List of illustrations

  • Two Roman legionaries drag a log from the forest, using a rope sling
  • Altar dedicated to Minerva
  • Relief of a woodworkers' furniture shop
  • A grave relief of Marcus Aebutius, freedman of the gens Aebutia, showing measuring tools used by both the mason and the carpenter
  • A plane recovered from the excavation of Pompeii
  • Various adze hammers
  • The adze-plane depicted on the funerary relief of P. Ferrarius Hermes, from the vicinity of Pisa
  • Relief depicting a craftsman, perhaps sharpening iron blades
  • An adze-plane from the funerary stele of P. Beitenos Hermes, detail
  • A Roman soldier standing over a timber
  • Funerary relief of a furniture maker
  • Relief of P. Longidienus
  • Roman woodworking tools (drawknife, socketed chisel, auger blade, one-piece fine mortising chisel)
  • Examples of spiral or twisted iron bits
  • Roman axes
  • Variants of axes shown felling trees
  • Roman military-type axes (dolobrae) from Newstead
  • The funerary relief of Eutyches, from Priolo in Sicily
  • The Aquileia chisel shown with original wooden handle
  • Icarus, son of Daedalus, sits at a workbench and cuts mortises with a tanged chisel and a mallet
  • A group of iron socketed gouges found at Silchester
  • Drill and stock of a bow drill from Hawara, Egypt
  • Funerary relief of Licinius Philonic(os) and P. Licinius Demetrius
  • Bow, drill, compasses, and ruler from the side of a funerary altar erected for Eutychs, from the Priolo cemetery of Sicily
  • Funerary relief of the soldier Monimus, the son of Jerombalus
  • Vatican gilt glass vessel depicting the tools of the shipright
  • Strap drill from the sarcophagus of Eutropos
  • Relief of a knife seller from the tomb of L. Cornelius Atimetus
  • A stone bed leg from a funerary bier in the Tomb of the Funeral Beds at Populonia
  • A probable depiction of a simple bow-operated lathe from a Roman sarcophagus
  • Turned legs on a beg depicted on a Roman funerary relief
  • Mint marks on late Roman republican silver coinage
  • Roman plane blades from Augst (Germany)
  • Plane from the Roman Colonia Agrippina
  • Planes
  • Fresco from Pompeii depicting a procession of carpenters
  • Plane with front and rear grips depicted on a funerary relief
  • Roman saw
  • Woodworking shop, detail
  • Bucksaw in use by two cupids, from a painting found in Herculaneum
  • Gilt glass vessel, detail
  • Bucksaw in use
  • Iron handsaw blade from Verulamium
  • A Roman soldier striking a heavy mortising chisel with a mallet
  • A Roman soldier hammers at a pile with a heavy mallet
  • Relief, perhaps in honor of a wagon maker
  • Sketch of a wooden caliper gauge found on the Giglio wreck
  • A statue base dedicated to Silvanus by P. Tartarius Chiaritus and his brother Atticus
  • Bronze foot-rule from Roman London
  • Square from Neftenback (Switzerland)
  • Square from Pompeii
  • Sketches of clamping mechanisms
  • Depiction of a capstan of an olive press from Aquileia
  • Metal pins attached to the moldings of Roman period sarcophagi
  • Roman woodworking joints
  • Mortises and tenons used to connect the strakes of the Lake Nemi barges
  • Mortises and tenons used to connect the strakes of the Lake Nemi barges
  • A retaining wall along the London waterfront
  • Retaining wall built of squared beams and flat planks
  • Box or finger joint
  • Wooden box from the Comacchio wreck
  • Scarf joints used on the Lake Nemi barges
  • Scarfing of a keel from a cargo ship excavated at Ostia in 1962
  • A wooden window grill exhibiting the use of the saddle joint
  • Saddle-jointed heavy timbers arranged as a retaining wall at the Bronze Age site of Castione
  • Saddle joint used with thin oaken planks to form a well casing
  • Dacian buildings on wooden piles on fire
  • Plan of a roman military granary from Niederbieber, Germany
  • Section of a timbered Roman military warehouse from Fendoch, Scotland
  • Methods used to sheath oaken piles with iron before ramming them into place
  • Piles used for bridge construction in Germany
  • Reconstruction of Julius Caesar's bridge over the Rhine
  • Section (hypothetical) of Caesar's bridge over the Rhine
  • A simple military bridge built of piles and planking
  • Reconstruction of shuttering
  • The north retaining wall of the Temple of Venus and Roma
  • Caesarea Maritima
  • Alder logs bored to serve as water pipes
  • Reconstruction (hypothetical) of the timber framing of Roman Iron Age huts, based upon the foundations discovered on the Palatine Hill
  • A farmer's hut made of poles and thatch observed in 1998 near the Etruscan necropolis of San Giuliano
  • Method of anchoring wooden posts in Iron Age dwellings
  • An Iron Age "hut urn"
  • Sandstone grave marker excavated at the Porta San Vitale necropolis (tomb no. 793) near Bologna
  • Reconstruction of wattle work found at Verulamium, Britain
  • Early use of proto opus craticium from Lavinium, Italy
  • Opus craticium in a house from Herculaneum
  • Distribution of bread from a stall in Pompeii
  • Painted column capital found at the site of S. Omobono, Rome
  • Trajan's bridge over the river Danube
  • Reconstruction of the bridge over the Danube based upon the representation on the Column of Trajan
  • Reconstruction (hypothetical) of a simple cantilevered bridge
  • Fresco from a bedroom found at Boscoreale, detail
  • A hybrid stone and wooden amphitheater
  • Roman contignatio according to Vitruvius: joists (tigna), planking (tabulatum), ferns, the rudus nucleus, and finish surface of mosaic
  • Remains of a masonry floor supported by wooden planking
  • Contignatio evidence in the west wall of the Ludus Gladiatorius, Pompeii
  • Wall construction of the Ludus Gladiatorius, Pompeii
  • Shop from Ostia with holes preserved for floor joists in a wall of opus mixtum
  • Methods of anchoring joists to walls
  • Joists supported by stone wall brackets
  • The Greek prop-and-lintel system, cross section of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia
  • An Etruscan rock-cut tomb from Tuscania
  • Etruscan tomb façade from San Giuliano (Latium), Italy
  • Two hypothetical roofing systems for the covering of a Tuscan style prop-and-lintel temple
  • Pyrgi: plans of Temple A and Temple B
  • Method of joining compound wooden architraves at corners
  • Right angle T join of heavy timbers over a vertical support point
  • Terracotta columen plaque from Temple A, Pyrgi
  • Roof of a votive model temple from the sanctuary of Diana, Nemi
  • Model of the roofing beams used at Temple B, Pyrgi
  • Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus in Rome
  • The Doric temple at Cori (Lazio), Italy, stone framing of the pediment
  • Section of St. Paul's basilica, Rome (begun 385 AD), drawn before the trussed roof burned down in 1823
  • Hypothetical attachment of main rafter to horizontal tie-beam of a triangular truss
  • Hypothetical method of joining a rafter to a tie-beam using a mortise and tenon
  • Reinforcement of the timber truss
  • Sketch by G. A. Dosio of the original bronze trusses that supported the roof of the porch of the Pantheon
  • Relief on stone of an amphitheater covered by a timber structure built of trusses
  • The basilica designed by Vitruvius at Fanum
  • A view of the interior of the basilica of St. Paul's Outside the Walls, Rome
  • Plan of the state halls of the Domus Augustana, Rome
  • Reconstruction of the roofing of the Coenatio Iovis (triclinium) of the Flavian Palace, Rome
  • Sestertius showing the façade of a building, perhaps Domitian's Palace
  • Reconstruction of the main façade of Domitian's palace
  • The wooden ceiling from the House of the Mosaic Atrium, Herculaneum
  • A beam ceiling in the Etruscan Tomb of the Cornice
  • Coffering from a ceiling in the Tomba Cina, Necropolis of San Giuliano
  • Coffer carved into a ceiling of the so-called Tomba del Leone
  • Coffering in the Tomba del Cardinale, Tarquinia
  • A marble panel carved with a geometric pattern of coffers
  • Temple of Bacchus, Baalbek, Lebanon
  • Painted coffers from the ceiling of the entrance vestibule of the House of the Samnite, Herculaneum
  • The Tuscan atrium visualized in a nineteenth-century reconstruction of the interior with coffered ceiling
  • The wooden roofing components of the Tuscan atrium
  • Centering with a timber framework, hypothetical reconstruction
  • Modern centering in use at the site of Herculaneum for the restoration of barrel vaults
  • Reconstruction of the portal at Puteoli
  • A lintel and door frame of a shop from Herculaneum
  • Reconstruction of the shop entrance shown in the previous figure
  • Shuttered door from a shop on the north side of the decumanus at Herculaneum
  • Shuttered shops in Farfa, Italy
  • Roman door from the Roman fort at Vindolanda
  • Exterior door from the House of D. Octavius Quartio, Pompeii
  • Exterior doorway to a house in Pompeii
  • Plan of the main (west) entrance of the House of the Fawn, Pompeii
  • Plan of a threshold from a bedroom (cubiculum) in the west atrium of the House of the Faun, Pompeii
  • View of the fauces of the Collegio degli Augustali, Herculaneum, from the inside of the room
  • Elements of a double-leaved Roman door
  • A triple-leaved door from the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii
  • Wooden shutter recovered from the excavations at Lake Nemi
  • Carbonized window shutters at Herculaneum along the north side of the decumanus
  • Four-leaved window shutter from a bedroom in the villa at Oplontis
  • A painted doorway from the back wall of oecus 6, Villa of the Mysteries
  • A drawing of the painted doorway from the back wall of oecus 6, Villa of the Mysteries
  • The layout of the decorative pattern used for the painted door from the Villa of the Mysteries
  • Door frames and openings for double-leaved doors redrawn as if all are of equal height while retaining their true proportional characteristics
  • A funerary marker of Q. Minicius
  • A single-piece wheel, including nave, formed from a thick wooden blank cut longitudinally from the trunk of a tree
  • Model of a tripartite wheel under construction
  • A cart used for transporting wild animals, with planked solid wheels
  • Late Bronze Age crossbar wheel from Mercurago, Northern Italy
  • Crossbar wheel, detail
  • An eleven-spoked wooden wheel from Newstead, Scotland
  • Reconstruction of a "Great Wheel" or treadmill-powered crane
  • Treadwheel-powered crane from the Tomb of the Haterii, Rome
  • Illustration from J. Pollen's Ancient and Modern Furniture and Woodwork
  • Venus seated on a solium with deeply turned legs and a footstool
  • The Simpelveld Sarcophagus
  • A solium with attached footstool depicted on the sarcophagus of Sosia Juliana
  • A solium of wicker with a seated female musician
  • A wooden bench from Herculaneum
  • A folding chair depicted on a painted plaque from the Etruscan town of Cerveteri
  • A pair of bronze legs from a folding chair found at Herculaneum
  • A frescoed scene of cupids working as shoemakers at a four-legged table
  • A six-legged table, perhaps an abacus, as depicted on a funerary relief showing a tavern scene from the necropolis of Isola Sacra (Ostia)
  • Three-legged banquet table standing in front of a dining couch
  • Wooden mensa delphica from Herculaneum
  • Armarium from the Casa del Fabbro, Pompeii
  • A combination cupboard-aedicula (shrine) from Herculaneum
  • Reconstruction of a wooden bed from Herculaneum
  • Methods of sawing trunk into boards
  • Veneer work on a stool from Herculaneum
  • Map of Italy and central Europe
  • Map showing the orginal range of cypress in the Mediterranean
  • Map showing the distribution of holm oak in the Mediterranean
  • Map showing the distribution of larch in Europe
  • Map of the distribution of Valonia oak in Europe
  • Map of Rome and its neighboring topography in the Tiber and Anio watersheds
  • Mature silver firs in the forest of Vallombrosa, in the Apennines of central Italy
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Description: Roman Woodworking
Contents
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Description: Roman Woodworking
Acknowledgments
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Description: Roman Woodworking
Abbreviations of Ancient Sources
Description: Roman Woodworking
Wood was arguably the most valuable natural resource utilized by the peoples of the ancient Mediterranean. Wood was a primary, and in some cases the only...

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Description: Roman Woodworking
Plutarch, writing in his native Greek about the quasi-legendary second king of Rome, attributed the organization of skilled workers into associations...

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Description: Roman Woodworking
Like their modern counterparts, the tools of a Roman woodworker were precious assets. Each handmade instrument represented a significant investment...

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Description: Roman Woodworking
The fundamental skill of the woodworker throughout the ages has been measured by his ability to join securely—and with elegance—two pieces of wood...

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Description: Roman Woodworking
Arevealing passage concerning the role of wood in everyday construction, in this case a farmhouse (villa rustica), is included as a kind of model...

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Description: Roman Woodworking
Wood played a vital role in ancient construction long before the utilization of mud brick, stone, and fired brick. Even when fired brick, masonry...

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Description: Roman Woodworking
Wooden flooring was found everywhere in the Roman world; its construction required substantial expenditures of both manual labor and materials...

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Description: Roman Woodworking
The visible part of a Roman roof was its external protective sheathing, originally of thatch or wooden shingles (scandulae) or even packed clay...

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Description: Roman Woodworking
Woodwork occupied a prominent place in the treatment of Roman interior spaces; it is the missing component of an environment now understood primarily...

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Description: Roman Woodworking
The wheels of the carts, wagons, and chariots of the Roman world were of wooden parts often reinforced with metal...

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Description: Roman Woodworking
Over the past century a number of publications for a broad range of audiences have appeared on the subject of Greco-Roman furniture...

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Description: Roman Woodworking
Cato, Vitruvius, and Pliny devote lengthy comment to the suitability of individual species for certain applications and the best times for harvesting wood...

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Description: Roman Woodworking
It is beyond the scope of this book to offer a full discussion of the forests of Italy or of the immense tracts of timber found in other parts of the Roman world...

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Description: Roman Woodworking
Glossary of Roman Woodworking Terms
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Description: Roman Woodworking
~The following should be considered a representative list that includes most of the best-known examples of Roman woodworking tools. Figure numbers at the end of individual listings refer to images in the text.
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Description: Roman Woodworking
Bibliography
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Description: Roman Woodworking
Index
Roman Woodworking
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