List of illustrations

  • Djemila, plan; founded under Nerva (96–98)
  • Djemila, air view
  • Djemila, principal street, looking south
  • Djemila, sketch plan
  • Djemila, principal street, looking north
  • Djemila, east wall and arches of the new Severan plaza, looking south
  • Djemila, the Severan temple
  • Djemila, side colonnade of the Severan temple terrace
  • Djemila, colonnade opposite the Severan temple
  • Djemila, the new Severan plaza, looking east
  • Djemila, conoidal fountain
  • Djemila, Arch of Caracalla
  • Gerasa, church of S. John the Baptist, detail of a floor mosaic showing the city of Alexandria
  • Tomb of the Aurelii, wall painting
  • Timgad, approaching the town on the Lambaesis road, looking southeast
  • Palmyra, plan of central armature
  • Palmyra, axonometric view of the armature
  • Antioch on the Orontes, sketch plan
  • Constantinople, sketch plan
  • Side, sketch plan
  • Timgad, plan of the colony (founded in 100) and later extensions
  • Timgad, looking west to the Capitolium
  • Timgad, plan of the colony; founded in 100
  • Timgad, air view, looking east
  • Timgad, air view, looking southeast
  • Timgad, Markets of Sertius, model (apsidal roof form uncertain)
  • Capitolium
  • Via della Fontana
  • Streetside walkway, with house entrance, left, and shops beyond, looking north
  • Main east–west thoroughfare, looking west
  • Ephesus, the thoroughfare (the Arkadiané) leading west to the harbor
  • Damascus, arcaded approach to the Sanctuary of Zeus, detail
  • Verulamium, sketch plan
  • Trier, plan; grid begun under Augustus
  • Gerasa, plan; mid-first century
  • Lepcis Magna, simplified plan; chiefly first and second centuries
  • Perge, north–south colonnaded thoroughfare, shop entrances
  • Lepcis Magna, northwest–southeast thoroughfare, entrance to a major building
  • Palmyra, main thoroughfare, colonnade seen from the tetrakionion, looking southeast
  • Apamea, main north–south thoroughfare, file of spirally fluted columns
  • Lepcis Magna, street beside the Severan basilica
  • Athens, Hadrian's Library, model
  • Hadrian's Library, a portion of the façade
  • Volubilis, arcade on the northeast–southeast thoroughfare
  • Ostia, plan
  • Avezzano, cast of a relief once in the Museo Torlonia, Rome
  • Herculaneum, Cardo IV, looking south
  • Gerasa, curved plaza and thoroughfare
  • Pompeii, air view
  • Gerasa, curved plaza colonnade
  • Thuburbo Maius, courtyard of the Temple of Baalat
  • Lepcis Magna, nymphaeum plaza, plan
  • Lepcis Magna, sketch of the central district seen from the air, looking north
  • Lepcis Magna, the plaza nymphaeum
  • Lepcis Magna, the nymphaeum plaza, arch, and walkway
  • Timgad, eastern market
  • Street behind the Basilica of Mazentius, looking southeast
  • Lepcis Magna, Severan forum and basilica, plan
  • Ancona, Arch of Trajan
  • Representation of Ancona on Trajan's column, detail
  • Lepcis Magna, esplanade beside the port and steps up to the Temple of Jupiter Dolichenus
  • Cyrene, forum and basilica from the air
  • Cyrene, forum, detail; Hellenistic plaza
  • Maktar, entrance to the forum
  • Forum edge, Maktar
  • Forum edge, Athens, the Roman agora
  • Tiddis, street of steps
  • Dougga, forum area, plan
  • Volubilis, steps between the forum and the southern quarter
  • Timgad, library steps
  • Timgad, steps to the north baths
  • Khamissa, upper terrace or forum
  • Gerasa, steps from the Artemis precinct propylon up to the temple terrace
  • Bara, arch of Licinius Sura
  • Alcantara, Trajanic bridge
  • St.-Chamas, bridge
  • Arches in sequence along thoroughfare, looking northwest from the forum along the Via del Foro
  • Lepcis Magna, arches in sequence along thoroughfare, looking southwest from the Arch of Tiberius to the quadrifons of Trajan
  • Verona, Arch of the Borsari
  • Orange, Arch of Tiberius, view of one end
  • Rome, Forum, Augustus' Parthian arch, restored
  • Porta Palatina
  • Sbeitla, forum entrance
  • Rimini, Arch of Augustus
  • Khamissa, lower, newer forum, with arches
  • Segovia, aqueduct
  • Tiddis, arch of the town gate
  • Capera, quadrifons
  • Palmyra, tetrakionion
  • St.-Rémy, monument of the Julii
  • Ghirza, tomb
  • Bosra, east arch
  • Tomb in the form of a tetrakionion
  • Tomb of the Haterii, relief of a temple-tomb and other structures
  • Pola, Arch of the Sergii
  • Reims, Porte de Mars
  • Tomb of the Haterii, relief of Flavian buildings
  • Timgad, honorific arch
  • Palmyra, Temple of Bel, temenos detail
  • Lambaesis, the groma, interior detail
  • Arch of Titus, entablature detail
  • Ostia, fountain on the main thoroughfare
  • Hierapolis, fountain
  • Gerasa, fountain on the main thoroughfare
  • Tipasa, nymphaeum beside the main thoroughfare
  • Olympia, fountain of Herodes Atticus
  • Pompeii, exedra tomb
  • Ephesus, plan of lower Embolos area
  • Gerasa, nymphaeum beside the main thoroughfare
  • Palmyra, double arch of wedge-shaped plan across the main thoroughfare, northwest face
  • Merida, amphitheatre
  • El Djem, amphitheatre
  • Cyrene, the theatre-amphitheatre from the air, a Greek theatre transformed
  • Trier, the basilica
  • Lepcis Magna, Hunting Baths
  • Circus of Maxentius, air view
  • Bosra, cryptoportico
  • Dougga, Cyclops Baths, latrine
  • Hippo Regius, market
  • Sbeitla, forum and three-temple Capitolium
  • Vienne, Temple of Augustus and Livia
  • Baalbek, small temple, interior detail
  • Tigzirt, cult building
  • Rome, Severan Marble Plan, fragment
  • Musti, shops
  • Stadium of Domitian, air view of the site
  • Trier, storehouses, model
  • Khamissa, theatre
  • Merida, view of the theatre stage building
  • Merida, view of the theatre stage building
  • Tebessa, temple, model
  • Musti, terrace of the temples
  • Gerasa, Temple of Artemis
  • Evora, temple "of Diana
  • Temple of Mars Ultor, detail
  • Curia
  • Tomb of Eurysaces
  • Monument of Philopappos
  • Rome, "tomb of Annia Regilla", model
  • Petra, the Khasneh
  • Petra, the Khasneh, detail
  • S. Maria Capua Vetere, La Conocchia
  • Petra, the Deir
  • Near Tarragona, the tomb "of the Scipios
  • Tomb "of Absalom
  • Wadi Messueggi, spire tomb, probably fourth century
  • Aquileia, tomb of the Curii
  • Dougga, tower tomb
  • Exedra tomb with column
  • Tipasa, west cemetery
  • Near Tiddis, Tomb of Lollius
  • Antalya, tomb
  • Tomb by the Via Ostiense
  • Rome, under St. Peter's, tomb of the Caetennii, axonometric partial view of the interior, seen from below
  • Building of Eumachia, façade
  • Pompeii, lararium, plan
  • Sanctuary of Isis, Purgatorium, detail
  • Ephesus, Prytaneion, double column
  • Sardis, bath-gymnasium complex, marble court, detail
  • Ostia, Insula of the Painted Vaults, doorway, detail
  • Ostia, Augustales' building, mosaic, detail
  • Baalbek, Temple of Venus, plan
  • Baalbek, Temple of Venus, model
  • Baalbek, Temple of Venus, side view
  • Baalbek, Temple of Venus, detail of door frame
  • Capital, Herculaneum, from the House of the Stags
  • Capital, Sbeitla, from the Capitolium, center temple
  • Ressaut, Forum of Nerva
  • Ressaut, Arch of Constantine
  • Sbeitla, Capitolium, rear of middle temple
  • Alcantara, shrine
  • Gerasa, Temple of Artemis, columns
  • Split, peristyle arcade, detail
  • Split, temple of Jupiter, doorway scroll-console
  • Gerasa, south theatre, stage
  • Gerasa, south theatre, stage building, raking view
  • Gerasa, south theatre, stage building, detail
  • Ephesus, lower Embolos, looking west to the Library of Celsus
  • Miletus, South Market gate
  • Rome, Baths of Diocletian, plan
  • Baths of Diocletian, scenic exterior wall
  • Hadrian's Arch
  • Baalbek, Temple of Zeus, great court, detail of flank
  • Peristyle, Trajan's Column
  • Thuburbo Maius, peristyle of the Petronii
  • Ostia, Insula of the Muses, courtyard
  • Tivoli, Hadrian's Villa, Small Baths, plan
  • Tivoli, Hadrian's Villa, Small Baths, restoration
  • Tivoli, Hadrian's Villa, Small Baths, restoration cutaway view
  • Athens, bath, plan
  • Athens, bath, remains
  • Thenae, baths, plan
  • Side, building M, detail
  • Pompeii, House Apollo, Apollo and the morning and evening stars; wall painting from the end of Nero's reign
  • S. Maria della Victoria, Cornaro Chapel, central composition
  • Rome, S. Maria in Campitelli; plan
  • Djemila, building opposite the great baths
  • Tivoli, Hadrian's Villa, the "Greek Library," plan
  • S. Andrea delle Fratte, tower
  • S. Andrea delle Fratte, lowest tower stage
  • Roman Market, gate
  • S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, lantern
  • Ostia, Insula of the Painted Vaults, Severan painting
  • S. Ivo, interior
  • Ephesus, Baths of Scholastikia, columns
  • Rome, tomb called the Sedia del Diavolo, model
  • Ostia, tomb outside the Porta Romana, interior wall
  • S. Susanna, façade, upper story, detail
  • Gerasa, Temple of Artemis propylon, detail
  • Herculaneum, House of the Carbonised Furniture, garden niche
  • Ostia, plan of Hadrianic construction
  • Maktar, baths, arcade
  • Dougga, forum area
  • Dougga, forum area
  • Pergamon, Asklepieion, plan
  • Pergamon, Asklepieion, partial view from the theatre, looking southeast
  • Lepcis Magna, Severan port, reconstruction
  • Ostia, Portan Marina area, plan
  • Ostia, exedras of a tomb just outside the Porta Marina
  • Markets of Trajan, detail of facades
  • Rome, plan of central monuments
  • Piazza Armerina, villa, plan
  • Piazza Armerina, villa, model
  • Piazza Armerina, villa, model
  • Tivoli, Hadrian's Villa, partial plan
  • Tivoli, Hadrian's Villa, model
  • Model showing the Central Vestibule and Angled Terrace and their environs, looking north
  • Rome, Villa of Sette Bassi, model
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Description: The Architecture of the Roman Empire, Volume II: An Urban Appraisal
The critical evaluation of ancient classical architecture lags well behind that of most subsequent western architectural periods. Ancient buildings are so often discussed as isolated entities or as members of typological or regional groups that contextual implications and overall formal and thematic relationships are frequently undervalued. I believe that...
Description: The Architecture of the Roman Empire, Volume II: An Urban Appraisal
In the history of Western architecture, Roman forms and themes persist in style after style. The quantity of evidence for this is incalculable. There are historical explanations for it, but the intrinsic reasons are obscure because our understanding of Roman design is incomplete. We know that interior space was mastered and that the orders were interpreted...

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Description: The Architecture of the Roman Empire, Volume II: An Urban Appraisal
Armatures consist of main streets, squares, and essential public buildings linked together across cities and towns from gate to gate, with junctions and entranceways prominently articulated. They are the setting for the familiar Roman civic building typology, the framework for the unmistakable imagery of imperial urbanism. As the central arenas of public...

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Description: The Architecture of the Roman Empire, Volume II: An Urban Appraisal
Properly urban buildings must have streets and squares in order to function; without streets and squares, they are not urban at all; streets and squares alone, of the kind that can be traced today on the abandoned ground of failed subdivisions, are just lifeless patterns. Streets approach, bound, and fix the locations of buildings, linking them together and...

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Description: The Architecture of the Roman Empire, Volume II: An Urban Appraisal
Roman armatures are intermittently punctuated and measured out by arches, way stations (such as exedras and fountains), and other apparently secondary structures. Unitary and discontinuous, in contrast to connective architecture, they are even so essential, articulative parts of finished cities and towns. At first they may seem randomly positioned,...

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Description: The Architecture of the Roman Empire, Volume II: An Urban Appraisal
Public buildings are the Roman structures known best and studied most. To describe and analyze them in detail, type by type, would duplicate much already in print. But as they were joined inextricably to the architecture of connection and passage to form armatures, their contributions to urban coherence and identity were not limited to their purely...

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Description: The Architecture of the Roman Empire, Volume II: An Urban Appraisal
Roman intervention in the historical evolution of Greek forms changed classical architecture profoundly. Though properly Greek elements were used lavishly in Hellenistic architecture, the spare clarity of the earlier buildings was abandoned in the creation of a more intricate and often scenic architecture in the Near East. This was the epitome of...

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Description: The Architecture of the Roman Empire, Volume II: An Urban Appraisal
Scornfully rejecting fashionable conceits in contemporary painting, Vitruvius denounced representations of buildings piled one atop another ...

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Description: The Architecture of the Roman Empire, Volume II: An Urban Appraisal
An inclination to baroque design, as in numerous tombs and column displays, extended architectural composition into territory that today may seem hardly classical at all. This is not a new topic. Seventeenth-century masters in Rome knew of this...

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Description: The Architecture of the Roman Empire, Volume II: An Urban Appraisal
It is difficult to come to grips with the essence of imperial architecture. Examples abound, but so does formal variety. There are almost no documents, no project or competition drawings of the kind that enrich and support the study of Renaissance and later architecture. No minutes of professional or academic meetings and no substantial contemporary opinion...

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Description: The Architecture of the Roman Empire, Volume II: An Urban Appraisal
Towns and luxury villas had much in common. If the dispersed building typology and sprawling plans of the villas are examined from this point of view, they become easier to understand, and the possibility emerges that they were derived from urban configurations and imagery ...

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Description: The Architecture of the Roman Empire, Volume II: An Urban Appraisal
~With some exceptions, entries in PECS, as well as in EAA and RE (which include topics as well as sites), are omitted from this selection. For full titles, see the List of Abbreviations. The material is arranged as follows:
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Description: The Architecture of the Roman Empire, Volume II: An Urban Appraisal
~Drawings not otherwise credited were made by Peter C. Papademetriou (when a student), Sarah Calkins, and Michael Lawrence, after the sources given below. Illustrations not listed were made from the author’s photographs. Costs were defrayed in part by a grant from the William L. Bryant Foundation.
The Architecture of the Roman Empire, Volume II: An Urban Appraisal
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