List of illustrations

  • Thomas Eakins nude, holding nude female in his arms, looking down
  • Scandalous Sketch of B. Franklin and Young Woman
  • Portrait of David Rittenhouse
  • Portrait of Benjamin Howard Rand, M.D.
  • Professor Henry A. Rowland
  • Interior of Peale's Museum
  • George Cuvier
  • The Exhumation of the Mastodon
  • The Gross Clinic
  • The Artist in His Museum
  • Danäe and the Shower of Gold
  • The Roman Daughter
  • Slave Market
  • The Court of Death
  • The Agnew Clinic
  • The Agnew Clinic, detail
  • Dr. William H. Pancoast's anatomy dissection laboratory
  • The Champion Single Sculls (Max Schmitt in a Single Scull)
  • An Eclogue
  • The Crucifixion
  • Swimming
  • Six males, nude, two wrestling at right
  • Agnew clinic
  • Dissecting room, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
  • Spinning
  • Back of Male Torso
  • Portrait of Mary Adeline Williams
  • Anatomy Book, Plate IX
  • Anatomical Lecture by Dr. William Williams Keen
  • A Compendium of Picturesque Anatomy, Adapted to the Arts of Design, Painting, Sculpture, and Engraving: Plate IV
  • Dissection Study: Human (Tendons Crossing the Joint of the little Finger, Left Arm)
  • Dissection Study: Lion (Muscles of Hind Quarters and Leg)
  • The Women's Life Class
  • Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical: Vertical Section of Bladder, Penis, and Urethra (fig. 436)
  • William Rush Carving His Allegorical Figure of the Schuylkill River
  • Miss Amelia C. Van Buren
  • William Williams Keen, Jr., M.D.
  • A May Morning in the Park (The Fairman Rogers Four-in-Hand)
  • Eakins at about age six
  • Margaret Eakins and other figures on beach at Manasquan, New Jersey (?)
  • Thomas Eakins at about age thirty-five, leaning against fence
  • Nude couple posed in the classical idiom (probably imitating "The Rape of the Sabines")
  • Nude with a bonnet
  • Nude female, reclining, from rear
  • Female nude kneeling on table
  • Thomas Eakins nude, semireclining on couch, from rear
  • John Wright nude, posing for George Reynolds at easel
  • Thomas Eakins nude and J. Laurie Wallace nude, from rear, in front of boat at shoreline
  • Youths in grotto
  • William Rush and His Model
  • Plate VII. Venous Tumor
  • General Tom. Thumb, wife & child
  • Naked Series: Thomas Eakins in front of cloth backdrop, poses 1–7
  • Mécanisme de la physionomie humane, ou, Analyse électro-physiologique de l'expression des passions, fig. 7
  • Comparative Analysis of Anatomical Photographs
  • Renty, Frontal
  • Naked Series: African-American male, poses 1–7
  • Three Crowell boys nude, in creek at Avondale, Pennsylvania
  • Alice Liddell as a beggar child
  • Making a Train
  • Baby at Play
  • Arcadia
  • Plate 406. Woman pouring a bucket of water over another woman
  • La Première Pose
  • William Smith Forbes, M.D.
  • Self-Portrait
  • The Chess Players
  • The Writing Master (Portrait of Benjamin Eakins)
  • Woman in a Plaid Shawl
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Description: Thomas Eakins: Art, Medicine, and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia
In 1985, I had the good fortune to sit in Lloyd Goodrich’s living room on the Upper East Side of Manhattan. We drank tea, and for most of the interview his dry lips inhaled deeply on a cigarette that looked as though it had been planted there for several decades. He was an old man then, and I was a senior in college, working on an honors thesis about some drawings attributed to Thomas Eakins. He helped me with my project, and toward the end of the hour he looked into my eyes and advised me not …
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Description: Thomas Eakins: Art, Medicine, and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia
Historians of American art, and those writing on Eakins in particular, are blessed by an exceptionally generous group of colleagues. Various friends and mentors including Elizabeth Milroy, W. Douglass Paschall, Darrel Sewell, Alexander Nemerov, and H. Barbara Weinberg all have provided me with a great example and sound advice through years of research. I am grateful for more specific assistance with this project from Jonathan Weinberg, whose wisdom and brilliant insights make him easily a …
Description: Thomas Eakins: Art, Medicine, and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia
Sometime between 1883 and 1885, a colleague photographed Thomas Eakins unclothed and holding aloft a naked female student at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (fig. 1). In recent decades, this image has been tendered as the most tangible proof of the artist’s indiscretions. Although the scene undoubtedly is worthy of critique, it also is worth noting that Eakins hardly was the first indiscreet Philadelphian. More than a century before that shutter snapped, Charles Willson Peale sketched …

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Description: Thomas Eakins: Art, Medicine, and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia
When Charles Willson Peale painted Exhumation of the Mastodon, he intended it as a backdrop for the bones of the beast, installed in his encyclopedic museum. Both the painting and the bones were impressive and tangible evidence of the artist’s accomplishments and legacy. Eakins created several works with that same impulse, but the three that stand out most prominently in his career are The Gross Clinic, painted expressly for the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 in Philadelphia; Swimming (1885), …

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Description: Thomas Eakins: Art, Medicine, and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia
In 1893, Dr. William Williams Keen found himself in a distinguished, though presumably nerve-wracking, position. Floating on a private yacht in Long Island Sound, Keen assisted in the removal of a cancerous tumor from the mouth of Grover Cleveland. Because Cleveland was president at the time, and undoubtedly considered his condition nobody’s business but his own, Keen waited until 1917 to discuss the secret operation. In that year, he proudly wrote about the procedure in the Saturday Evening Post

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Description: Thomas Eakins: Art, Medicine, and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia
Thomas Eakins’ artistic methods never have been the subject of much debate. The artist created preparatory drawings, photographic studies, oil sketches, and modellos that survive in preparation for finished works, and he wrote a lengthy manuscript on perspective that carefully explains his approach to the formulation of pictorial space. The surfaces of his finished works rarely hide the marks of brushes, palette knives, carving tools, pencil, or wash. In addition to the self-evident process in …

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Description: Thomas Eakins: Art, Medicine, and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia
Thomas Eakins, Dr. William Smith Forbes, and Oscar Wilde all endured scandalous trials in the late nineteenth century as a result of their infractions of rules governing human bodies. For Eakins, the bodies were nude and female, for Forbes they were dead and black, and for Wilde, young and male. Although Wilde’s trial took place in London’s Old Bailey, Forbes’ in the courts of Philadelphia, and Eakins’ in the less litigious arenas of workplace and home, all three men were front-page news in …

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Description: Thomas Eakins: Art, Medicine, and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia
For Benjamin Franklin, resisting authority and extolling the middle class were the basis for a strident patriotism that shaped a young democracy. For Thomas Eakins, the same ideology informed his sensibilities, but resisting the establishment and its pretensions was better business for a revolutionary than it was for a high-end portrait painter. …

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Thomas Eakins: Art, Medicine, and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia
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