List of illustrations

  • Portrait of Malik Ambar
  • Ancient and modern racial classification: the Apollo Belvedere as the archteypal European and depictions of captured Numbians from anicent Egyptian paintings
  • From ape to Apollo: a progression of skulls, from monkey and black to European and the classical ideal
  • The Borghese Mars and Instructor Rodolphe
  • Race unchanged throughout thousands of years
  • Oil flask (back view)
  • Painted wall relief from the tomb of Seti I: the fifth hour of the Book of Gates, depicting (bottom row) the types of humans, offspring of the solar deity: Egyptians, Cushites, Libyans, Syro-Palestinians, Thebes-Luxor, New Kingdom, Dynasty XIX
  • Details of depictions of Syro-Palestinians, Cushites, and Libyans, from the fifth hour of the Book of Gates in the tomb of Ramses III
  • Pelike: Heracles and Busiris
  • Black African slave boy, reclining asleep on his master's bathing equipment
  • Statue of a young black carrying a situla, from Aphrodisias, Imperial baths
  • Pygmy (?) carrying an ointment jar
  • Figurine of a Pygmy Dance Leader
  • Statue of an African prisoner
  • Head of an African prisoner
  • Head of an African prisoner
  • Head of an African prisoner
  • Reserve Head of an African princess
  • Statuette of a concubine
  • Statuette of a black woman
  • Troop of Nubian archers (detail)
  • Troop of Nubian archers (detail)
  • Nubian mercenary and his wife, detail of a stela
  • Military procession including a black standard-bearer; fragment of painted relief
  • Nubian tributaries bringing offerings, detail of the procession of Nubian tribute bearers
  • Nubian tributaries bringing offerings, detail of the procession of Nubian tribute bearers
  • Procession of Nubian tribute bearers
  • Offering of gold
  • Offerings of African products
  • Tribute scene (detail)
  • Tribute scene (detail): group of black women with children
  • Stela of Amenhotep III
  • Black prisoners bound to the pharaoh's war chariot, detail of the stela of Amenhotep III
  • Bearing tribute from the south to Tutankhamen, detail: ship loaded with cargo
  • Bearing tribute from the south to Tutankhamen
  • Bearing tribute from the south to Tutankhamen, detail:The prince of Miam and the chieftains of the "Wawat
  • Bearing tribute from the south to Tutankhamen, detail: black prisoners followed by omen and children
  • Bearing tribute from the south to Tutankhamen, detail: herd of cattle
  • Egyptian military expedition returning to Egypt from the Upper Nile, detail of low relief: rhinoceros
  • Egyptian military expedition returning to Egypt from the Upper Nile
  • Egyptian military expedition returning to Egypt from the Upper Nile, detail: prisoners bearing products from the south
  • Egyptian military expedition returning to Egypt from the Upper Nile, detail: drummers
  • Procession of Amun (detail): black dancers and trumpet players
  • Athletic contest presented before the court and foreign ambassadors, detail of low relief: a black and an Egyptian wrestling
  • Athletic contest presented before the court and foreign ambassadors, detail: black man among the spectators
  • Fragment of column base: escutcheon of a conquered people from the south
  • Base of a colossus of Ramses II: list of the conquered southern peoples (detail)
  • Footstool: black and Asiatic captives in chains
  • List of the conquered southern peoples (detail): three escutcheons
  • Base of a colossus of Ramses II: list of the conquered southern peoples (detail)
  • Base of a colossus of Ramses II: list of the conquered southern peoples (detail)
  • Kneeling black captive; detail of the socle of an Osiride pillar of Ramses III
  • Sub-base of a colossus of Ramses II, row of kneeling prisoners
  • Amenhotep as a sphinx trampling his enemies; side panel of the pharaoh's throne
  • Architectural inlays: black prisoners
  • Head of a black prisoner: detail of relief carved on throne base
  • Slaying of black and Asiatic prisoners by Ramses III before Amun (detail)
  • Statuette of a young Nubian girl carrying an ointment jar
  • Statuette of a young Nubian girl carrying an ointment jar
  • Statuette of a young black girl presenting a stemmed bowl supported by a monkey (before restoration)
  • Statuette of a young black girl presenting a stemmed bowl supported by a monkey (after restoration)
  • Black dancer beside a woman playing a tabor
  • Ointment spoon in the form of a swimming black girl
  • Mirror with handle carved in the form of a standing black girl
  • Young black dancer (detail)
  • Pharaoh slaying blacks, detail of Tutankhamen's painted box
  • Tutankhamen's painted box
  • Dagger
  • Black in the clutches of a lion (detail of dagger)
  • Head of a prisoner, bound about the neck; fragment of low relief (detail)
  • Blacks bearing tribute
  • Counting of black captives
  • Counting of black captives, detail
  • Counting of black captives, detail
  • Statuette of a Nubian captive
  • Statuette of a Nubian captive
  • Fragment of a stela bearing the image of King Piye
  • Fragment of a stela with Kashta in profile
  • Lid of a canopic jar
  • Head of Shabaka
  • Head of Shabaka
  • Head of Shabaka, fragment of a colossal statue
  • Head of a Cushite Ruler, three-quarter view, front
  • Statuette of Shabaka kneeling
  • Statuette of Shabaka kneeling, detail
  • Shabaka opposite a falcon-headed god, low relief on a reused block of stone
  • Shabaka opposite a god
  • Statuette of Harmakhis
  • Shabataka before the god Amun (detail)
  • Colossal statue of Taharqa, treading on several bows
  • Bows trampled beneatht he pharaoh's feet, detail of the colossal statue of Taharqa (fig. 79)
  • Head of Taharqa
  • Head of Taharqa
  • Taharqa facing Hemen, the falcon god
  • Taharqa facing Hemen, the falcon god
  • Sphinx of Taharqa
  • Sphinx of Taharqa
  • Taharqa protected by a ram
  • Taharqa making an offering of milk
  • Portrait of Taharqa, detail of low relief
  • Portrait of Taharqa, fragment of low relief
  • Portrait of Taharqa, detail of low relief
  • Portrait of Taharqa, low relief on a doorpost
  • Shawabti of Taharqa
  • Shawabti of King Taharqa
  • Shawabti of King Taharqa
  • Carved ivory plaquette: royal lion cub devouring a Cushite
  • Shawabti of Taharqa
  • Inlay fragment: head of a black
  • Inlay fragment: head of an Asiatic
  • Queen Qalhata introduced by two divinities (detail)
  • Lid of a canopic jar, with head of the god Imsety, given the features of Tanutamun
  • Lid of a canopic jar, with head of the god Imsety, given the features of Tanutamun
  • Tanutamun greeted by Montu
  • Tanutamun presenting offerings to the god Osiris-Ptah (detail)
  • Tanutamun before Osiris-Ptah (detail)
  • Amenirdas I presenting bowls of wine to Amun (detail)
  • Statue of Amenirdas I, detail
  • Amenirdas I facing Sefkhet-'abu (detail)
  • Statuette of a kneeling king
  • The god Ptah seen in profile, fragment of low relief (detail)
  • Profile of the god Amun
  • Sphinx of Shepenwepet
  • Pendant of Harpocrates
  • Statuette of Osiris seated
  • Statue of Irigadiganen
  • Statue of King Senkamanisken, overall view, three-quarters
  • Statue of King Anlamani
  • Colossal statue of King Aspelta
  • Statue of King Senkamanisken (detail)
  • Sovereign adorned with jewels (detail)
  • Meroitic sovereign sitting enthroned
  • King Arnekhamani and his son Arka facing the god Apedemak
  • Stela of Nastasen (detail)
  • Head of the god Sbomeker
  • Queen Amanitore and King Natakamani opposite the lion god, four-armed Apedemak
  • King Natakamani dominating his enemies
  • Cargill plaquette: Prince Arikankharer defeating his enemies
  • Negro goddess, detail of low relief
  • Group, perhaps Queen Shanakdakhete and her son
  • Triad with the ram of Amun flanked by Sbomeker and Arensnuphis
  • Colossal statue
  • Pillar statue
  • Statuette of Osiris
  • Funerary stela
  • Statuette of a "ba" bird
  • Statuette of a "ba" bird (fragment)
  • Statuette of a "ba" bird (fragment)
  • Head of ba bird (fragment)
  • Head of ba bird (fragment)
  • Anthropomorphic sarcophagus
  • Pendant: three African prisoners overpowered by a vulture
  • Negroid profile carved in shell
  • Jewel fresco fragment: pendants in the form of heads of blacks wearing earrings
  • Nubian archer (detail)
  • The Captain of the Blacks, fresco fragment (reconstruction)
  • Detail of a procession: Negro clad in a loincloth
  • Head of a young mixed type, fresco fragment (detail)
  • Casts of scarabs with heads of blacks
  • Perfume vase juxtaposing a head of a bearded barbarian and a head of a Negro
  • Hydria, scenes from Heracles fighting against the Egyptians, side A: Heracles slaying Busiris's priests
  • Hydria, scenes from Heracles fighting against the Egyptians, side B: soldiers coming to the aid of Busiris
  • Group of Nubian mercenaries, detail of a military parade
  • Aryballos in the form of a head of a Negro
  • Attic kantharos in the form of head of an elderly
  • Exekias, amphora (detail): Memnon and an Ethiopian warrior
  • Exekias, amphora (detail): Memnon and two Ethiopian warriors
  • Exekias, amphora (detail): Ethiopian warrior
  • Warrior of African origin, center medallion of a red-figured cup
  • Oinochoe in the form of conjoined heads of a white woman and a Negro
  • Kantharos in the form of conjoined heads of a white woman and a Negro
  • Mask of Negro: cast (modern)
  • Mask of Negro: mold
  • Mask of a Negro
  • Attic alabastron: Ethiopian warrior
  • Sotades, rhyton in the form of a Negro struggling with a crocodile
  • Pelike: Negro leading a camel
  • One of Busiris's servants, detail of a pelike
  • Busiris (?), detail of a stamnos
  • Servant of Busiris, detail of a cup
  • Hydria (detail): Heracles and Busiris's servants
  • Busiris in flight, interior of a cup
  • Stamnos
  • Pelike (detail): the prisoner Heracles followed by one of Busiris's servants
  • Pelike: tying of Andromeda, who is supported by a black servant (detail)
  • Pelike: tying of Andromeda, who is supported by a black servant
  • Personification of Ethiopia, detail of scene from the "Andromeda" of Euripides
  • Calyx-krater: scene from the Andromeda of Euripides (?)
  • Kantharos in shape of conjoined heads of a white woman and a satyr
  • Kantharos in shape of conjoined heads of a white woman and a satyr
  • Plastic vase: Andromeda (?)
  • Antefix: mask of a Negro
  • Antefix: mask of a Negro
  • Antefix: mask of a Negro
  • Negroid Victory driving Heracles' chariot, detail of an oinochoe
  • Negroid Circe offering magic potion to Odysseus, detail of a skyphos
  • Triobol, obverse: helmeted goddess
  • Triobol, reverse: head of a Negro
  • Coin, obverse: head of a Negro
  • Coins, obverse: head of a Negro
  • Coin, obverse: head of a Negro
  • Coin, obverse: head of a Negro
  • Coin, obverse: head of a Negro
  • Kantharos: conjoined heads of Heracles and a Negro
  • Cameo mounted in ring bezel: sleeping Negro, in a crouching position
  • Statuette of a crouching Negro
  • Lekythos, detail of side A: young Greek woman
  • Lekythos, detail of side B: Mulatto maid-servant
  • Amphora: old man followed by a young servant carrying a folded mantle and a large basket (detail)
  • Aryballos juxtaposing two heads of Negroes cast from the same mold
  • Hoplite holding a round shield decorated with a black trumpeter, detail of an amphora
  • Intaglio mounted in a ring bezel: head of a woman
  • Pendant in the form of a Negro head
  • Mask of an old woman
  • Mask of a Negro
  • Calyx-krater: phlyax-farce observed by two women wearing Negroid masks
  • Calyx-krater (detail): female dancer and a caricatural figure seesawing on either side of a statue of Silenus
  • Standing figure with Negroid features
  • Etruscan oinochoe in form of a Negro wearing a laurel wreath
  • Etruscan oinochoe in form of a Negro wearing a laurel wreath
  • Negro Boy Group, plastic mug in the form of an African boy's head, three-quarter view to left
  • Rhyton: head of a man mixed type, frontal view
  • Head of a Negroid satyr, detail of a krater
  • Rhyton: Negro youth struggling with a crocodile
  • Rhyton: Negro youth struggling with a crocodile
  • Lekythos: head of a Negro in profile
  • Plastic vase: head of a man of mixed type
  • Plastic vase: head of a man of mixed type
  • Krater: unidentified scene (Lynceus cutting the throat of Danaus?)
  • Askos: black woman dancing between a maenad and a satyr, overall view
  • Detail of fig. 219
  • Phiale decorated in relief with three rows of Negro heads and a row of acorns
  • Phiale decorated in relief with three rows of Negro heads and a row of acorns (detail)
  • Askos in the form of a child crouching beside a vase
  • Lekythos in the form of crouching child
  • Askos with mask of a Negro in relief
  • Askos in the form a child seizing a goose
  • Rhyton in the form of the head of an African (fragment)
  • Boxing match and flute player, detail of a Greek painting
  • Tetradrachm
  • Portrait of a North African of mixed type
  • Young black groom steadying a horse, statue base (?)
  • Young black groom steadying a horse, statue base (?) (detail)
  • Young mulatto groom, fragment of a funerary relief
  • Landscape of the Upper Nile with two black hunters, detail of the mosaic of the Nile in flood
  • Mosaic of the Nile in flood
  • Head of a Negro
  • Fragment of a balsamarium in the form of a Negro head
  • Mask of a Negro
  • Bust of a Child
  • Lamp in the form of a Negro head
  • Perfume vase: head of an adolescent of Nilotic type
  • Balsamarium: head of an adolescent of Nilotic type
  • Handle or pommel in the form of three conjoined heads
  • Necklace with two heads of black women forming clasp
  • Earrings in the form of Negro heads
  • Head of a Negro which may have adorned a pin
  • Lagynion decorated with a couple embracing
  • Lagynion decorated with a couple embracing
  • Incense shovel with a Negro head attached to handle
  • Incense shovel with a Negro head attached to handle
  • Head of a Negro man, three-quarter front view
  • Head of a Negro man, profile view
  • Statuette of a young musician (?)
  • Statuette of a young musician (?)
  • Statuette of a young musician (?)
  • Statue of a young Negro, perhaps a musician, overall view
  • Statue of a young Negro, perhaps a musician, overall view
  • Statue of a young Negro, perhaps a musician, overall view
  • Black African Youth
  • Bronze statuette of an African (known as Ethiopian) youth
  • Statuette of a captive or a slave
  • Askos in the form of a youth sleeping beside an amphora
  • Askos in the form of a youth sleeping beside an amphora
  • Statuette of a captive
  • Statue fragment: adolescent with Negroid features
  • Statuette of a juggler
  • Statuette of a Negro seated, writing on a scroll
  • Statuette of a seated Ethiopian in imitation of the Spinario
  • Statuette of a black dancer
  • Statuette of a dancer (?)
  • Etruscan coins, obverse: head of a black mahout
  • Etruscan coins, obverse: head of a black mahout
  • Etruscan coins, reverse: elephant
  • Etruscan coins, reverse: elephant
  • Statue of a jockey
  • Statuette of a captive
  • Statuette of a captive
  • Statuette of a warrior carrying a double-edged ax
  • Statuette of a warrior carrying an ax and a shield
  • Bust of an Ethiopian
  • Sarcophagus fragment: barbarians before a Roman general surrounded by soldiers
  • Apotheosis of Alexandria enthroned between Asia and Africa
  • Great Hunt Mosaic, detail: Ethiopian leading a team of oxen
  • Mosaic: black bath attendant
  • Head of a woman representing Libya
  • Statuette allegory of Africa
  • Vase in the form of a Negro head
  • Isiac ceremonial with several black officiating priests
  • Isiac nceremonial: sacred dance performed by a black
  • Statue of a youth standing with arms extended forward
  • Statue of a singer or actor
  • Statue of a singer or actor
  • Statuette of a draped Ethiopian
  • Statuette of a draped Ethiopian
  • Statuette of a nude black youth
  • Statuette of a nude black youth
  • Statuette of a phlyax-actor
  • Statuette of a phlyax-actor
  • Statue of an acrobat balancing on a crocodile
  • Statuette of a tightrope walker clad in a short tunic
  • Statuette of a wrestler, half melted from a fire
  • Rattle: child asleep in a squatting position
  • Detail of statue of a youth standing with arms extended forward (fig. 290)
  • Perfume vase: head of a Negro
  • Counterweight: head of a Negro
  • Counterweight: bust of a woman
  • Fragment of a scraper decorated with bust of a diver
  • Bust of a child
  • Inkwell in the form of a crouching Negro
  • Two nails with Negro heads in relief
  • Two nails with Negro heads in relief
  • Lamp in the form of a Negro head
  • Vase in the form of a Negro head
  • Furniture attachment: head of a Negro
  • Bowl decorated with three heads in relief separated by flat, veined leaves
  • Boundary marker with Negro head
  • Statuette of a gladiator
  • Statuette of a Negro carrying a ram
  • Lamp in the form of a Negro head, with facial cicatrices
  • Lamp in the form of a Negro head with facial cicatrices
  • Head of a youth
  • Head of a man
  • Head of a laughing Negro
  • Lamp in the form of a Negro youth, seated, wearing a cucullus
  • Pepper pot in form of old man napping
  • Intaglio, Negro head
  • Plastic vase: Negro head
  • Plastic vase: Negro head
  • Head of an African(?) priest
  • Head of an Isiac priest
  • Head of an African
  • Head of an African
  • Head of a woman
  • Head of a young girl
  • Head of a black youth
  • Portrait of Memnon, disciple of Herodes Atticus
  • Portrait of Memnon, discipline of Herodes Atticus
  • Portrait of Memnon, discipline of Herodes Atticus
  • Mosaic of the Gladiators (detail of east border): torture of Garamantes attached by wild beasts
  • Mosaic of the Black Camel-riders
  • Amulet in the form of a head of a black
  • Scarab with head of a black
  • Mask of a man
  • Nilotic mosaic (detail): Pygmy armed with a stick
  • Fragment of a Nilotic mosaic: Pygmyes and a hippopotamus
  • Mosaic: Allegory of the Life-giving Nile (detail): black muscians in front of anilometer
  • Mosaic: black bath attendant
  • Mosaic of the Gladiators (detail of west border): ostrich hunt
  • Fragment of a mosaic: chariot race in a circus and black grooms (detail)
  • Mosaic of Silenus (detail): young black behind a dromedary
  • Fragment of a balsamarium
  • Lamp in the form of a head of a black
  • Lamp
  • Lamp
  • Mosaic: rural scene (detail): fowling
  • Solar mosaic
  • Black swimmers symbolizing the dawn
  • Herm ending in an African head
  • Herm ending in an African head
  • Black sorcerer, detail of the Mosaic of the Seasons
  • Black cook, detail of the Hunt Mosaic
  • Mosaic of the Wrestlers
  • Portrait of Juba II, king of Mauretania
  • Portrait of Juba II, king of Mauretania
  • Statuette of a black youth holding a bird in his left hand
  • Mosaic of the Gladiators )detail of east border): Garamante coming between a bear and a bull
  • Alabastron with a draped warrior on one side and a palm tree and serpent on the other
  • Alabastron with a draped warrior on one side and a palm tree and serpent on the other
  • Fragment from rhyton by the potter Sotades: head of a black servant
  • Another fragment from rhyton: battle scene including a crouching Negroid figure
  • Rhyton in the form of a black struggling with a crocodile
  • Balsamarium in the form of a bust of a black
  • Statuette of a draped Pygmy standing beside a vase
  • Mosaic of the Nile in flood, detail: Nubian hunters pursuing a monkey
  • Sarcophagus decorated with a Nilotic scene (detail)
  • Terracotta plaque: Nilotic landscape with Pygmies in a boat
  • Pygmies fighting crocodiles and a hippopotamus
  • Nilotic scene (detail): Pygmies protecting themselves from a crocodile with crossed sticks
  • Statuette of Harpocrates on horseback
  • Grand Bès seated
  • Handle of a sistrum with a Bes and an Isis dancing back-to-back
  • Handle of a sistrum with a Bes and an Isis dancing back-to-back
  • Funerary relief: sacred dance performed during an Isiac ceremony (Negroid dancers and musicians), overall view
  • Dancers and musicians in main zone of frieze, detail of sacred dance performed during an Isiac ceremony
  • Statue of Isis
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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume I: From the Pharaohs to the Fall of...
The Image of the Black in Western Art was conceived by the late Dominique Schlumberger de Menil (1908–1997) and her husband, John (1904–1973), fifty years ago. The de Menils were known internationally for their patronage of artists such as René Magritte and Max Ernst as early as the 1930s, and eventually for the size and range of their art collection. Their passion for...
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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume I: From the Pharaohs to the Fall of...
The first volume of The Image of the Black in Western Art was a landmark publication in the history of ancient art. The collaboration of a series of experts, assembling an unprecedentedly rich collection of visual representations of black people from ancient Egypt to the Roman Empire, sought...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume I: From the Pharaohs to the Fall of...
Egypt’s geographical location in the Lower Nile Valley gives her a privileged position in Africa. From the earliest times, even before the climate changed to what it is at present, the valley of the longest river on earth has been a route of communication between the subtropical and equatorial world south of the Sahara—in other words, the black world—and the Mediterranean basin,...
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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume I: From the Pharaohs to the Fall of...
A vigorous civilization developed in the Upper Nile Valley, south of Egypt, at the end of the third millennium and through the first half of the second. This was Kerma, and for us it is still very much a mystery. Most likely it is...
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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume I: From the Pharaohs to the Fall of...
Representations of Negro peoples appear in every major period of classical art. Yet very few illustrations of blacks are included in handbooks and histories of Greek and Roman art, and when some are given, the choice always turns to the same small group of examples ...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume I: From the Pharaohs to the Fall of...
It is quite clear that the classical world came to know the blacks by way of the Nile Valley: the evidence set forth in the preceding chapters is abundant proof of this. We cannot, however, reject a priori, from the mere fact of its geographical location, the possibility that Punic (later Roman) Africa may have had direct knowledge of the black world, knowledge which in the course of time could...
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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume I: From the Pharaohs to the Fall of...
The Saïtic, or Twenty-sixth, Dynasty (664–525 B.C.) marked the opening of the Nile Valley to the Mediterranean world and to Greek influence; but as compared with what is conventionally called “classical civilization,” Egypt presented a strikingly different culture ...
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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume I: From the Pharaohs to the Fall of...
The decision in 1960 to launch a systematic investigation of the iconography of blacks in Occidental art did not proceed from any clear plan. It was an impulse prompted by an intolerable situation: segregation as it still existed in spite of having been outlawed by the Supreme Court in 1954.
The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume I: From the Pharaohs to the Fall of the Roman Empire
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