List of illustrations

  • The Academy of Baccio Bandinelli
  • École de Dessein
  • Page 50 from the Catalogue des Tableaux de M. de Jullienne
  • View of the Salon of 1768
  • View of the Salon of 1768, detail
  • Exhibition of Drawings in Year V, Galerie d'Apollon, Louvre
  • Frontispiece to the Sale Catalogue of the Lorangère Collection
  • Reclining Female Nude
  • Plate XIV from De la manière de graver à l'eau-forte et au bruin, et de la gravure en manière noire
  • Plate XIV of Charles-Antoine Jombert, Nouvelle méthode pour apprendre à dessiner
  • École gratuite de dessin, drawing class
  • Reading after the Bath
  • The Invention of Drawing
  • Section 6 from Plate 22 in "Iconographic Encyclopaedia of Science, Literature, and Art," trans. and ed. Spencer Fullerton Baird, vol. 2 of plates, div. 9 (New York: Rudolph Garrigue, 1851)
  • Moroso in James Puckle, "The Club; in a Dialogue with Father and Son" (London: 1817)
  • Humiliation of Aulus Vitellius
  • Humiliation of Aulus Vitellius, plate 47 in Abbé Millot, "Abrégé de l'histoire romaine, orné de 49 estampes gravées en taille-douce avec le plus grand soin" (Paris: Chex Nyon l'aîne & fils, 1789)
  • Henry IV Showing Sully the Letters from Poitou Detailing a Conspiracy
  • Pyrrhus and Andromache
  • Cover Design for "The Savoy," No. 1, January 1896
  • Colbert Visiting the Manufacture des Gobelins
  • Mountainous Rocks with Cascades
  • Interior of a Palace or Temple
  • Interior of a Palace
  • Feast of Faunus
  • Quand je vide mon verre: Souvenirs
  • Interior with Peasants of the Haute Garonne
  • Head of Saint Germain
  • Head of Saint Germain
  • The Lady Isabella
  • The Encounter in the Woods
  • Landscape
  • Self-Portrait
  • Reclining Nude
  • Venus and Mercury Instructing Cupid
  • Virtue Attacked by Vice
  • Portrait of Two Men
  • After the Bath
  • The Ghost of Clytemnestra, from "The Furies" by Aeschylus
  • The Dying Paris Rejected by Oenone
  • A Mounted Arab Attacking a Panther
  • Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt
  • Two Women and a Child
  • Study for the Portrait of Mme Moitessier
  • Young Man with Downcast Eyes
  • Artist at His Easel
  • Café-Concert (A la Gaîté Rochechouart)
  • Peasant of the Camargue
  • Forest Interior
  • Parents Mourning over Their Dead Son
  • Wooded Landscape
  • At the Edge of the Forest (Edma and Jeanne)
  • Study for "The Gates of Hell": Shades Speaking to Dante
  • Street Scene, Evening
  • A Grisette
  • Portrait of Jean de Jullienne
  • Portrait of Victor Hugo
  • Study for The Oath of the Tennis Court
  • The Dream of Ossian
  • Chimera
  • Perseus and Andromeda
  • Rest on the Flight into Egypt
  • Astolphe Brings Back the Head of Orrile, for Canto XV of "Orlando Furioso" by Ariosto
  • Four Studies of a Severed Head
  • Study for the Portrait of Miss Crowe
  • Dead Red Partridge and Dog and Squirrel, from Avian Album
  • Composition Study from Sketchbook from the Italian Period
  • Landscape, from Sketchbook from the Italian Period
  • Back Pastedown, from Sketchbook No. 20: Studies for The Coronation of Napoleon
  • Napoleon Crowning Josephine, from Sketchbook No. 20: Studies for The Coronation of Napoleon
  • Seated Female Nude
  • Boy Holding an Egg
  • Sketches of Dancers
  • Study for the Right Hand of Monsieur Louis Bertin
  • Blindman's Buff
  • Two Studies of a Left Eye
  • Portrait of Mme Charles Hayard and Her Daughter Caroline
  • Head of a Woman
  • Sheet of Studies, Including a Skull
  • Édouard Manet
  • Six Studies of Heads
  • The See-Saw
  • Study for the Start of the Race of the Barberi Horses
  • Two Women Drinking Tea
  • Memories of a Drinker
  • Design in Memory of Benjamin Franklin
  • Virgil Reading the Aeneid to Augustus
  • Africans Dancing in the Street
  • Diana
  • Race Course at Longchamp
  • Two Dancers Entering the Stage
  • Café-Concert
  • At the Circus: Jockey
  • Bacchanal
  • The Genius of Liberty and Wisdom
  • The Bather
  • The Sirens
  • Trapeze Artist at the Medrano Circus
  • Two Peasant Women
  • After the Bath, Woman Drying Her Hair
  • Study of Arabs
  • Fallen Angels
  • Atreus Showing His Brother Thyestes the Heads of His Children
  • King of the Lestrigens Seizing One of the Companions of Ulysses (Odyssey)
  • The Mutiny on the Raft of the Medusa
  • Study for "Judith and Holofernes
  • The Butcher
  • Woman Baking Bread
  • The Market Place
  • L'Œuvre de la Bouchée de pain, from Turpitudes sociales
  • London Dray Driver
  • Seated Young Artist Holding Drawing Materials
  • Young Student Drawing
  • Standing Male Nude Holding a Staff
  • Study of the Borghese Gladiator as a Skeleton
  • Artist Sketching on the Pediment of the Pantheon, Rome from Leclère Album
  • Studies of Figures after Judgment of Paris and Parnassus
  • Head and Counterproof of Head of a Man
  • Love Seduces Innocence, Pleasure Leads Them On, Repentance Follows
  • The Farmer (Girl with a Dog)
  • Two Men Fishing
  • Two Men Fishing
  • Jeanne (Spring)
  • Jeanne (Spring)
  • Folio 1r, from Recueil de plusieurs morceaux d'architecture
  • Folio 1v, from Recueil de plusieurs morceaux d'architecture
  • Back cover, from Recueil de plusieurs morceaux d'architecture
  • Folio 59r, from Recueil de plusieurs morceaux d'architecture
  • Folio 81r, from Recueil de plusieurs morceaux d'architecture
  • Rinceaux
  • Temple of Mars, Spoleto, from "Album of Antique Fragments" (folio 4a)
  • Elevation of a Fireplace Wall, from "Album of Twenty-Six Drawings" (folio 2b)
  • Elevation of a Fireplace Wall, from "Album of Twenty-Six Drawings" (folio 3)
  • Design for a "Lit Bâteau" with a Canopy and Curtains Held by Columns, from "Album of Twenty-Six Drawings" (folio 6)
  • The Instructive and Appetizing Meal
  • Shells and Sea Plants
  • Study of a Peach with Leaves
  • Reclining Nude
  • Portrait of Two Men
  • After the Bath
  • The Ghost of Clytemnestra, from "The Furies" by Aeschylus
  • A Mounted Arab Attacking a Panther
  • Two Women and a Child
  • Young Man with Downcast Eyes
  • Artist at His Easel
  • Café-Concert (A la Gaîté Rochechouart)
  • Peasant of the Camargue
  • Wooded Landscape
  • Study for "The Gates of Hell": Shades Speaking to Dante
  • Street Scene, Evening
  • Portrait of Jean de Jullienne
  • Portrait of Victor Hugo
  • Study for The Oath of the Tennis Court
  • Chimera
  • Astolphe Brings Back the Head of Orrile, for Canto XV of "Orlando Furioso" by Ariosto
  • Four Studies of a Severed Head
  • Study for the Portrait of Miss Crowe
  • Dead Red Partridge and Dog and Squirrel, from Avian Album
  • Landscape, from Sketchbook from the Italian Period
  • Napoleon Crowning Josephine, from Sketchbook No. 20: Studies for The Coronation of Napoleon
  • Seated Female Nude
  • Sketches of Dancers
  • Study for the Right Hand of Monsieur Louis Bertin
  • Blindman's Buff
  • Head of a Woman
  • Sheet of Studies, Including a Skull
  • Six Studies of Heads
  • Study for the Start of the Race of the Barberi Horses
  • Memories of a Drinker
  • Design in Memory of Benjamin Franklin
  • Virgil Reading the Aeneid to Augustus
  • Diana
  • Race Course at Longchamp
  • At the Circus: Jockey
  • Bacchanal
  • The Genius of Liberty and Wisdom
  • The Sirens
  • Two Peasant Women
  • After the Bath, Woman Drying Her Hair
  • Study of Arabs
  • The Mutiny on the Raft of the Medusa
  • Study for "Judith and Holofernes
  • The Butcher
  • Woman Baking Bread
  • The Market Place
  • London Dray Driver
  • Study of the Borghese Gladiator as a Skeleton
  • Artist Sketching on the Pediment of the Pantheon, Rome from Leclère Album
  • Studies of Figures after Judgment of Paris and Parnassus
  • Head and Counterproof of Head of a Man
  • Love Seduces Innocence, Pleasure Leads Them On, Repentance Follows
  • Jeanne (Spring)
  • Folio 1r, from Recueil de plusieurs morceaux d'architecture
  • Folio 1v, from Recueil de plusieurs morceaux d'architecture
  • Elevation of a Fireplace Wall, from "Album of Twenty-Six Drawings" (folio 3)
  • The Instructive and Appetizing Meal
  • Shells and Sea Plants
  • Study of a Peach with Leaves
Free
Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
Contents
Author
Free
Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
Foreword and Acknowledgments
Author
Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~The aim of the present exhibition is to make visible — and palpable — the multifarious process of drawing’s emergence into modernity. To achieve this aim, we have dispensed with the traditionally privileged...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~The relationship between drawings and prints can be neither universally qualified nor easily categorized. The precise nature of their interaction is always specific to the artists involved and to the particular circumstances surrounding the commission or project, and is frequently the result of a collaboration of many artists. Most often, their...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~In his 1761 treatise on the history and processes of papermaking, Art de faire le papier, Joseph Jérôme Le Français de Lalande celebrates how, with only a collection of lowly rags, it became possible to communicate to a wide audience a seemingly limitless...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~When looking at a drawing, one of our first reactions is often a judgment of its quality of line. We anthropomorphize the marks that the artist has made across the page, describing his or her lines as lively or serene, violent or controlled, sure or hesitant. Qualified in such humanizing terms, the lines begin to stand in for the artist who made them. Such...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~In Traité des Sensations, Étienne Bonnot de Condillac’s 1754 treatise on his theory of sensationism, the philosopher...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~Transitioning from touch to tache (French for mark, spot, or, for our purposes, stain), we shift from the body producing a trace to the trace producing its own body. “Yes, touch is the painter’s writing, it is the distinguishing mark of...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~In 17th- and 18th-century France, the status of color within the prevailing discourse on art was precarious. Academician Charles Le Brun wrote in 1672: “Color depends...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~The usual story of artistic expression goes like this: an artist begins with an idea in his mind, and then realizes it, giving it concrete, material existence. This story purports to be descriptive, to tell us how ideas function in drawing. It is in fact normative, told to...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~We may describe painting, sculpting, printmaking, and many other modes of artistic activity in terms of process. Each medium witnesses the artist passing through a succession of steps — whether proscribed in advance or organically unfolding as oil is dabbed, marble is chipped, or metal is etched — to arrive at some cumulative point. Drawing, too,...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~Before the second quarter of the 18th century, it was exceptional to find drawings presented as isolated objects — matted, framed, and hung on the wall. Artists, amateurs, and...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~The early 18th century witnessed the emergence of the concept of the artist’s “hand,” a development that helped significantly reshape the esteem with which European collectors and artists regarded drawings. The ability to recognize and assess the...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~Unlike music or film, drawing is not a time-based medium in any traditional sense. Drawings, however, hardly escape time. They take time to make and time to see, time to tell stories and time to age. Almost any medium is temporal by these standards, but what distinguishes drawing is the way that it cuts time into a series of discrete traces.

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~“Memory,” Saint Augustine tells us, “is the stomach of the mind.” Saint Augustine, Confessions, trans. Henry Chadwick (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 181. Experiences are...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~Drawing has often been marginalized, relegated to the category of preparatory medium — the means to another end. Some particularly virulent critics of drawing have framed it as a dangerous distraction from the more virtuous (and more laborious) medium of painting. Lecturing at...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~Eros is a playful god who, as any unrequited lover knows, on occasion performs the more sinister role of devil’s advocate. In the worst scenarios, his mischievous intrusions leave men and women paralyzed, star-struck, even star-crossed. In antiquity, his bonds of love were...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~Students in the French Academy concluded their four years of study with the execution of a statically posed, muscular male nude. For more on the académie, see Sarah Mirseyedi’s essay on...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~A work of art can be seen as violent insofar as it affronts the viewer, defies the established order, or is in conflict with itself. Herbert Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~The discourses spun in the earliest lectures at the French Academy relocated art-making’s labor onto an intellectual plane. Eighteenth-century amateurs prized drawings as objects of expression; the medium’s inclusion in the Salon, and its resulting...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~Drawing has long been theorized as the foundation of artistic instruction. At the French Academy, students followed a specific sequence of drawing classes, beginning first by copying drawings or prints by master artists, then moving on to drawing after three-dimensional plaster casts, and finally to the study of the live model — the culminating...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~Drawing has played a primary role in reproductive technologies for centuries: before the advent of photography, an act of drawing was required to reproduce a work of art, whether a painting, sculpture, or a monument of architecture. Over the course of its history, the term “reproduction” has encompassed a wide array of material conditions and...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~The French Academy of Architecture, founded in 1671, held a deeper pragmatic agenda than its sister...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
~As an activity and as a final product, drawing can store and generate knowledge. A picture can be at once a repository of information and a record of how the world is investigated through the act of representation. Pamela H. Smith, “Making as Knowing: Craft as Natural...

or connect to the site through your institutional VPN to start reading.

NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutional subscribers.

Free
Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
Works in the Exhibition
Author
Free
Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
Bibliography
Author
Free
Description: Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
Image Credits
Author
Drawing: The Invention of a Modern Medium
Next chapter