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List of illustrations

  • Madonna of the Long Neck, detail
  • Madonna di Foligno
  • High altar
  • Madonna of the Rose
  • Etant donnés: 1. la chute d'eau; 2. le gaz d'éclairage (Given: 1. The Waterfall; 2. The Illuminating Gas), exterior view
  • The Listening Room
  • Madonna in a Church
  • Adoration of the Shepherds, central panel of the Portinari Altarpiece
  • Madonna of the Long Neck
  • Rape of Europa, detail
  • Protestant and Catholic Theologians in Discussion (detail), Deeds of Paul III, Sala dei Fasti Farnese
  • Protestant Church Interior
  • Catholic Church Interior
  • Reused column base
  • Martin Luther as an Augustinian Friar
  • Christ and Antichrist: Christ Carrying the Cross; Leo Carried in His Papal Chair
  • The Selling of Indulgences, with King David Kneeling before God
  • Craftsmen Lamenting over Luther
  • King Solomon Worshiping Idols
  • King Asa Destroying Idols
  • The Calvinist Iconoclasm of 20 August 1566
  • Calvinist Iconoclasm in the Netherlands
  • King Josiah Removes the Horses of the Sun
  • Law and Gospel panels
  • Schneeberg Altarpiece: Law and Gospel panels
  • Schneeberg Altarpiece: Crucifixion, Agony in the Garden, Resurrection with Donors
  • Wittenberg altarpiece
  • Wittenberg altarpiece, detail of Bugenhagen with keys
  • Baptism of Christ, detail
  • Birth of the Baptist
  • St. Philip Banishes the Dragon
  • Coronation of the Virgin
  • Barbadori altarpiece
  • Transfiguration
  • Deposition from the Cross
  • Resurrection
  • Adoration of the Shepherds
  • Adoration of the Shepherds, detail
  • Madonna and Child with Nicholas of Bari, Anastasia (?), Ursula, Dominikus, and Helena
  • Madonna and Child with Nicholas of Bari, Anastasia (?), Ursula, Dominikus, and Helena, detail
  • Transfiguration
  • Saint James Altarpiece
  • Baptism of Christ
  • Baptism of Christ
  • Baptism of Christ, detail of landscape
  • Madonna of the Meadow
  • Adoration of the Magi
  • Vision of Saint Bernard
  • Adoration of the Shepherds
  • Lamentation over the Dead Christ
  • Crucifixion
  • Lamentation over the Dead Christ, detail
  • Madonna and Child with Saint Anne
  • Adoration of the Magi
  • Saint Luke Painting the Virgin's Portrait
  • Cartoon for Madonna and Child with Saint Anne
  • San Zaccaria altarpiece
  • La Belle Jardinière
  • Entombment (unfinished)
  • Entombment
  • Saint Catherine of Siena altarpiece
  • Sistine Madonna
  • Saint Cecilia altarpiece
  • Transfiguration
  • Raising of Lazarus
  • Madonna of the Harpies
  • Madonna of Saint Jerome
  • Castelfranco altarpiece
  • Ca' Pesaro altarpiece
  • Crowning with Thorns
  • Bacchus and Ariadne
  • Entombment
  • Lamentation
  • Lamentation, detail
  • Dead Christ with Angels
  • Pietà
  • Lamentation over the Dead Christ
  • Sala dei Cento Giorni
  • Deposition, detail
  • Universal Homage to Pope Paul III, Sala dei Cento Giorni
  • Last Judgment, detail
  • Last Judgment
  • Resurrection of the Body
  • Cardinals Sweeping the Church with Foxtails
  • Last Judgment
  • Last Judgment, detail, Resurrection of the Body
  • Last Judgment, detail
  • Baptism of Christ
  • Taddeo Zuccaro Drawing the "Last Judgment"
  • Adoration of the Shepherds
  • Birth of John the Baptist
  • Resurrection
  • Modello for Chapel of Julius III, San Pietro in Montorio, Rome
  • Baptism of Christ, detail
  • Conversion of Saul
  • Crucifixion of Peter
  • Pope Paul III Convening the Council of Trent, detail
  • Triumph of the Cross, Vault
  • David Dancing before the Ark
  • Last Judgment, detail, Saints Catherine and Blaise
  • Detail of vault
  • Chancel, detail
  • Crucifixion with Scenes of the Passion
  • Feast in the House of Levi (originally Last Supper), detail
  • Crucifixion
  • Coronation of the Virgin
  • Coronation of the Virgin
  • Resurrection with Saints
  • Christ Healing the Man Born Blind
  • Raising of Lazarus
  • Supper at Emmaus
  • Christ Raising the Daughter of Jairus
  • Christ Carrying His Cross as Model for Painters
  • Elijah Denounces the Idol-Worship of King Ahab and Queen Jezebel
  • Destruction of the Pagan Idols
  • Dead Sentry in the Trench, from Der Krieg
  • Reconstruction of the Prado Altarpiece
  • Christ Carrying the Cross, detail
  • Christ Carrying the Cross
  • Ecce Homo
  • Ecce Homo
  • Saint Margaret
  • Saint Margaret
  • Saint Margaret, detail
  • Rape of Europa
  • Rape of Europa, detail
  • Annunciation
  • Annunciation, detail
  • Temptation of Adam and Eve, detail from Sistine Chapel
  • Adam and Eve
  • The Apparition (Salome)
  • Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence
  • Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence
  • Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence
  • Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence, detail
  • Christ Carrying the Cross
  • Christ Carrying the Cross
  • Crowning with Thorns
  • Crucifixion and the Painter
  • The Finding of the Body of Saint Mark, detail
  • Saint Mark Freeing the Slave
  • The Arrival of the Ambassadors
  • Fall of Manna
  • Last Supper (Institution of the Eucharist)
  • Last Supper
  • Last Supper
  • Christ Washing the Feet of the Apostles
  • The Making of the Golden Calf
  • The Finding of the Body of Saint Mark
  • The Road to Calvary
  • Annunciation
  • The Last Judgment
  • The Making of the Golden Calf, detail
  • The Making of the Golden Calf, detail
  • Pietà
  • The Last Judgment, detail
  • Entombment
  • Deposition, detail
  • Ecstasy of Saint Cecilia
  • Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian
  • Holy Family with Saint Elizabeth and Saint John the Baptist
  • Entombment
  • Study for head of bearded man, for the Entombment
  • Sketch for the Senigallia Entombment
  • Madonna del Popolo
  • Compositional study for the Madonna del Popolo
  • Angels Adorning the Madonna del Soccorso
  • Deposition
  • Deposition
  • Plane Filling II
  • Autumn Rhythm (Number 30)
  • Visitation
  • Entombment, detail
  • Baptism of Christ
  • Orange and Yellow
  • Madonna del Popolo, detail of cripple's back
  • Calling of Saint Andrew
  • Beata Michelina
  • Institution of the Eucharist
  • Immaculate Conception (Annunciation), detail
  • Purification of the Temple (Christ Driving the Money Changers from the temple)
  • Burial of the Count of Orgaz
  • Adoration of the Shepherds (Night)
  • Assumption of the Virgin
  • Assumption of the Virgin ('L'Assunta')
  • Painted Environment I
  • El Espolio (The Disrobing of Christ)
  • Flagellation of Christ
  • Martyrdom of Saint Maurice
  • Madonna and Child with Saint Martina and Saint Agnes, detail
  • Burial of the Count of Orgaz, detail
  • Reconstruction of the Prado Altarpiece
  • Adoration of the Shepherds
  • Immaculate Conception (Annunciation)
  • Baptism of Christ
  • Crucifixion
  • Resurrection
  • Pentecost
  • Christ Carrying the Cross
  • Calling of Saint Matthew, detail
  • Penitent Magdalen
  • Penitent Magdalen
  • Penitent Peter
  • Saint Jerome
  • Conversion of Saint Paul
  • Crucifixion of Saint Peter
  • Calling of Saint Matthew
  • Calling of Saint Matthew, detail
  • Inspiration of Saint Matthew
  • Death of the Virgin
  • Madonna di Loreto
  • Doubting Thomas (The Incredulity of Saint Thomas)
  • Raising of Lazarus
  • Madonna del Popolo, detail
Free
Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
Contents
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.001
Free
Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
Acknowledgments
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.002
Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
The sacred image is a genre that serves two masters, art and the Church. Although the requirements of art are constantly changing, those of the Church remain relatively constant: to create images that will instruct the worshiper and move his or her emotions. Twice during the Renaissance the ecclesiastical establishment judged that the images artists were producing were unsatisfactory: locally and...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.1-15
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.003

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Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
The delegates were anxious to quit Trent; many in fact had already packed their bags. Jedin (1949–81), 4.2: 238: The secretary of Cardinal Paleotti, Nucci, reported on 25...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.19-39
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.004

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Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
In 1490, when Savonarola was summoned back to Florence at the behest of Pico della Mirandola and Lorenzo de’ Medici, he launched his fiery campaign against the luxury and materialism of the Florentines with threats of the imminent judgment of God...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.41-63
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.005

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Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
We take for granted the transition from Early to High Renaissance in Florence, as if the new half-millennium automatically engendered the new style. We fail to recognize the extent to which it is a new style, and not the necessary next phase of Renaissance naturalism. It is hard to envisage how the new beginning of what Wölfflin would call “the classic style” would have...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.65-95
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.006

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Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
When Michelangelo’s fresco (fig. 82) was unveiled late in 1541 the response was wild enthusiasm among cognoscenti and artists. On Michelangelo’s Last Judgment, see the lives by Condivi (1553/1976) and Vasari (1568a/1963 [Eng. edn.], 15686/1966-87 [Ital. edn.]); de...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.97-115
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.007

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Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
When Pope Gregory XIII decided to remodel the Sala di Costantino in 1585 by raising the ceiling and installing larger windows, the new vault required frescoes. Gregory died soon after the project was initiated, and it was continued by Sixtus V, whose emblem is painted in the frieze. At the...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.117-141
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.008

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Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
We have seen how Venice differed from central Italy in its attention to the sensuous. Its situation in the lagoon, surrounded by water, seems to have made its painters more sensitive to light and atmosphere and color than their central Italian counterparts. From its links with the East and Byzantium there had developed a taste...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.145-171
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.009

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Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
What Titian began with his painterly brushstroke Tintoretto expanded with his bravura abbreviated technique. Learning from Titian the power of the painter’s visible strokes and textured surface to engage the...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.173-197
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.010

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Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
Whereas Tintoretto worked on enormous canvases aided in the execution by his techniques for speed and his large workshop, Barocci worked laboriously on his altar-pieces through multiple stages of preparation, carefully calculating especially his affective color. If Tintoretto’s ambition was to engulf his viewers, Barocci’s was to enthrall them.
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.199-223
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.011

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Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
When El Greco For El Greco’s life we depend upon Pacheco (1649/1986); for modern sources see San Roman y Fernandez (1910); Wittkower (1957); Sonnenburg (1958–59); Wethey (1962, 1984); Salas (1967); Marias and Bustamante Garcia (1981);...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.225-247
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.012

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Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
We have seen that Rome was not the center of post-Tridentine innovation in painting. Federico Zeri, in his little book Pittura e Controriforma, characterized the painting created in Rome as a devotional art senza tempo, that is, outside of time, timeless, as exemplified by Scipione Pulzone, Marcello Venusti,...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.249-267
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.013

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Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
It is not the claim of this book that the Council of Trents decree of 1563 was the direct cause for all these painters seeking new ways to engage the worshiper with their materials; nor is this claim made for the Accademia del Disegno founded also in 1563. Rather it is proposed here that the events of 1563 created conditions in which these explorations were encouraged and in which...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.269-272
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.014

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Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
The holy Synod enjoins on all bishops, and others who sustain the office and charge of teaching, that, agreeably to the usage of the Catholic and Apostolic Church, received from the primitive times of the Christian religion, and agreeably to the consent of the holy Fathers, and to the decrees of sacred Councils, they especially instruct the faithful diligently concerning the intercession and...
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.015

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Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
Bibliography
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.016

Access to this content is only available to subscribers. If you are at an institution that currently subscribes to the A&AePortal, please login to your VPN before accessing the site. If you have already purchased an individual subscription, please sign in to your account to access the content. Learn more about subscriptions.

Free
Description: The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco,...
Photograph Credits
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00155.017
The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco, Caravaggio
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