List of illustrations

  • Burzuya and the Indian sage, Kalīla wa Dimna
  • Map showing the major political formations of South Asia during the ninth and tenth centuries
  • Plan of Banbhore, Indus Delta
  • Ship crossing the Persian Gulf. Al-Harīrī, "Makāmāt (The Assemblies)," fol. 119v
  • A ninth- or tenth-century stone mihrab now preserved on the exterior wall of Gwalior fort, central India
  • Bull and horseman jital
  • Commemorative coin of al- Muqtadir Billah
  • Brahma excavated from the Ghaznavid palace at Ghazni
  • Brahma excavated from the Ghaznavid palace at Ghazni, detail
  • Habbarid damma from Sind compared with a modern dime
  • Damma issued in the name of ‘Abd Allah, the Habbarid amir of Mansura
  • Obverse and reverse of eight bilingual dammas from Multan
  • Adivaraha damma bearing an anthropomorphized image of the boar incarnation of Vishnu
  • Bilingual dirham/tanka struck in the name of Mahmud of Ghazni in Mahmudpur (Lahore)
  • Great Mosque of Banbhore (probable site of Daybul), plan as excavated, with find of Shiva linga marked at main entrance
  • Reconstruction drawing of a nine-bayed mosque, Thambo Wari, Sind
  • Tomb of Ibrahim, entrance portico
  • Tomb of Ibrahim, interior showing arched mihrab opening and corbeled dome
  • Hindu Shahi Temple
  • Blocked arched entrance, Chhoti Masjid
  • Door knockers excavated at Mansura
  • Foliated Kufic inscription from the Great Mosque of Banbhore
  • Mansura bronze and Banbhore inscription, details
  • Rubbing of a tombstone incised with a foliated Kufic inscription
  • Elephant, primary view
  • Elephant, alternate view
  • Elephant, alternate view
  • Bottom of Elephant sculpture with Arabic inscription carved on the base
  • Elephant
  • Elephant
  • Portable Buddhist diptych, closed
  • Portable Buddhist diptych, open
  • The monk Kalaka in conversation with two Shahis
  • A royal scene, Dukhang Temple
  • Turkic ghulāms of the Ghaznavid sultan
  • Bowl showing enthroned ruler
  • A royal rider, Dukhang Temple
  • A royal rider, Dukhang Temple, detail
  • An enthronement, Dukhang Temple
  • An enthronement, Dukhang Temple, detail
  • Tile from Ghazni with a pseudoepigraphic border compared with the pseudo-Arabic inscription in Kufic scrift on the armbands of royal figures
  • A royal scene, Church of the Holy Cross, Aghtamar
  • Medallion of Caliph al-Muqtadir
  • Frontispiece from a manuscript commissioned by Gagik-Abbas, Kars
  • Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin donning a robe of honor from Caliph al-Qadir Bi’llah
  • Mahmud of Ghazni receiving Indian elephants as tribute
  • Map showing the approximate extent and location of the Ghaznavid and Chandella polities
  • Map showing the approximate eastern and western boundaries of the Ghurid sultanate at its zenith
  • Ghurid Qur’an of 584/1189, sūra 113, the penultimate chapter of the Qur’an
  • Colophon of a Ghurid Qur’an, detail
  • Shah-i Mashhad Madrasa, general view from the south
  • Minaret of Jam, general view from the southeast
  • Minaret of Jam, detail of lower shaft showing arched panel with rhomboid knot above and star below
  • Minaret of Jam, schematic diagram of the epigraphic bands containing Surat Maryam
  • Chisht, domed structures
  • Epigraphic dirham struck at Ghazni
  • Dirham of “bull’s-eye” type, struck at Ghazni
  • Dinar of “square in circle” type, struck at Ghazni
  • Great Mosque of Herat, brick īwān with remains of Ghurid inscription
  • Pale gold dinar minted at Firuzkuh with trident motif on obverse
  • Coin minted at Bayana in the name of Sultan Mu‘izz al-Din Muhammad ibn Sam, with a stylized image of Lakshmi on the obverse
  • Bull-and-horseman coin bearing the name of Sultan Mu‘izz al-Din Muhammad ibn Sam in Sanskrit
  • Ring with the name of Sultan Mu‘izz al-Din ibn Sam inscribed on the interior in Sanskrit
  • Ring with the name of Sultan Mu‘izz al-Din ibn Sam inscribed on the interior in Sanskrit, detail
  • Tipu Sahib Sultan Enthroned
  • Humā bird from the throne of Tipu Sahib Sultan
  • Tomb of Shaykh Sadan Shahid
  • Two fragmentary stone foundation texts of a mosque bearing the name of the Ghurid sultan Mu‘izz al-Din
  • Stone foundation text, detail
  • Qutb Mosque, schematic plan
  • Qutb Mosque, eastern entrance
  • Mihrab from Arhai-din-ka-Jhompra Mosque
  • Shahi Masjid, schematic plan
  • Mihrab from Shahi Masjid
  • Chaurasi Khambha Mosque, main entrance from the southeast
  • Chaurasi Khambha Mosque, schematic plan with ceiling decorations marked
  • Qutb Mosque, corbeled dome at eastern entrance
  • Qutb Minar, Qutb Complex
  • Qutb Mosque, screen added to the façade of the prayer hall
  • Friday Mosque, view of prayer hall and main īwān
  • Qutb Mosque, detail of northern riwāq
  • Shahi Masjid, detail of prayer hall
  • Ribat-i-Sharaf
  • Qutb Mosque, schematic plan showing domed chambers (bottom left and right) and the royal chamber (mulūk khāna), top right
  • Qutb Mosque, remains of the royal chamber (mulūk khāna) in the northwestern corner of the courtyard
  • Qutb Mosque, exterior of the entrance to the royal chamber (mulūk khāna) with the Qutb Minar and qibla screen visible in the background
  • Qutb Mosque, entrance to the royal chamber (mulūk khāna)
  • Chaurasi Khambha Mosque, northern wall, projecting porch of the royal chamber (mulūk khāna)
  • Chaurasi Khambha Mosque, detail of entrance to royal chamber
  • Qutb Mosque, carved lion on threshold of the royal chamber
  • Chaurasi Khambha Mosque, carved lion on threshold of the royal chamber
  • Chaurasi Khambha Mosque, detail of elephant pillar
  • Chaurasi Khambha Mosque, detail of elephant carving on an interior pillar
  • Qutb Mosque, defaced anthropomorphic and zoomorphic carvings on column
  • Arhai-din-ka-Jhompra Mosque, prayer hall, detail of richly carved column of upper register
  • Chaurasi Khambha Mosque, detail of reused pilaster
  • Qutb Mosque, reused pilaster
  • Chaurasi Kambha Mosque, reused pilaster
  • Arhai-din-ka-Jhompra Mosque, detail of reused column
  • Lion face, detail on stucco fragment
  • Lion face, detail on fragments of stucco ornament
  • Shahi Masjid, detail of corbeled dome
  • Candlestick
  • Arhai-din-ka-Jhompra Mosque, detail of prayer hall
  • Arhai-din-ka-Jhompra Mosque, details of upper registers of columns
  • Shahi Masjid, detail of mihrab
  • Qutb Mosque, detail of surviving pilaster
  • Qutb Mosque, view of prayer hall
  • Qutb Mosque, prayer hall
  • Chaurasi Khambha Mosque, mihrab
  • Chaurasi Khambha Mosque, detail of capital flanking mihrab
  • Chaurasi Khambha Mosque, Kaman, view of ceilings along mihrab aisle
  • Chaurasi Khambha Mosque, concave ceiling above the exterior porch of the royal enclosure
  • Chaurasi Khambha Mosque, ceiling of minbar
  • Chaurasi Khambha Mosque, Kaman, dome covering minbar
  • Chaurasi Khambha Mosque, view from main entrance
  • Qutb Mosque, detail of stone ornament in the spandrels of the central arch of the screened façade
  • Hazār-bāf brickwork in the spandrels of an īwān Ribat-i Sharaf
  • Shahi Masjid, exterior of qibla wall showing three mihrab projections
  • Qutb Mosque, alterations to a group of reused capitals in the southeastern riwāq
  • Carved stone relief
  • Cenotaph
  • Cenotaph, detail
  • Cenotaph
  • Fragmentary cenotaph
  • Carving, detail
  • Cenotaph
  • Fragment of a dado from the palace of Mas‘ud III
  • Jain relief showing the parents of Prime Minister Kapardi, with stylized pūrnaghata capitals, Mount Abu
  • Mihrab
  • Vishnu Temple, showing twisted columns flanking the entrance
  • Fragments of a funerary relief
  • Funerary relief
  • Ceiling panel with tōrana arches, Vimala-Vasahi Temple, detail
  • Tombstone with arch framed by columns with ratna capitals and bases, detail
  • Ornament with two distinct styles of vegetal ornament flanking a stylized vegetal frieze, detail from tomb of Sadan Shahid
  • Vegetal ornament on Tomb of Sadan Shahid
  • Masjid-i Sangi, exterior view from the northeast
  • Masjid-i Sangi, interior view showing remains of a corbeled dome
  • Masjid-i Sangi, remains of āmalaka and finial
  • Masjid-i Sangi, exterior of north wall
  • Masjid-i Sangi, entrance
  • Masjid-i Sangi, detail of entrance carvings
  • Masjid-i Sangi, detail of entrance carvings
  • Masjid-i Sangi, detail of lotus threshold
  • Kumbharia, detail of lotus threshold of Neminatha temple
  • Mahavira Temple, exterior shrine
  • Masjid-i Sangi, carvings surrounding the entrance compared with those framing the niche opening
  • Masjid-i Sangi, detail of entrance with crescent motif
  • Crescent motif
  • Masjid-i Sangi, interior view
  • Masjid-i Sangi, mihrab showing remains of lamp/vase motif above its apex
  • Mihrab with lamp above apex, detail
  • Cenotaph with lamps in the interstices of arches
  • Sacciyamata Temple, showing finials with terminal kalaśas
  • Shahi Masjid, entrance with kalaśa motifs carved on either side
  • Lamp/vase motif above the apex of the Larvand mihrab compared with the kalasha motif flanking the entrance to the Shahi Masjid
  • Masjid-i Sangi, interior showing kīrttimukha motif at center of beam supporting dome
  • Lashkari Bazar, South Palace, detail of carved stucco
  • Chaurasi Khambha Mosque, detail of stone inscription framing the mihrab
  • Chisht mausoleum, detail of stucco inscription
  • Inscription on stone screen
  • Inscription on stone tombstone, detail
  • Qutb Mosque, details of screen added to the prayer hall with knot motifs amidst vegetal friezes
  • Chisht, funerary momument, detail of inscription with knot motifs
  • Qutb Minar, detail of Ghurid stone inscription on fourth band of first story showing heart-shaped knot motif
  • Dinar minted in the name of Sultan Mu‘izz al-Din, with prominent knot motif visible at top, obverse
  • Knot motifs
  • Rubbing showing a detail of a Kufic inscription on a cenotaph from Bhadreshvar
  • Qutb Mosque, detail of southernmost pier of Iltutmish’s extended screen
  • Arhai-din-ka-Jhompra, screen added to the façade of the prayer hall by Iltutmish
  • Arhai-din-ka-Jhompra Mosque, southeast corner bastion
  • Qutb Mosque, detail of bastion at south entrance
  • Arhai-din-ka-Jhompra Mosque, main gateway
  • Arhai-din-ka-Jhompra Mosque, detail on gateway showing knot motifs at center of lintel
  • Iltutmish’s tomb, detail of carved ornament with knot motif, interior eastern façade
  • Qutb Mosque, detail of screen added by Qutb al-Din Aybek
  • Fragment of stamped, resist-dyed blue cotton textile, northern India
  • Qutb Mosque, detail of screen extensions added by Iltutmish
  • Arhai-din-ka-Jhompra Mosque, detail of screen added by Iltutmish
  • Reconstruction of the Qutb Mosque, after its enlargement by ‘Ala’ al-Din Khalji
  • Qutb Mosque, iron pillar erected by Iltutmish
  • Firuzabad, detail of palimpsest inscriptions on an Ashokan pillar
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Description: Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval “Hindu-Muslim”...
Contents
PublisherPrinceton University Press
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Description: Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval “Hindu-Muslim”...
~More than any other project that I have undertaken, this has been a collaborative endeavor, and my debt to colleagues and friends who gave freely and generously of their opinions, time, research materials, and photographs during the decade that it was under way is immense. In addition to the individuals named below, I would like to thank all those whose numerous...
PublisherPrinceton University Press
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Description: Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval “Hindu-Muslim”...
~For the sake of simplicity, diacriticals have been kept to a minimum. Where a foreign word has entered English usage (for example, mihrab, sufi, etc.), it is neither italicized nor provided with diacriticals. However, where a term is transliterated from Arabic, Persian, or Sanskrit, appropriate diacritical marks have been used following the...
PublisherPrinceton University Press
Description: Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval “Hindu-Muslim”...
In the spring of 2006, an article appeared in the Guardian, a liberal British newspaper, in which an Oxford historian considered the intercultural tensions affl icting contemporary Europe...
PublisherPrinceton University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.1-14

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Description: Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval “Hindu-Muslim”...
In the first decades of the eighth century, the armies of the Umayyad caliphs of Damascus, the first Islamic dynasty, defeated the indigenous rulers of the Iberian Peninsula...
PublisherPrinceton University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.15-59

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Description: Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval “Hindu-Muslim”...
In a groundbreaking study published in 1996, Phillip Wagoner analyzed the role of dress in the public ceremonial of the Hindu rulers of Vijayanagara...
PublisherPrinceton University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.61-87

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Description: Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval “Hindu-Muslim”...
In 545/1150 the armies of ‘Ala’ al-Din Husayn, chief of the Shansabanid clan of Ghur, a remote mountainous area of what today is west-central Afghanistan...
PublisherPrinceton University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.89-119

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Description: Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval “Hindu-Muslim”...
The opening passage of Rudyard Kipling’s Kim sees the eponymous hero sitting in front of the Lahore Museum astride an object that still stands in the same location today...
PublisherPrinceton University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.121-135

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Description: Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval “Hindu-Muslim”...
The idea that temple and mosque represent two extremes of a bipolar cultural history is an axiom of South Asian historiography...
PublisherPrinceton University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.137-226

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Description: Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval “Hindu-Muslim”...
Today, eight centuries after its emergence as the cultural and political capital of northern India, the preeminent status of Delhi is a given...
PublisherPrinceton University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.227-259

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Description: Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval “Hindu-Muslim”...
To enter the entangled worlds of Arab, Persian, Turkic, and Indic artisans, merchants, political elites, and soldiery living in the northwestern regions of South Asia...
PublisherPrinceton University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.261-268

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Description: Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval “Hindu-Muslim”...
Appendix Principal Dynasties and Rulers Mentioned
PublisherPrinceton University Press
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Description: Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval “Hindu-Muslim”...
Bibliography
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Index
PublisherPrinceton University Press
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