List of illustrations

  • Self-portrait
  • Trees, Ile de Croissy (ébauche)
  • The Hay-makers
  • Winsor & Newton collapsible tin tubes
  • Lefrac & Cie, Boite de campagne, portable paintbox
  • The Amateurs
  • Le Petit Chaville, near Ville-d'Avray
  • Le Petit Chaville, near Ville-d'Avray, detail
  • The Ancient City of Agrigentum, Ideal Landscape
  • Two Poplars at the Villa Farnese, Rome (étude)
  • Landscape Painters at Work
  • The Landscape Painter
  • Camille Corot painting outdoors
  • Claude Monet at Giverny in his English tweeds
  • Paul Cézanne setting off to paint in front of the motif, Pontoise
  • The Meeting: Bonjour M. Courbet
  • Cézanne Painting in the Country
  • Ruins of the Palace of Queen Blanche
  • The Oath of the Horatii
  • The Colosseum, Rome
  • Death of Saranapalus
  • The Winnower
  • La Grenouillère
  • Lefranc & Cie, standard canvas formats
  • Verso of "The Ice Skaters
  • Venus and Two Cupids
  • The Painter's Studio: A Real Allegory Summing Up Seven Years of My Life as a Painter
  • Boats in Holland near Zaandam
  • The Hôtel des Roches Noires, Trouville
  • The Beach at Trouville
  • Turkeys
  • Edmond Duranty
  • The Poultry Market, Gisors
  • View Through a Balcony
  • The Family of Jean-le-Boîteaux, Peasants from Plougasnou
  • On the Beach, detail showing both knife application and wet-in-wet brushworking
  • On the Beach
  • Still Life with a Plaster Cast
  • Bourgeois âiné grand aigle, grey à grain
  • Bourgeois âiné grand aigle, yellow lisse
  • Bourgeois âiné grand aigle, yellow à grain toile (canvas effect)
  • Woman at a Window
  • Alphonse Giroux et Cie, advertisement on the lid of a box of their artists'powder colours
  • Christmas Night
  • Bourgeois âiné canvas sample, four weave weights
  • Bourgeois âiné canvas sample, pochade canvas with 'ton clair' priming
  • Bourgeois âiné canvas sample, demi-fine, grey, à grain
  • Bourgeois âiné canvas sample, demi-fine, grey, lisse
  • Mme Pisarro Sewing by a Window
  • Mme Pisarro Sewing by a Window, detail
  • Bourgeois âiné ready-printed canvas sample, twill weave, yellow à grain
  • Julie Manet and her Nurse (unfinished)
  • Young Woman Picking Fruit
  • Woman in Black (unfinished)
  • Woman in Black (unfinished), detail
  • Bourgeois âiné ready-primed canvas sample, primed ton clair, ordinaire étude (verso)
  • Bourgeois âiné ready-primed canvas sample, primed ton clair, ordinaire 1er qualitie, yellow à grain
  • Still Life with a Water Jug
  • Still Life with a Water Jug, detail
  • Portrait of Jeanne holding a Fan, detail
  • Portrait of Jeanne holding a Fan
  • Hoar Frost, the old road to Ennery, Pontoise
  • Hoar Frost, the old road to Ennery, Pontoise, detail
  • Luncheon on the Grass, replica
  • Regatta at Argenteuil
  • Boulevard des Capucines
  • Boulevard des Capucines, detail
  • The Church of Saint-Philippe-de-Roule, Paris
  • The Railroad Bridge, Argenteuil
  • Mountains in Provence (near l'Estaque?), detail
  • Mountains in Provence (near l'Estaque?)
  • Head of a Girl
  • Head of a Girl, detail
  • Place Clichy
  • Montagne Ste Victoire
  • The Birth of Venus
  • Autumn Effect at Argenteuil
  • Autumn Effect at Argenteuil, detail
  • Combing the Hair
  • Canvas priming at Lefranc-Bourgeois, Le Mans
  • The canvas priming workshop, Bourgeois âiné, Paris
  • Commercial canvas priming, seepage at rear of canvas
  • Bourgeois âiné ready-sized canvas samples
  • Bourgeois âiné ready-printed canvas sample
  • Canvas back with colourman's stamp: toile absorbante. Verso of Henri Fantin-Latour, Still Life, A Yellow Rose
  • L'Immensité
  • Bourgeois âiné ready-printed canvas sample
  • The Estérel Mountains
  • Don Quixote and Sancho Panza
  • Oil sketch for St. Anthony of Padua
  • Music in the Tuileries
  • Examples of palettes from Diderot, Encyclopédie
  • The Bathers
  • Ballet Dancers
  • The Bridge at Courbevoie
  • Portrait of Bazille at his Easel
  • Monet Painting in His Garden at Argenteuil
  • Monet Painting by the Edge of Wood
  • Christmas Night, detail
  • Cleopatra's Needle and Charing Cross Bridge
  • The Petit Bras of the Seine at Argenteuil
  • Impression, Sunrise, Le Havre
  • The Beach at Trouville: The Empress Eugénie
  • Church at Petit-Montronge
  • The Reader/ Woman Reading/ The Illustrated Journal, detail
  • The Reader/ Woman Reading/ The Illustrated Journal
  • Portrait of Joachim Gasquet
  • Boats on the Seine
  • The Parisienne
  • The Parisienne, detail
  • Fisherman with Rod and Line
  • High Wind (known as The Gust of Wind)
  • High Wind (known as The Gust of Wind), detail
  • Hillside at L'Hermitage, Pontoise
  • Hillside at L'Hermitage, Pontoise, detail
  • The House of Piette at Montfoucault
  • Snow at Amsterdam
  • Snow at Amsterdam, detail
  • The Watering Place at Marly-le-Roi
  • Three Bathers
  • Storm on Belle-Isle, detail
  • Storm on Belle-Isle
  • Grainstack at Sunset, Winter
  • Grainstack at Sunset, Winter, detail
  • The Umbrellas
  • Portrait of Aline Charigot
  • Belford Park, Bath Road
  • Belford Park, Bath Road, detail
  • View of Genoa
  • Male Torso
  • The Raft of the Medusa
  • Detail of The Barque of Dante
  • Andromaque, detail
  • Andromaque
  • Large Bathers, detail
  • Bathers (Les Grandes Baigneuses)
  • Cezanne in his studio at Les Lauves, in front of one of the "Large Bathers" in progress
  • Carafe Half-full of Wine, Silver Goblet, Five Cherries, Two Peaches, and Apricot and a Green Apple
  • Still Life With Pears and Grapes
  • Still Life With Pears and Grapes, detail
  • The Tub
  • Luncheon in the Studio
  • Nineteenth-century two-roll colour grinders, in the paint manufacture workshop at Bourgeois âiné
  • Oil paint samples and mixtures with autograph notes, on paper
  • House of the Hanged Man
  • Portrait of Tanguy
  • Autograph list of his colours and materials
  • The Attributes of the Painter and the Draughtsman
  • Early nineteenth century bladder colours
  • Winsor & Newton glass tubes
  • Lefranc & Cie, 'Couleurs en tubes'
  • Bourgeois âiné shop front, 18 rue Croix des Petits Champs, Paris
  • Villerville-sur-Mer
  • Sunset on the Oise
  • The House Painters
  • Study for the "Romans of the Decadence"
  • David's Teaching Atelier
  • The Schuffenecker Family
  • Studio in the rue Condamine
  • Mme Olivier Villette in Degas's Studio, rue Blanche
  • View of Delacroix's studio, engraving, L'Illustration
  • Studio in the rue Furstenburg
  • An Artist in his Studio
  • The Life Class at the Ecole
  • Renoir's studio at Cagnes
  • Renoir working outdoors at Cagnes
  • Monet in his custom-built studio at work on the "Nymphéas" cycle
  • The Bar at the Folies Bergère
  • Crystal Palace, London
  • Paris Street, Rainy Day
  • Fashion plate from Le Moniteur de la mode
  • Women on a Café Terrace, Evening
  • The Pont des Arts
  • The Morgue
  • Paris, the Boulevard Montmartre at Night
  • Man at his Bath
  • Nude Study
  • Study Nude in the Sunlight
  • Young Girl at a Window
  • Study for "Sainte Geneviève as a child in prayer
  • Blonde Bather
  • Bathers at Asmières
  • Eugène Boudin working en plein air, 1870s
  • Camille Pissarro at Work
  • Renoir at Cagnes, after 1900
  • Cézanne at Aix-en-Provence
  • Monet under a large white parasol at Giverny during summer 1914, working on a study identified as "Water-lilies
  • Pissarro and Cézanne setting off to work, Pontoise
  • Women in a Garden
  • Boite à pouce, portable paint box to hold on the thumb
  • Examples of "Parasols d'artiste
  • Inset: portable brush-cleaning pots
  • In the Woods: Blanche Hoschede at her Easel with Suzanne Reading
  • Chevalet de compagne, extendable outdoor easel
  • Lac d'Annecy
  • Grainstack at Sunset
  • Haystack
  • Hanging the Laundry out to Dry
  • Washing (or The Linen)
  • Landscape with Cottages
  • Gadets, or brush-dippers
  • Samples of painting and scraping knives
  • The Cliffs at Etretat after the Storm
  • The Cliffs at Etretat after the Storm, detail
  • The Etang des Sœurs, Osny
  • Delacroix's palette for the Saint-Sulpice murals
  • Pierre-Louise Bouvier, diagram combining palette layout for the ebauche and finishing
  • Lost Illusions (Le Soir)
  • Lost Illusions (Le Soir), detail
  • Summer's Day
  • Boating on the Seine
  • Page from manuscript colour notebook for "Chromatography
  • The Artist's Palette with Landscape
  • The Gare Saint-Lazare
  • The Gare Saint-Lazare, detail
  • Bathers at La Grenouillère
  • Bathers at La Grenouillere, detail
  • Colour circle
  • Palette published by Karl Robert in "Traite pratique de la peinture a l'huile
  • The Studio-Boat
  • The Barque of Dante
  • The Basin at Argenteuil
  • Water-Lilies
  • Moulin Huet Bay, Guernsey (Cradle Rocks)
  • The Red Roofs, Corner of a Village, Winter
  • The Red Roofs, Corner of a Village, Winter, detail
  • The Red Roofs, Corner of a Village, Winter, detail
  • Corner of a Studio
  • Chromatic circle of colours
  • Portrait of Bazille at his Easel, detail
  • Portrait of Carolus Duran
  • Mont Sainte-Victoire seen from Bibemus
  • Garden at Cagnes
  • Pigeon Tower at Bellevue
  • Pigeon Tower at Bellevue
  • The Village of Gardanne
  • The Seine at Vétheuil
  • The Garden at Les Lauves
  • Samples of hogs' hair brushes
  • Samples of brushes including the blaireau or blending brush
  • Chateau de Médan
  • Goose-herder
  • The Studio-boat
  • Pavers in the rue Mosnier
  • Water-Lily Pond
  • Water-Lily Pond, detail
  • Mountains near l'Estaque, detail
  • Mountains near l'Estaque
  • A Traffic Island, Boulevard Haussmann
  • The horizon is always at the eye level of the spectator. . .
  • Grounds of Kameido Tenjin Shrine, one of 100 famous views of Edo (Tokyo)
  • The Church at Varangeville
  • The Maison Maria with a View of Chateau Noir
  • The Maison Maria with a View of Chateau Noir, detail
  • The Portal (Rouen Cathedral), detail
  • The Portal (Rouen Cathedral)
  • Varnishing Day
  • Sunset at Eragny-sur-Epte, autumn
  • Palais de l'Industrie: Salon of 1868
  • Nocturne in Blue and Gold: Old Battersea Bridge
  • Self-portrait
  • Woman in her Bath Sponging her Leg
  • Three Russians Dancing
  • View of Le Crotoy, from Upstream
  • The Effect of Fog
  • Garden at Pontoise, Young Woman Washing Dishes
  • The Models: Small Version
  • A Studio at the Batignolles
  • Portrait of Eva Gonzalès
  • Gallery of the dealer Georges Petit with zenith lighting
  • The department store Au Bon Marché, Paris
  • Quand je vois dis que c'est une robe de chez Worth
  • Chez MM. les peintures independants
  • Printed label warning against varnishing, on the back of Pissarro's "Village d'Eragny, esquisse
  • Snow at Louveciennes
  • Verso of "Tuileries Gardens and the Louvre
  • Oatfields
  • Figure Study in the Open Air, Sunlight Effect (Paysannes dans les bois)
  • On the Terrace at Sevres
  • Portrait of Vincent van Gogh Painting Sunflowers
  • Katherine Cassatt Reading to her Grandchildren (La Lecture)
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The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique & the Making of Modernity
Grounded in close study of the original art objects, my main focus in this book is on Impressionist oil painting techniques and materials, their history and development. Inevitably, plein air landscape painting methods are a primary interest, as is the influence of plein air painting aesthetics. The book addresses the complex relationship between plein air landscape theory and...
The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique & the Making of Modernity
The nineteenth century is characterised in art histories as an era of innovation: in the production of the artist’s materials, in their usage and in the ‘modern’ styles of painting they generated. Science and technology provided painters with a greatly extended range of artists’ materials and pigments, and colour-merchants retailed a burgeoning selection of ready-made...

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The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique & the Making of Modernity
This is how Paillot de Montabert defined the term ‘support’ in his major treatise on painting in 1829. Paillot de Montabert 1829, vol. IX, p.io; cf. the definition in Gettens and Stout 1966, p. 258. The most typical supports for easel painting in the nineteenth century were canvas, panel, paper...

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The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique & the Making of Modernity
Self-conscious modernity, the search for novelty (nouveauté), could be signalled by artists’ emphasis on the tactile materiality of their paint surfaces. By stressing the optical engagement of the spectator – whether in subtle nuances of tone and simultaneous contrasts of hue, in bravura brushwork or in the textural complexity of the paint layer – they alerted their...

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The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique & the Making of Modernity
Structurally, an oil painting consists of a number of superimposed layers. Usually, these are: support; glue size; ground (an opaque priming preparation); paint layer; coloured glazes (if these are used); and, finally, a protective film of varnish, not necessarily the choice of the artist. Thus the ground is the layer or layers applied to the support to prepare it to receive the paint layer....

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The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique & the Making of Modernity
During the early evolution of grounds for oil painting, the choice of materials was subject both to aesthetic and practical considerations, and these first and foremost determined ground colour. Only secondarily did permanence and the long-term effects of certain grounds come to be considered...

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The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique & the Making of Modernity
A fundamental conflict characterised both the theories and practices of painting in nineteenth-century France. On the one hand, allegiance to an inherited tradition of Italianate clair-obscur provided the rationale for painting dark to light: modelling in a subtle gradation of blended half-tones separated thinly glazed, transparent shadows and opaque impasted lights. In contrast,...

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The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique & the Making of Modernity
What physical and technical factors determined the characteristics of artists’ colours in the Impressionist era, and how did these influence their methods, and hence the appearance of their paintings? Central here is not only ‘matter’ as such, but ideas about technological progress, and how these inflected contemporary perceptions of the physical character of the new painting.

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The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique & the Making of Modernity
There is a dynamic relationship between depicted light – the light effects represented in Impressionist paintings – and the inherent luminosity of the materials and methods of handling used by the painters. Understanding this relationship is crucial in evaluating the modernity and meanings of Impressionist painting. The physical properties of their chosen materials facilitated...

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The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique & the Making of Modernity
In the late 1850s and 1860s, heightened tonal values in the rendering of plein air effects were primarily associated with the peinture grise or argentée of Corot and the blond palette and luminous skies of Boudin...

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The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique & the Making of Modernity
No art, no matter how much the artist is devoted to observing and rendering an external ‘nature’, is unmediated. There is no such thing as ‘artless’ simplicity – the effects are always more or less contrived. There is, however, more or less talent, more or less integrity, in both painter and painting.

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NOTE: Access to eBook content is currently only available for institutions within the A&AePortal Pilot Program.

The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique & the Making of Modernity
In a letter to Bazille in spring 1868, Monet listed some of the colours on his pre-Impressionist palette when he asked his friend for the following: ‘ivory black, white lead, cobalt blue, [red] lake...

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The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique & the Making of Modernity
Nineteenth-century practice was to varnish paintings at the very last minute, when the work was already hanging in the exhibition: oil paintings had to be left the maximum time possible to dry before the varnish was applied. The vernissage, varnishing day – the day before the exhibition opened to the public – was an institution during...

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The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique & the Making of Modernity
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