List of illustrations

  • Portrait of Malik Ambar
  • Detail of a head
  • Frontispiece to Claude-Nicolas Le Cat, "Traité de la couleur de la peau humaine en général, de celle des nègres en particulier" (Amsterdam, 1765)
  • Tombstone of Scipio, servant to the Earl of Suffolk
  • Little Black Boy
  • Portrait of a Man, probably Francis Barber
  • Jacobus Joannes Eliza Capitein, detail
  • Europe Supported by Africa and America
  • Europe Supported by Africa and America
  • Advertisement for a runaway slave
  • Africa
  • Frontispiece
  • Christ appearing before the Four Continents
  • Allegory of the art of navigation
  • Africa. From a series of the Four Continents
  • Africa, from a series of the Four Continents
  • Africa. Detail of "Apotheosis of the House of Wittelsbach
  • Africa. From a series of high-relief overdoors of the Four Continents
  • Charles VI as Apollo bringing light to the world
  • Apollo and the Four Continents
  • Apollo and the Four Continents, detail
  • Apollo and the Four Continents, detail
  • Apollo and the Four Continents, detail
  • Triumph of a Roman Emperor
  • Three musicians on a balcony
  • Africans
  • Table fountain representing the world, including the Four Continents
  • William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, with an American Indian
  • Africa, from a series of figures representing the Four Continents
  • One of six armchairs decorated with carved Moors
  • Allegory of Fortitude
  • Candelholder in the form of a Moor wearing a skirt of tobacco leaves
  • The Moor
  • Bust of a Black Man
  • Detail of the "Glorification of the Apostolate of Saint Ignatius
  • Triumph of Faith over Idolatry
  • The Adoration of the Name of Jesus by the People of the World and the Saints in Heaven
  • Virgin Mary Interceding for Divine Mercy and the Four Continents
  • Detail of "Virgin Mary Interceding for Divine Mercy and the Four Continents
  • Liberation of Two Slaves
  • Detail of "Liberation of Two Slaves
  • The Baptism of Christ, cartoon for the mosaic decoration of the dome of the vestibule to the Baptismal Chapel of St. Peter's Basilica
  • Africa, from "Allegory of the Four Continents
  • Baptism of the Eunuch, cartoon for the lunette in St. Peter's Basilica, Baptismal Chapel
  • Saint Matthew Resuscitating the Son of the King of Ethiopia
  • Saint Matthew Baptizing the Queen of Ethiopia
  • Allegory of the Four Continents
  • The Nations of Africa, engraving after a mural painting in the Escalier des Ambassadeurs (now destroyed) in the Château de Versailles
  • The inhabitants of hell, costume design for a divertissement in Philippe Quinault's "Thésée," act 4
  • Court Society, from "Puppenstadt 'Mon Plaisir'
  • Nursery of the "Kammermohr," from "Puppenstadt 'Mon Plaisir'
  • Portrait of Friedrich Ernst Freiherr von Knyphausen
  • Portrait of Frederick II the Great as a child and his sister Wilhelmine
  • Augustus II the Strong as a Moorish King
  • Female guéridon
  • Male guéridon
  • African warriors with bows and arrows
  • A black drummer on horseback
  • A black trumpeter on horseback
  • Musicians at the coronation of the Swedish king Charles XI, from "Certamen Equestre caeteraque Somnia Holmiae Suecorum Ao: MDCLXXIII. M Dector: celebrate cum Carolus XI. Omnium cum applause Aviti Regni Regimen Capeberet" (Stockholm, 1672), pl. 14
  • Hottentot warrior
  • Hottentot woman
  • The Court of Aurangzeb
  • Detail of "The Court of Aurangzeb
  • The Moor Carrying an Emerald Matrix
  • The Moor Carrying an Emerald Matrix, detail
  • Two Moors carrying platters of pearls
  • Portrait of Angelo Soliman
  • Portrait of Adolph Badin playing chess
  • Portrait of Adolph Badin riding back from his campaign
  • Portrait of Kislar Agassi
  • Portrait of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu in Turkish dress
  • Young Turkish Girl at Her Bath
  • Mademoiselle de Clermont at Her Bath
  • Portrait of Madame de Pompadour "en sultane
  • A woman at her bath with a black attendant
  • Head of the eunuchs
  • Black eunuch
  • The black sultana
  • A Black Page Caressing a Shepherdess
  • Sgr. Jonimo and the Moor Friederica
  • Black servant
  • The Music Party
  • Coquettes
  • Eight studies of heads
  • Columbine, Harlequin, and a Venetian, with their Masks
  • Three studies of the head of a black youth
  • The Conversation
  • The Negro and the Cook
  • Three studies of the head of a turbaned black man
  • The Escaped Bird
  • The Conversation
  • Bathsheba in the Bath
  • Study of two heads from Paolo Veronese's "Feast in the House of Levi
  • Adoration of the Magi
  • The Family of Darius Before Alexander (detail)
  • The Banquet of Cleopatra
  • The Banquet of Cleopatra
  • Detail of "The Banquet of Cleopatra
  • The Banquet of Cleopatra, detail
  • Finding of Moses
  • Adoration of the Magi, detail
  • Adoration of the Magi
  • Death of the Wife of Darius, detail
  • Adoration of the Magi
  • Watson and the Shark
  • Head of a Black Man
  • The Death of Major Peirson, 6 January 1781
  • Black servant, detail of "The Death of Major Peirson 6 January 1781
  • The Battle of Bunker's Hill, June 17, 1775
  • Armed black man, detail of "The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker's Hill 17 June 1775
  • Narcisse, nègre du duc d'Orléans
  • Mademoiselle Desgots, from Saint-Dominque, Plaing the Harpsichord with her Negro Laurent
  • Portrait of Messierus de Caumartin with Their Negro, Telemachus
  • Auguste, Young Negro of Mme. The Duchess of Chartres
  • A Girl with Flowers and Fruits
  • Black Youth with Flowers and Vessels
  • High Life Below Stairs
  • Henry Fox and the Third Earl of Albemarle Shooting at Goodwood
  • Henry Fox and the Third Earl of Albemarle Shooting at Goodwood, detail
  • The Duke of Cumberland's Negro Servant
  • Black Youth Holding a Bow
  • Portrait of Prince Frederick Augustus II
  • Portrait of Jean-François Balland d'Augustebourg, marquis de Varambon and baron de Richemont
  • Memento Mori
  • Sketch for A Rake's Progress
  • Portrait of First Lieutenant Paul Henry Ourry with his black page, Jersey
  • Portrait of Captain Lord George Graham
  • Black youth, detail of Portrait of Captain Lord George Graham
  • Elihu Yale, William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire, Lord James Cavendish, Mr. Tunstal and Page
  • Sir Thomas Samwell and his friends
  • The Sense of Taste
  • The Wollaston Family
  • Portrait of Frederick William Ernest, Count of Schaumberg-Lippe
  • Portrait of John Manners, Marquess of Granby
  • Black groom, detail of the portrait of John Manners, Marquess of Granby
  • Portrait of Charles Stanhope, Third Earl of Harrington
  • HRH George, Prince of Wales with a Black Servant
  • George Washington
  • The Fruits of Early Industry and Oeconomy
  • A Party Angling
  • The Angler's Repast
  • Woman of Quality Dressed as a Sultana
  • Dame
  • Louise de Kéroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth
  • Portrait of Elizabeth-Charlotte of Bavaria, Duchess of Orléans
  • Portrait of Catherine-Marie Legendre, Madame de Pécoil
  • An Unidentified Lady Washing Her Black Slave
  • Angola, Black Trumpeter of King Louis XIV, with His Mistress
  • Moroccan Ambassadors at the Italian Theater
  • A Yound Black Boy, Possibly Zamor
  • Portrait of Anne, Duchess of Bedford
  • Portrait of Lady Elizabeth Keppel
  • Portrait of Lady Elizabeth Murray with Dido Elizabeth Belle
  • Marriage à-la-Mode, IV: The Countess's Morning Levée
  • A Harlot's Progress, Pl.2 from the series
  • Taste in High Life
  • The Girl in Stile
  • A Young Girl with a Dog and a Page
  • The Family of Sir William Young
  • Two Girls with Their Black Servant
  • A Lady and Her Children Relieving a Cottager
  • Execrable Human Traffick; or, The Affectionate Slaves
  • African Hospitality
  • Woman Holding a Mask of a Black Man
  • Portrait of a Negro Buttoning his Shirt
  • Study for Portrait of a Negro Buttoning his Shirt
  • Portrait of a Young Woman
  • Bust of Paul, servant to Aignan-Thomas Desfriches
  • Love in the Town, or Flirtatious Love
  • The Sorrows of Love
  • Portrait of Louis Aniaba, prince of the Kingdom of Issigny
  • Potrait of Louis Aniaba, prince of the Kingdom of Issigny
  • Portrait of Francis Williams
  • Ayuba Suleiman Diallo (Job ben Solomon)
  • Portrait of William Sessarakoo
  • Portrait of William Sessarakoo
  • Portrait of Ignatius Sancho
  • Portrait of Phillis Wheatley
  • Portrait of the artist and his wife with a black servant (probably Cugoano)
  • Detail of the portrait of the artist and his wife with a black servant (probably Cugoano)
  • Portrait of Cugoano
  • Portrait of Olaudah Equiano
  • A black man, sometimes thought to be Equiano
  • Noon, from the "Times of Day" series
  • A View of Cheapside, as It Appeard on Lord Mayor's Day Last (detail)
  • Caricature Shop
  • Mrs. Newsham, the white Negress
  • A white Negro woman, together with her husband, and two children
  • Portrait of Mary Sabina
  • Sarah Baartman, the Hottentot Venus
  • Portrait of Joseph Johnson
  • Study for frontispiece to "Othello, the Moor of Venice"
  • Frontispiece to "Othello, the Moor of Venice
  • Frontispiece to "Othello, the Moor of Venice
  • Study for a London signboard of a black boy holding a large tricorn hat
  • The Indian Queen, Shop card for Bellamy and Robarts
  • Tobacco paper for Shallett's Virginia tobacco at "the Black Boy and White Horse
  • Tobacco paper for "Newman's best Virginia
  • Ignatius Sancho's shop card, "Sancho's Best Trinidado
  • The Wedgwood medallion ("Am I not a Man and a Brother?")
  • Black African beggar
  • Votive portrait of Lazzaro Zen
  • The Courier
  • Othello and Desdemona (The Geography Lesson)
  • Totius Africa Nova Representatio
  • Map of Africa
  • Reception of the Ambassador from Tunis
  • Initiation of Young Men into Manhood
  • Guinean mother washing her child
  • Children with birth defects
  • Hottentot woman
  • Portrait of Chief Coba
  • Village scene with Chief Coba
  • Members of a Khoikhoi kraal performing a dance
  • Namaqua family
  • Khoikhoi method of burial
  • Village scene with "Strandlopers
  • Gordon's Great Map (detail)
  • Gordon's Great Map (detail)
  • Two studies of a young African girl
  • Boers returning from hunting
  • Africa, one of four paintings from a series of the Four Continents
  • The Southwell Frigate: tradeing on the Coast of Africa
  • the Jason Privateer
  • British men-of-war at anchor following an attack on the fort at Gorée on 29 December 1758
  • Sea captains carousing in Surinam
  • Portrait of Jacobus Capitein, frontispiece to Jacobus Capitein's doctoral thesis, "Dissertatio politico-theologica de servitude, libertati non contrario?
  • Portrait of Jacobus Capitein
  • The Grosvenor East Indiaman
  • Oroonoko
  • Practical Christianity: A Forcible Appeal for the Abolition of the Slave Trade
  • Cruelty & Oppression Abroad
  • Justice and Humanity at Home
  • The Blind Enthusiast
  • Barbarities in the West Indias
  • Philanthropic Consolations, After the Loss of the Slave Bill
  • Anti-saccharites,—or—John Bull and His family Leaving Off the Use of Sugar
  • Inkle and Yarico
  • Oroonoko and Imoinda
  • Indian village
  • Ritual Slave Party on a Plantation in Surinam
  • From Spaniard and Black, Mulatto
  • From Spaniard and Mulatto, Morisca
  • A mulatto woman
  • Spaniard and Mulatta Produce a Morisca
  • Spaniard and Morisca Produce an Albino
  • From Spaniard and Indian, Mestiza
  • A map of the parish of St. Stephen in Craven County, South Carolina (detail)
  • Illustration for the poem The Voyage of the Sable Venus, from Angola to the West Indies
  • Charles Calvert and a slave
  • Old Cudjoe Making Peace
  • Leonard Parkinson, captain of the Maroons
  • A Prospect of oRa Cabeca in the Parish of St. Mariesm, the North Side Jamaica. Taken from the Road Leading to St. Anns 1766
  • A View in the Island of Jamaica of the Spring-head of Roaring River
  • Court House and Guard House in the town of St. John's, Antigua
  • Parham Hill House and Sugar Plantation
  • William Pusey and his wife, Elizabeth Kingston
  • Mary Pusey and her father, Mr. Butler, in a boat with a black servant
  • A black youth, from the album "The Negro Servants of William Beckford
  • A black girl, from the album "The Negro Servants of William Beckford
  • Sir William Young Conducting a Treaty with the Black Caribs on the Island of Saint Vincent
  • A Linen Market in the West Indies in the Island of Dominica
  • Linen Day, Roseau, Dominica
  • The Barbados Mulatto Girl
  • Free Natives of Dominica
  • Free Women of Color with Their Children and Servants in a Landscape
  • West India Washer-women
  • A Cudgelling Match Between English and French Negroes in the Island of Dominica
  • A Lady Attended by a Negro Servant, Two Negroes Beyond
  • Portrait of Rachel Pringle
  • Buffet Beneath a Trellis
  • The Piebald Horse, or The Indian on Horseback, from "Tenture des Anciennes Indes
  • The Camel or the Piebald Horse, from "Tenture des Nouvelles Indes
  • The Two Bulls, from "Tenture des Nouvelles Indes
  • The Two Bulls, from "Tenture des Nouvelles Indes," detail
  • The Carried Negro Woman, from "Tenture des Nouvelles Indes
  • The Indian Fishermen, from "Tenture des Nouvelles Indes
  • Africa, from "Allegory of the Four Continents
  • Africa, from "Allegory of the Four Continents," detail
  • Allegory of Commerce
  • The Spirit of Commerce Discovers America and Condemns Africa to Slavery, detail
  • Africa and Asia, from an allegory of the Four Continents
  • Once Bitten, Twice Shy
  • The Port of Nippe
  • Black and mulatto men and women of the colonies
  • Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Terrien
  • Discussion sur les hommes de couleur
  • Equality Granted to Blacks
  • I Am Also Free
  • You Will at Last Be Happy
  • Portrait of François-Dominique Toussaint-Louverture on horseback
  • The Oath of the Ancestors
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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume III: From the “Age of...
~In 1960, the Menil Foundation launched The Image of the Black in Western Art, a groundbreaking project that attempted to produce “an archaeological archive of racial relations, happy and unhappy.”John de Menil to Dr. Ola Balogun, 25 August 1972, Menil Archives, Menil...
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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume III: From the “Age of...
The Image of the Black in Western Art was conceived by the late Dominique Schlumberger de Menil (1908-1997) and her husband, John (1904-1973), fifty years ago. The de Menils were known internationally for their patronage of artists such as René Magritte and Max Ernst as early as the 1930s, and eventually for the size and range of their art collection. Their passion for art led them...
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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume III: From the “Age of...
Volume III, Part 3 of the multivolume work The Image of the Black in Western Art deals with the eighteenth century, though inevitably it looks both forward and back. It therefore covers the period after Volume III, Part 1 and Part 2, and before Volume IV (in two parts) by Hugh Honour, which first appeared in 1989 and is soon to be republished in a new...
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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume III: From the “Age of...
Our warmest thanks again go to Josef Helfenstein, director of the Menil Collection, and to the Menil Foundation, Houston, Texas, for allowing us to use the materials commissioned under the auspices of the Foundation. We are also grateful to all the authors—those who began work on their contributions in the early 1990s, and those who came to the project more...
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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume III: From the “Age of...
It is by the finest tints, and most insensible gradations, that nature descends from the fairest face about St. James’s, to the sootiest complexion in Africa: at which tint of these, is it, that the ties of blood are to cease? And how many shades must we descend lower still in the scale, ‘ere Mercy is to vanish with them?—but ‘tis no uncommon thing, my good Sancho, for one...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume III: From the “Age of...
The eighteenth-century European court inherited from its predecessors a rich vein of fantasy, expressed in a continuum from extravagantly painted allegorical ceilings to ceremonial activities that involved the ruler and his family and attendants in a theatricality that transformed even the most mundane aspects of life. Almost all of this theatricality could involve the presence of blacks, either...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume III: From the “Age of...
This chapter is concerned with the way in which courtly fantasies involving blacks and Africa were absorbed and adapted by the increasingly self-confident urban populations emerging in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, in London and Paris in particular. If the court remained the dominant cultural force in Italy, in Germany (whether Catholic or Protestant principalities), and in...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume III: From the “Age of...
Like other forms of luxury associated with court life and display, ownership of black pages and body servants became increasingly available...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume III: From the “Age of...
In the eighteenth century black people became an increasingly familiar part of the urban scene, especially in northern European countries and North America. Those who inhabited the fluid world of the city were, with few exceptions, either slaves or former slaves or descended from an ancestor freed from service. In all but a few cases they were at the least privileged end of society, obliged to...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume III: From the “Age of...
The conventions of representation that governed allegorical painting and views of African tribal life could hardly be more different from each other, yet an allegory of Africa could sometimes contain more information...

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Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume III: From the “Age of...
The purchase of slaves in Africa was, as we have seen, infrequently depicted in the eighteenth century. But the acquisition of slaves was only the initial stage of the process of enslavement. From Africa the slaves were transported in large numbers in ships adapted for the purpose to colonies—the dreaded Middle Passage—and if they survived the journey, they were put to work on...

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The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume III: From the “Age of Discovery” to the Age of Abolition, Part 3: The Eighteenth Century
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