi.org/XXIII. Equal light intensity—vanishing boundaries

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
~Originally, we began our color course with a presentation
of various color systems, of color theories.
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.65-67
https://doi.org/XXIV. Color theories—color systems

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
In the previous chapters we have presented a studio course,
or, if you prefer, a laboratory or workshop course...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.68-73

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Description: Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
This book presents results of search, not of what is academically called
research...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.74-74
https://doi.org/XXVI. In lieu of a bibliography—my first collaborators

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Interaction of Color: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition
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