List of illustrations

  • Chemist Rutherfurd John Gettens works on the Harvard Art Museums' Horus falcon (1943.1118)
  • Francesca Bewer and Henry Lie examine bronzes in the Harvard Art Museums' Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies
  • The Age of Bronze
  • Striding figure with ibex horns, a raptor skin draped around the shoulders, and upturned boots
  • Head of a ruler
  • Foundation peg
  • Dagger blade with four rivets
  • Battle axe head
  • Striding male holding a vessel
  • Female statuette
  • Group of metallurgical tools from Palaikastro
  • Rod tripod stand
  • Beaked pitcher; x-radiograph showing darker ovoid marks made by the hammering process
  • Handle and top of an oinochoe (wine pitcher): detail of the fur-like texture created by the effects of corrosion on the microstructure of the metal
  • Quatrefoil fibula: detail showing the elongated fissures that follow the structure of the compacted metal
  • Lost-wax casting of a hollow statuette
  • Statuette group
  • Horus falcon
  • Horus falcon, x-radiograph showing hollow bird bones in the belly and core pin holes (small, elongated, dark spots) marked by arrows on the back and on the side of the crown
  • Fulcrum (couch attachment) terminating in a horse's head, with sleeping Ariadne and a bust of a maenad, detail of the back
  • Engraved mirror with Castor, Pollux, and swan, detail of cast-on repair on the handle
  • Bull's head attachment from a cauldron, view of underside showing the attachment pins
  • Female head (probably Aphrodite)
  • Female head (probably Aphrodite): view from below showing V-shaped cut-out neckline
  • Female head (probably Aphrodite): detail of recarving of hair
  • Handle and top of an oinochoe (wine pitcher)
  • Handle and top of an oinochoe (wine pitcher), detail of tool marks in decorative patterns
  • Head of a lynx, detail of incised lines
  • Belt with zoomorphic clasps, detail of clasp
  • Military diploma with Latin inscription: detail of incised lettering with burrs
  • Fibula with incised catchplate, detail of tremolo on horse and bird
  • Strigil
  • Strigil, close-up of handle
  • Strigil, x-radiograph revealing stamped patterns and inscription
  • Part of a box mirror, detail showing turning marks
  • Open-faced, "Illyrian" helmet, side view
  • Open-faced, "Illyrian" helmet, detail of pseudomorph in cheekplate
  • Fibula catchplate fragment, back-scattered electron (BSE) image through a sample from the fragment
  • Elemental map of the copper distribution in the sample, showing the depletion of copper in the corroded surface
  • Elemental map of the tin distribution in the sample, showing the enrichment of tin in the corroded surface
  • Open-faced, "Illyrian" helmet: photomicrograph of an etched metallographic cross section. The helmet's flange shows large equiaxed grains and bent annealing twins
  • Open-faced, "Illyrian" helmet: photomicrograph of an etched metallographic cross section. The helmet's wall shows highly defomed, elongated grains
  • Bull's head attachment from a cauldron, coarse dendrites on the tip of the broken horn
  • Pin head in the form of a winged horse
  • Hand cymbal with bull finial
  • Seven biconical beads from Olynthus (Greece)
  • Censer from Nuzi
  • Detail of Rutherford John Gettens's notes showing proposed electrochemical reduction of the Nuzi censer
  • Dagger
  • Intarsia panel
  • Intarsia panel, detail
  • Intarsia panel, detail
  • Cat
  • Cat, detail of fine inlay on proper left shoulder
  • Intarsia panel
  • Fulcrum (couch attachment) terminating in a horse's head, with sleeping Ariadne and bust of a maenad
  • Two-edged razor
  • Lunate razor
  • Lunate razor
  • Lunate razor
  • Openwork disc
  • Handle in the form of a leopard
  • Alexander with a lance ("Alexander Nelidov")
  • Statuette of a warrior
  • Berlin Foundry Cup, detail of tondo
  • Berlin Foundry Cup, detail of exterior
  • Berlin Foundry Cup, detail of exterior
  • Hand from a life-size statue
  • Part of a foot from a large statuette
  • Griffin protome from a cauldron
  • Griffin protome from a cauldron
  • Griffin protome from a cauldron
  • Computer-generated drawing from digital photograph of griffin protome
  • Julia Domna, front view
  • Julia Domna, back view, interior rods marked by arrows
  • Bust from the Villa dei Papiri at Herculaneum
  • Bust of the type of the marble Mantua Apollo (in Mantua, Palazzo Ducale)
  • Statue of the so-called Apollo Citarista (cithara now missing) from Pompeii, House of the Citarista
  • Statue of "Apollo" from Piombino
  • Statue of Apollo-type from Pompeii
  • Aphrodite holding a mirror and apple
  • Aphrodite wearing a bird headdress
  • Statue of Demosthenes
  • Inscribed small-scale portrait bust of Demosthenes
  • Small-scale portrait of Demosthenes
  • Statuette of a philosopher on a lamp stand
  • Portrait statuette of the Greek orator Demosthenes
  • Portrait statuette of the Greek orator Demosthenes
  • Portrait statuette of the Greek orator Demosthenes
  • Portrait statuette of the Greek orator Demosthenes
  • Axe head and shaft hole with feline decoration
  • Corinthian helmet
  • Chigi Olpe, detail
  • Mitra
  • Bow fibula: horses, birds, and fish
  • Horse-shaped cheek piece for a bridle
  • Griffin protome from a cauldron
  • Cauldrons, bowls, and collapsed tables as found in Tumulus MM at Gordion
  • Bull's head attachment from a cauldron
  • Hydria (water jar) with siren attachment
  • Lamp stand in the form of a tree
  • Six-nozzled suspension lamp with heads and ship's prows: seen from the side
  • Six-nozzled suspension lamp with heads and ship's prows: seen from below
  • Two-nozzled suspension lamp with lion protomes and Pan's heads
  • Lamp with handle in the form of a horse
  • Lamp handle with panther's head, detail
  • Lamp handle with panther's head
  • Lamp handle with panther's head, detail
  • Lamp hanger
  • Lamp hanger with inscribed "tabula ansata" dedicated to Theos Hypsistos
  • Lamp in the shape of a trussed gazelle
  • Lamp in the shape of a trussed gazelle
  • Lamp in the shape of a trussed gazelle, detail
Ancient Bronzes through a Modern Lens: Introductory Essays on the Study of Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Bronzes
Relatively rare today, bronze is of great historical significance as a material for human-made objects. Even though it was never as ubiquitous as stone, wood, or clay, it was sufficiently common to have given its name to an entire epoch. Sculptures and artifacts from a variety of cultures and periods and of vastly diverse...

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Ancient Bronzes through a Modern Lens: Introductory Essays on the Study of Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Bronzes
The use of bronze has long been considered a defining characteristic of the earliest civilizations. In coming to terms with human origins, the ancient Greeks, as recorded in Hesiod’s poem Works and Days (lines 105-201), devised a chronology of the five ages of mankind: a Golden Age, a Silver Age, a Bronze Age...

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Ancient Bronzes through a Modern Lens: Introductory Essays on the Study of Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Bronzes
Sometime in the early 1620s, a group of foreign artists studying antiquities in Rome had a debate about what makes for excellent bronze casting. The Flemish sculptor François Du Quesnoy (1597-1643) and the German artist Joachim von Sandrart (1606-1688) decided to climb up onto the equestrian monument to Emperor Marcus...

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Ancient Bronzes through a Modern Lens: Introductory Essays on the Study of Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Bronzes
Analyses of ancient bronzes increase our understanding of individual objects and the cultures that produced them by providing information on movement of materials and the development of technologies. Analytical investigations of the composition of ancient “bronzes” have been ongoing since at least the late eighteenth...

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Ancient Bronzes through a Modern Lens: Introductory Essays on the Study of Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Bronzes
Part of a museum’s mission is to document and study all objects in its care. Many museums include this policy in an official mission statement. That of the Harvard Art Museums is “to preserve, document, present, interpret, and strengthen the collections and resources in their care, and in keeping with the larger...

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Ancient Bronzes through a Modern Lens: Introductory Essays on the Study of Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Bronzes
The study of large-scale classical statuary has usually been approached by way of connoisseurship, not workshop practices. To identify an artist’s workshop, scholars have traditionally used stylistic similarities among the finished products to recognize the hand of an artist or his followers. Proveniences do not come into the argument because they are rarely, if ever, known. One of...

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or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutions within the A&AePortal Pilot Program.

Ancient Bronzes through a Modern Lens: Introductory Essays on the Study of Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Bronzes
Bronzeworking in the ancient Mediterranean and Near East reached its apogee in the first millennium BCE, well after the end of the Bronze Age. Anthony Snodgrass, a specialist in Greek archaeology, has drawn attention to “the paradoxical fact that a developed Iron Age culture may be...

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Ancient Bronzes through a Modern Lens: Introductory Essays on the Study of Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Bronzes
Roman bronze furniture has not received the scholarly attention it deserves, and that is, first and foremost, a matter of taste. The flamboyant and fantastic bronze creations of the early imperial period appear to violate key design principles of twentieth-century home furnishing: namely, purity and functionality. Roman...

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Ancient Bronzes through a Modern Lens: Introductory Essays on the Study of Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Bronzes
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