List of illustrations

  • Areas of Visibility and Invisibility (vicinity of Lake Korube, Toyama prefecture)
  • Perspective made in accordance with the areas of visibility and invisibility in figure 2.1, as determined by the aerial photograph method
  • Terrain Model
  • Changing appearance as distance varies (Rikuchu National Maritime Park, Iwate Prefecture)
  • Short-distance view, in which each tree is visible
  • Middle-distance view, in which the trees become textural units
  • Long-distance view, in which not even the variations in texture can be seen
  • Appearance of trees on sloping terrain
  • Appearance of trees on a flat terrain
  • Minimum horizontal angle for a short-distance view
  • Minimum horizontal angle for a middle-distance view
  • Weather and visibility
  • Chart registering visibility in Nara and Kyoto, measured every day at 3 p.m. during 1954
  • Distance ranges of various mountains forming principal objects in landscapes (place from which viewed appears in parentheses)
  • View from the Sekisui-in at the Kōzan-ji (Kyoto)
  • Mount Kinugasa seen from the Kinkaku-ji (Kyoto)
  • Mount Arashi and Togetsu Bridge (Kyoto)
  • Mont Hiei as a borrowed landscape, seen from inside the garden at the Enstū-ji (Kyoto)
  • Landscape seen as composed of surfaces
  • Frontal surfaces and longitudinal surfaces
  • Frontal surface and angles of incidence
  • Longitudinal surface and angles of incidence
  • Visibility of a plane in relationship to its slope
  • Height of vantage point and angle of incidence
  • Height of vantage point and area of visibility
  • Facades appearing as large surfaces with large angles of incidence along a curving road
  • Middle sembon
  • The Burning character of Mount Daimonji (Kyoto)
  • Depth of invisibility caused by a nearby and a distant obstacle
  • Varying depths of invisibility caused by walls of different height
  • The garden at Shōden-ji, with Mount Hiei in the background (Kyoto)
  • Depth of invisibility caused by a sand dune
  • Trees hiding a group of steel towers
  • Careful landscaping suggested by Gordon Cullen
  • Tokyo Bay seen from the 150 meter observatory platform at Tokyo Tower
  • Tokyo Bay seen from the 250 meter observatory platform at Tokyo Tower
  • Map showing that the dotted line representing a 10 degree angle of depression from the 250 meter observatory platform at Tokyo Tower reaches within a very short distance of Tokyo Bay
  • Henry Dreyfuss's basic data concerning vision
  • Angles of depression
  • The port of Yokohama from Minato no Mieru Oka Park (Kanagawa Prefecture)
  • Night View of Hakodate (Hokkaido)
  • Map showing that the dotted line representing a 10 degree angle of depression from the top of Mount Hakodate cuts across the town and harbor
  • Angles of depression of various lakes from representative points of observation
  • Lake Mashū seen from Observatory 3 (Akan National Park, Hokkaido)
  • Visual compositions when eye looks down on view
  • Angle of depression and concepts of "here" and "there
  • Limit of angle of depression and vertical sense of "here" and "there
  • Changes in the appearance of a building as the angle of depression varies
  • Hegemann and Peet's analysis of a Renaissance piazza
  • Two types of views of mountains
  • Chart showing distribution of angles for elevation for various mountains as seen from observation points associated with them (in parentheses following the names of the mountains)
  • Mount Arashi seen from the Tenryū-ji (Kyoto)
  • Mount buttoku seen from the Phoenix Hall of the Byōdō-in (Kyoto)
  • Mount Fuji seen from Lake Yamanaka (Yamanashi Prefecture)
  • The Hodaka Range seen from Kappabasi in Kamikōchi (Chūbu Mountains National Park, Nagano Prefecture)
  • Mount Nantai seen from the shore of Lake Chuzenji (Nikko, Tochigi Prefecture)
  • The eastern mountains of Nara seen from the shoin of the Jikō-in (Nara Prefecture)
  • Percentage of attention devoted to looking at the skyline (seated informants)
  • Percentage of attention devoted to looking at the skyline (standing informants)
  • Diagram showing how our sense of three-dimensionality is governed by the background, rather than the principle objects we see
  • Four planes parallel to the line of vision
  • Diagram indicating how a sense of depth is produced by longitudinal planes with textural density gradients
  • Textural density gradient created by arranging small paving stones in large regular blocks (Komazawa ark, Tokyo)
  • Depth created by ships lying at anchor (Tokyo Bay)
  • Landscape in which scale has been altered by insertion of a grid
  • Perspective character of longitudinal surface parallel to line of vision
  • Perspective character of longitudinal plane parallel to line of vision
  • Diagram showing how the sense of depth varies even with the same angle of elevation
  • Entrance to the Inner Shrine at Ise (Mie Prefecture)
  • Mausoleum of Kōbō Daishi, the Okunoin at Mount Kōya (Wakayama Prefecture)
  • Diagram showing the slope leading up to the mausoleum of Kōbō in the Okunoin at Mount Kōya
  • Depth as affected by two series of stairways (from Yoshinobu Ashihara)
  • Stairway and depth, case (a) of Figure 5.13
  • Stairway and depth, case (b) of Figure 5.13
  • Concave terrain
  • Mount Fuji seen from Otome Pass (Shizuoka Prefecture)
  • Mount Fuji seen from Misaka Pass (Yamanashi Prefecture)
  • Perspective drawing of Mount Fuji seen from Otome Pass
  • Perspective drawing of Mount Fuji seen from Tagonoura
  • Visual unity with objects across a deep valley (Mount Yoshino, Nara Prefecture)
  • Deep drop in a concave terrain
  • Convex terrain
  • Illusionary mountain with summit projecting above a crest (left) and the same mountain made real by a sense of depth perception (right)
  • Kurobe Gorge (Chubu Mountains National Park, Toyama Prefecture)
  • Mount Arashi and Togetsu Bridge (Kyoto)
  • Overlap perspective
  • Buddha Maida Crossing the Mountain
  • Visibility of landscapes
  • Spatial occlusiveness of landscapes
  • Spatial depth of landscapes
  • Points with large visual angle of incidence as seen from Mount Tōdate observation point
  • Points with zero visibility frequency
  • Visual sphere of influence of Hasuike area
  • Visual sphere of influence of Ishinoyu area
  • Map of the foothills of Mount Katsuragi where the Akizushima Palace (A) and the Wakigame Palace (B) are situated
  • View of the Yamato Plain spreading northward from Muro, where the Emperor Kōan's Akizushima Palace is legendarily said to have stood (Nara Prefecture)
  • Map of Asuka where Mount Kagu is situated
  • The Asuka district seen from Mount Kagu (Nara Prefecture)
  • Asuka, the "mountain-interval-place" (Nara Prefecture)
  • Map of Kumi where the Yamashiro Provincial Temple is situated
  • General view of Kuni (Nara is beyond Mount Kase, marked here by an arrow)
  • Remains of the Yamashiro Provincial Temple, where the Futagi Palace is thought to have been located (Kuni, Kyoto Prefecture)
  • Central section of the Shingon-in version of the "Mandala of the Womb World"
  • Map of the Mount Kōya region where the central tower (A) and Kūkai's mausoleum (B) are situated
  • Mount Kōya and the Great Pagoda
  • Map of the area around Murō-ji (A) and Shōjin Peak (B)
  • The Murō-ji and its environs, Shōjin Peak at right (Nara Prefecture)
  • Structural elements of the eight-petal lotus blossom type
  • The Okunoin at Mount Kōya and its surroundings, as portrayed in the Ippen Shōnin Eden
  • Map of the area where the Tsuge Mikumari Shrine (A) and the Oyamado Shrine (B) are situated
  • Shrine to the god of the entrance to the mountain at Oyamado (arrow) and the "small mountain fields" below it (Nara Prefecture)
  • Map of the area around Uda Mikumari Shrine in Furuichiba (arrow indicates direction from which photo in figure 10.4 was taken)
  • The Uda Mikumari Shrine in Furuichiba (arrow) and its surroundings (Nara Prefecture)
  • Map of the area around Uda Mikumari Shrine in lower Idani
  • Map of the area around the Katsuragi Mikumari Shrine
  • Mikumari Shrine at Katsuragi
  • Map of the area around the Take Mikumari Shrine
  • Plain below the Take Mikumari Shrine (Osaka Prefecture)
  • View of the Take Mikumari Shrine (arrow) showing the high visibility of the hill on which it stands, as seen from the basin below (Osaka Prefecture)
  • Structural elements of the first Mikumari Shrine subtype
  • Structural elements of the second Mikumari Shrine subtype
  • Map of the secluded valley of Hatsuse where the Hasedera (A), Mount Miwa (B), and Mount Tomi (C) are situated
  • View from the main hall of the Hase-dera (Nara Prefecture)
  • Map of the Kumano-Nachi district where Nachi Shrine and the Seiganto-ji (A), Nachi waterfall (B), and Mount Myōhō (C) are situated
  • Painting of the Nachi Waterfall
  • The Nachi River valley and Nachi Bay seen from the Amida-dera on Mount Myōhō (Wakayama Prefecture)
  • Manifestation of Amida at Mount Nachi
  • Structural elements of the secluded valley type
  • The Three mountains of Yamato: Kagu (right), Minimashi (center), and Unebi (left) (Nara Prefecture)
  • The site of the ancient imperial palace of Nara
  • General view of Kyoto, originally called Heian-kyō, the "Capital of Peace and Tranquility
  • Map of the Sagano district where Saga's Palace (A) and Mount Arashi (B) are situated
  • Sagano, or Saga Meadow, Kyoto, seen from Mount Ogura (arrow points to Ōsawa Pond)
  • Itsukushima Shrine (Hiroshima Prefecture)
  • The Shiramizu Amida Hall and its surroundings (Fukushima Prefecture)
  • Map of the Kamakura where the Tsurogaoka Hachiman Shrine (A) is situated
  • Early drawing of the Engaku-ji in Kamakura, showing how neatly the plan has been fitted into a long narrow valley
  • Structural elements of the zofu-tokusui type
  • Map of Mount Miwa (A) and vicinity
  • Mount Miwa (Nara Prefecture)
  • Map of Mount Chausu (Kannabi) in Ou (A) and the ancient site of the porvincial government (B) and vicinity
  • Mount Kannabi in Ou, in the former province of Izumo, seen from the site of an ancient government
  • Kasuga Mandala
  • Structural elements of the sacred mountain type
  • Spatial and plastic spaces, as conceived by Goldfinger
  • Mount Kagu, with higher mountains behind (Nara Prefecture)
  • Map of domain-viewing mountains in Harima region where Maeyama (A), Mount Dantoku (B), and Mount Tachioka (C) are situated
  • Himeji Castle (Hyōgo Prefecture)
  • The Otsukayama Burial Mound, overlooking what was once a feudal lord's domain (Kyoto)
  • Structural elements of the domain-viewing mountain type
  • Piazza del Popolo (from Sigfried Giedion)
  • Types of Boundaries
  • Types of focus-center-goal elements
  • Types of directionality
Free
Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
Contents
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
~In this book I have made an attempt to clarify the visual structure of landscapes. Visual structure in this instance was taken to mean the appearance of a given scene from a freely chosen point of observation; the indexes are concerned with the visibility or visual perception of landscapes. Since these indexes had to do with vision in general, they should be...
PublisherMIT Press
Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
~Thanks to modern economic growth and the development of transportation facilities, the people of Japan are better able today than ever before to indulge their propensity for going places and seeing things. The population density of our cities having reached a critical point, urban inhabitants feel a stronger and stronger urge to flee from their cramped everyday...
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
The very definition of the word “landscape,” as given in the Oxford English Dictionary, is “a view or prospect of natural inland scenery, such as can be taken in at a glance from one point of view...
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
Thus far, landscapes have been discussed in terms of ground features and transformations in the appearance of trees as the distance from the point of observation increases or decreases. Landscapes can also be analyzed in a more abstract fashion...
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
In general, places that are thought to afford good views are hills, mountains, or structures from which it is possible to look down on the surroundings. That views from above are popular in Japan is amply evident from the fact that on almost any mountain or hill that offers such a prospect...
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
Landscapes, of course, are three-dimensional spaces in which some objects are nearer and some farther away from the viewer. What determines the visual perception of three-dimensional spaces? To answer this and other related questions, it is convenient to set up as an index a property that we call depth...
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
~Up to this point we have developed the formal procedure to be used in clarifying the visual structure of landscapes in terms of various Japanese landscapes. In this summary we outline an experimental application of this approach and problems that remain for future consideration.
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
~We now turn to examine landscapes as spaces composed of topographical features, to discover what sort of spaces exist, what the character and significance of each type of space are, and what constitutes the spatial structure of the spaces under consideration.
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
The Nihon shoki relates how the legendary first emperor of Japan, Jimmu, fought his way toward the east in order to find the proper place to establish his empire. Before undertaking his campaign, the emperor describes his ideal as follows...
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
Of particular importance in Esoteric Buddhism is the Mandala of the Womb World (Japanese: Taizōzai-mandara; Sanskrit: Garbhadhātu-manddotala), a schematic picture in which the universe is represented in terms of sacred beings emanating from the cosmic Buddha...
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
For people whose livelihoods are based on the cultivation of rice in wet fields, irrigation is a matter of life or death. It is hardly surprising then that the ancient Japanese believed in a deity whose function was to provide water...
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
The expression “secluded valley” is employed here as a translation of the ancient Japanese komoriku, which might also be rendered as “hidden land.” In early Japanese writings komoriku is usually found as a pillow word for Hatsuse...
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
In China, since ancient times a type of geomancy involving directions, seasons, signs of the zodiac, and the elements has played a large part in determining the location of cities, buildings, and tombs...
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
The term “sacred mountain” is used here to refer not to all the many mountains regarded as sacred in Japan but to a particular type known as kannabi-yama. In a study of ancient religious practices Ōba Iwao defined the kannabi-yama as “a small mountain or hill adjacent to the flatlands...
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
This famous poem from the Man’yōshū is supposed to have been composed by the Emperor Jomei (r. 628–641) on an occasion when he climbed to the top of Mount Kagu to view his domain. One question the poem poses is...
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
~In a broader sense the seven types of landscape spaces that have been abstracted are composed of four elements: boundary, focus-center-goal, directionality, and domain—which give landscapes their structural identity. These elements can be used to analyze natural settings, to achieve harmony with them, and in developing land and carrying out construction...
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
~In the ancient past, when the cultivation of rice in wet fields spread through Japan, many areas that had been covered with laurisylvan forests had to be cleared to make way for farmlands. But the technical level was low, the population small, and the recuperative power of the natural surroundings very strong. In a country where forests are the natural climax of...
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
Appendix
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
Bibliography
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
Index
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
Sources and Credits
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Description: The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
Illustrations
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The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes
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