List of illustrations

  • Portrait of Malik Ambar
  • Aspects of Negro Life, The Negro in an African Setting
  • Aspects of Negro Life: An Idyll of the Deep South
  • Aspects of Negro Life: From Slavery Through Reconstruction
  • Aspects of Negro Life: Song of the Towers
  • Portrait of Henry Thomas
  • Naked Figure from Behind
  • Jack
  • Drana
  • Portrait of Jem
  • From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried: 1. "From Here I saw What Happened and I Cried
  • From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried: 2. "You Became a Scientific Profile
  • From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried: 3. "A Negroid Type
  • From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried: 4. "An Anthropological Debate
  • From Here I Saw What Happened and I Cried: 5. "& A Photographic Subject
  • Unidentified woman, believed to be Sarah McGill Russwurm, sister of Urias A. McGill and widow of John Russwurm
  • Urias Africanus McGill (ca. 1823–1866), merchant in Liberia, born in Baltimore, Maryland
  • Frederick Douglass
  • Private Gordon: The Scourged Back
  • Sweet Potato Planting
  • Sojourner Truth (1797–1883). I Sell the Shadow to Support the Substance
  • Page from Florence Upton, The Adverntures of Two Dutch Dolls and a Golliwogg
  • Advertisement for Pears' Soap
  • Illustrated sheet music cover for All Coons Look Alike to Me
  • Alligator Bait
  • Types africains. Concours de sourires
  • Italia liberata
  • Blackamoor figures
  • Adverstisement for Aunt Jemima Pancakes
  • Jolly Nigger Bank
  • Jolly Nigger Bank
  • Advertisement for Benetton
  • Famine in Sudan
  • Simplicissimus. Cover from 27 Nr. 45 page 629
  • 50 Wilde Kongoweiber Männer und Kinder in Ihrem Aufgebauten Kongodorfe
  • Die Wacht am Rhein/Die Schwarze Schande. K262 obverse and reverse
  • Die Wacht am Rhein/Die Schwarze Schande. K262a and K263 reverse
  • Die Wacht am Rhein/Die Schwarze Schande. K264 reverse
  • Portrait, Zulu woman, South Africa
  • Senegal
  • Women preparing pottery clay. Asante, Ghana
  • Sequence from witch doctor ("abinza") initiation series
  • Women threshing corn. Kgatleng, Botswana
  • Small girl at play, building a miniature house, Kgatleng, Botswana
  • Mekana, son of elite locan man, Ongosi, and Evans-Pritchard's Zande servant. Yambio region, Southern Sudan
  • Man, possibly Ondun, chief of the Kailulu Luo clan. Kisumu, Kenya
  • Venda girls filling granaries. Southern Africa
  • Venda women going to draw water at the Mutshindudi River. Southern Africa
  • Masque 'jeunce fille.' Dogon, Mali
  • Group portrait of the Queen Mother of Tafu and her family. Asante, Ghana
  • African Venus
  • Distress
  • Sample Anthropometric Form given to Malvina Hoffman, for Bushman from the Kalahari Desert, working for Ringling Barnum and Bailey's Circus
  • The African Race
  • Shilluk warrior from the Upper white Nile
  • Negro Dancing Girl of the Sara Tribe
  • Mangbetu Woman
  • Photograph of Mangbetu woman, taken on the Haardt expedtion
  • Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
  • Vili figure. Republic of Congo
  • Still Life with African Sculpture
  • Study for Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
  • Three Figures Under a Tree
  • Composite of images of African masks from Leo Frobenius's Die Masken und Geheimbünde Afrikas
  • Photograph of Africans: Les Bobos
  • Photograph of Africans: Basuto Woman
  • Photograph of Africans: Two Targui women
  • Photograph of Africans: Helle und Dunkle (Light and Dark Skin)
  • Photograph of Africans: Ashanti
  • Photograph of Africans: Zulu Girls
  • Deux nus. Study for Two Women
  • La Danse barbare. Study for Salomé and Herod
  • Composite
  • Parody of Olympia. Self-portrait with Sebastià Junyer and nude
  • Le Blanche et noire
  • Child Beside a Hut with Palm Tree
  • Seated Negro
  • Le Parisienne and Exotic Figures
  • Standing Figure with Raised Arms
  • Cover of the exhibition catalogue "Cubism and Abstract Art," showing Alfred H. Barr, Jr.'s chart of the progression of modernism
  • Bust of a Man
  • Bathers
  • Reclining Nude I (Aurora)
  • Standing Child (Stehendes Kind)
  • Program of the Künstlergruppe Brücke (Title vignette)
  • Bowl with figures (Schale mit Figuren)
  • Program of the Künstlergruppe Brücke (manifesto text)
  • Bearer (Trägerin)
  • Caryatid
  • Five wood sculptures by Erich Heckel
  • Dryad
  • The artistes Milly and Sam in Kirchner's atelier, Berliner Straße 80, Dresden
  • Nelly and Sidi Heckel (Riha) dancing in Erich Heckel's atelier, Dresden
  • Carl Marquardt's Schaustellung "Das Sudanesendorf" in the Dresdner Zoologischen Garten, Female Group
  • Negro Dancer (Negertänzerin)
  • Negro Dancer (Negertänzerin)
  • Portrait of a Woman (Frauenbildnis)
  • Milly Sleeping (Milly Schlafend)
  • Negro with a Dancer (Neger und Tänzerin)
  • Têtê-à-têtê. Illustration in In "Simplicissimus" 5, no. 35 (1900): 280
  • Kneeling Mother and Child (Kneide Mutter mit Kind an der Brust)
  • Leopard Stool (Leopardenhocker)
  • Three Nudes (Drei Akte)
  • Fruit Bowl (Obstschale)
  • Female Nude in Tub (Weibliche Akt im Tub)
  • Interior II (Interieur II)
  • Crouching Woman (Hockende)
  • Mulatto
  • Mother and Child Figure
  • The Missionary (Der Missionar)
  • Man, Woman, and Cat (Mann, Frau, und Katze)
  • Detail of king's throne (Königsthron), Bamun, Cameroon
  • Four Evangelists: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
  • Cover page of the Chronicle of the Artists' Group Brücke
  • The Drinker; Self-Portrait (Der Trinker; Selbstbildnis)
  • Schlemihl in the Solitude of His Room (Schlemihl in der Einsamkeit des Zimmers)
  • Blue Girl's Head with Hanging Braids (Blauer Mädchenkopf mit hängenden Zöpfen)
  • Christ (Kristus)
  • Title page to the exhibition catalogue Schmidt-Rottluf Negerkunst
  • La Revue Nègre au Music-hall des Champs-Élysées
  • Poster announcing the fight between Jack Johnson and Arthur Cravan in Madrid, 23 April 1916
  • The Creation of the World
  • White Negress
  • Noire et blanche (II)
  • Page with Bessie Love's dance troupe in Broadway Melody (1929) and Schoolchildren from Bacouya, Bourail (New Caledonia). From "Documents" 1929, no. 4.
  • Jazz Baby
  • Visitez le Pavilion des Tabacs/Exposition Coloniale
  • An elegant Josephine in banana skirt
  • Josephine Baker
  • Josephine Baker 1 (Danse)
  • The Negress
  • Stool I (Stuhl I)
  • Invitation to a Dada Evening
  • Untitled (Mask for Firdusi)
  • Negro Sculpture (Negerplastik)
  • The Sweet One (Die Süsse)
  • The Black Occupation (Die schwarze Besatzung). Illustration in "Simplicissimus" 25, no. 11 (9 June 1920): 168
  • Love in the Bush (Liebe im Busch)
  • Umgababa
  • To Beauty (An die Schönheit)
  • Josephine Baker at the Negro Ball (Josephine Baker au Bal Nègre)
  • Photograph of Josephine Baker in her banana skirt at the Theater des Westerns in Berlin
  • Negerrevue
  • Circus Workers (Zirkusbeiter)
  • Agosta, the Winged Man, and Rasha the Black Dove (Agosta, der Flügelmensch, und Rasha, die schwarze Taube)
  • Negro Mother (Negermutter)
  • Jonny spielt auf. National Socialist Image for the "Degenerate Music" (Entartete Musik) exhibition in Düsseldorf, Weimar, Munich, and Vienna
  • Jazz
  • Degenarate Art (Entartete Kunst)
  • Photograph of a visitor to the Degenerate Art exhibition (Entartete Kunst Ausstellung) in Berlin. Works by Karl Schmidt-Rottluf and Emil Nolde can be clearly identified
  • Libestans
  • Black Shadows
  • Unknown
  • Green Dancer/Dancing Negress
  • Negro in Jungle
  • Jack Johnson
  • Little War's First Birthday (Oorlogken is jarig). From "De Nieuwe Amsterdammer," 31 July 1915
  • League of Nations, Colonies, and Labor Movement. From "De Nieuwe Amsterdammer," 22 February 1919
  • Portrait of Tonia Stieltjes
  • Three Swazi Girls
  • Adekom, Skotsborough, Negro Number Links Richten
  • AF/Afweerfront
  • We Slaves of Suriname
  • Portrait of Anton de Kom
  • On the Terrace, Jimmy van der Lak
  • Retable des Eslaves (central panel)
  • The Spirit of the Caribbean
  • Mulâtre from the Caste Series
  • Plantation Workers on Their Way Home
  • Black Man in a Cap
  • Eve
  • Midonz (goddess of transmutation)
  • 1763 Monument
  • Peace and Love
  • The History Lesson
  • Patricia
  • Black Magic (Magique Noir)
  • Revival Goddess Dinah
  • Maube Seller
  • Séance
  • Mountain Head (Woman of Zion)
  • Love and Responsibility
  • Untitled
  • The Annunciation. From the "There's a Meeting Here Tonight" series
  • Victory Over Satan
  • Ras Smoke I
  • Blazin I
  • Danbala
  • Junkanoo Ribbons
  • Mother and Child
  • Untitled
  • Untitled Male Nude
  • Revolt
  • In the Maze, There is a Thin Line to My Soul
  • Bois Caiman's Foreign Policy Retro Reconstruction Globe Shrugged
  • The Castaway. From the "Tropical Night" series (detail)
  • Seated Presence
  • Veronica Frutescens (Mazerine). From the series Creole Portraits
  • Earl. From the series In the Flesh
  • Di Real Big Man
  • Allegory of the Departure of Dom Pedro II After Independence
  • The Abolition of Slavery
  • The Redemption of Cain
  • The Negress
  • Nettoyant les métaux de cuisine
  • Carnaval em Madureira
  • O Mestiço
  • O Lavrador de café
  • Navio Negreiro
  • Barco Negreiro
  • Cinco moças de Guaratinguetá
  • Bananal (Banana plantation)
  • The Liberation of the Peon
  • The Lovers. Negro theme from the Huacayñán series
  • Candombe
  • Dulce de Membrillo
  • Merengue
  • The Jungle
  • Afro-Cuban Dance
  • I Am
  • The Sentence no. 1
  • Totem de Xangô
  • Jerônimo, wearing Cape 5
  • Frontispeice to Aimé Césaire's Corps Perdu, African Head
  • Title page to poem "Mot," Aimé Césaire's Corps Perdu
  • Mankind Holding the Symbol of Peace
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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part 1: The...
The Image of the Black in Western Art was conceived by the late Dominique Schlumberger de Menil (1908–1997) and her husband, John (1904–1973), fifty years ago. The de Menils were known internationally for their patronage of artists such as René Magritte and Max Ernst as early as the 1930s, and eventually for the size and range of their art collection. Their passion for...
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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part 1: The...
Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part 1: The...
From its conception in the 1960s, The Image of the Black in Western Art project was guided by Dominique and Jean de Menils passionate concern with the struggle for civil rights for African Americans and by a deep respect for the past. One...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part 1: The...
Images of the black subject, whether artistic, documentary, or anthropological, are forever fixed in the popular imagination through photography ...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part 1: The...
An astonishing number of images of black people that circulated widely in the United States and Europe from the middle of the nineteenth century through the twentieth objectified and caricatured them, propagating degrading stereotypes about the supposedly immutable nature of people of African descent. These images made visible deep and widespread anxieties about “racial”...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part 1: The...
Most popular images of Africans in twentieth-century Germany followed the pattern in other countries, placing them in humorous contexts mocking their supposedly childlike or savage nature ...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part 1: The...
The relationship between anthropology, photography, and the representation of people of Africa and of African descent is a difficult one, defined through concepts of race, culture, and hierarchy and by power, exploitation, and objectification. I shall argue in this piece that while these formative elements resonate through photographic and anthropological practice, by the mid-twentieth century...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part 1: The...
The Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall of the Races of Mankind in the Field Museum in Chicago opened in 1933. It displayed about one hundred bronze and stone figures and busts by Malvina Hoffman, and it belonged to an age when “race” was a fully accepted scientific category in European intellectual circles, as it had been from the second half of the eighteenth century until the rise of Nazism...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part 1: The...
African art, evolution, racial aesthetics, colonialism, and world fairs were among the common threads that helped to shape the image of the black in France in the first decade of the twentieth century. For...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part 1: The...
In 1931, in the catalogue for his exhibition German Painting and Sculpture, Alfred H. Barr, Jr., the first director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York (MoMA), considered the discovery of so-called “primitive art” by two principal figures of two important European avant-garde manifestations, both...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part 1: The...
When Josephine Baker performed opening night for La Revue Nègre at the Champs Elysées in 1925, her stardom was predictable. The audience erupted in screams of horror and appreciation. Many applauded robustly. With legs splayed in the air, she entered the stage on the...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part 1: The...
Though the Netherlands may be a small country, it is important from the point of view of the African Diaspora and the representation of blacks in art. This is particularly true of the Negrophilia phase in the years following the First World War period. There are also significant differences between the Netherlands and other European countries as a result of its particular colonial history,...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part 1: The...
This chapter considers the art and histories of the English-speaking islands of the Caribbean—Jamaica, Trinidad, Barbados, the Bahamas, and mainland Guyana—in addition to the French-speaking Haiti, Martinique, and Guadeloupe. Cuba and other Spanish-speaking islands are considered in...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part 1: The...
The concept of Latin America as a geographical and political entity took shape in the 1850s in response to struggles over international trade routes, the territorial and capitalist expansion of the United States, and the need to defend multiracial...
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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part 1: The...
Négritude was a Francophone literary and ideological movement initiated by the Senegalese Léopold Senghor (1906–2001), the Martinican poet Aimé Césaire (1913–2008), and...

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The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume V: The Twentieth Century, Part 1: The Impact of Africa
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