List of illustrations

  • Sarah Goodin Barrett Moulton: Pinkie
  • Image of Hope End Mansion, the Moulton-Barrett residence in Herefordshire
  • West India Dock
  • George Hibbert
  • Monument of the Late Thomas Hibbert Esq.
  • Harbour Street, Kingston
  • The Anti-Slavery Society Convention, 1840
  • The Anti-Slavery Society Convention, 1840, detail of Edward Barrett
  • The Anti-Slavery Society Convention, 1840, detail of Henry Beckford
  • Cudgelling Match between English and French Negroes in the Island of Domenica
  • Campbellsfield Penn, Jamaica
  • Monument to William Beckford
  • Fonthill
  • The Falls of the Rhine at Schaffhausen
  • Portrait of George Robertson
  • The Watering Place
  • The Voyage of the Sable Venus, from Angola to the West Indies, ca. 1793, from Bryan Edwards, "The History, Civil and Commercial, of the British Colonies in the West Indies," vol. 2, London: John Stockdale
  • Medallion produced for the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade
  • Lucky Valley Estate in the Parish of Clarendon, Jamaica. The Property of Edward Long Esq Surveyed in October 1816 by B Haynes
  • View of Lucky Valley Estate Buildings, Clarendon
  • Rose-Hall
  • Sir John Taylor, His Wife Elizabeth, His Brother Simon Taylor, and Four of Their Six Children
  • May-Day: A Street Strolling Clown
  • May Day in London
  • The Portrait
  • London Curtezan
  • Fire in London
  • Bush cow mask. Face of the Do society (Siginkuru-Ayna)
  • Carved image of a standing woman in red
  • Jánkúnu mask
  • Mask surmounted by a miniature house
  • Vèvè (Haitian sacred ground blazon)
  • Two miniature North Kongo habitations
  • Band of the Jaw-Bone John-Canoe, detail
  • Editorial article advocating folkloric revival of John Canoe
  • Advertisement for an island-wide John Canoe competition
  • Jonkonnu [Jankunu] House (Ceremonial Frame House)
  • Instruments used in Jankunu performance: bass or band drum, and gumbay drum
  • Advertisement
  • Map of Spanish Town, Kingston, and Surroundings
  • Announcement for a concert at the Kingston Theatre
  • Beau Jenkins practising the Militia Band in the new German Waltz, detail from Martial Law in Jamaica
  • Nuptial ceremony of Johnny and the charming Rosa, detail from Adventures of Johnny Newcome
  • Banyan Tree (Jamaican folk song); Schubert, Sechs Ländler
  • Don’t Cry Too Much
  • Dandy Shandy
  • Oh Samwel Oh!
  • Bell a Ring a Yard
  • Devotion in Duke’s Place or Contractors returning thanks for a Loan
  • Harbour Street, Kingston
  • Kingston, & Port Royal, from Windsor Farm
  • Ruins of the Fire at Kingston, Jamaica
  • Silver tankard presented by the Jewish community to Moses Delgado
  • Svcerie
  • A Man and a Woman of Oonalashka
  • Sunday Morning in Town
  • Jewish Shop
  • Koo-Koo, or Actor-Boy, detail showing "Henriques" shop sign
  • Johanaan, l’Évangéliste
  • Negro Aroused
  • She Ain’t Holding Them Up, She’s Holding On (Some English Rose)
  • Untitled
  • Untitled
  • Naming the Money, detail
  • Naming the Money, detail
  • A Ship Called Jesus
  • Ghosting
  • Ghosting
  • Sweetness and Light: Great House People (no. 4)
  • Sweetness and Light: Great House People (no. 3)
  • Insert
  • Title page
  • Preface
  • Queen or ‘Maam’ of the Set-Girls, description
  • Red Set-Girls, and Jack-in-the Green, description
  • Band of the Jaw-Bone John-Canoe, description
  • Errata slip
  • Front cover, Sketches of Character
  • Koo-Koo, or Actor-Boy, description
  • Koo-Koo, or Actor-Boy, description
  • French Set-Girls
  • French Set-Girls, description
  • French Set-Girls, description
  • Lovey
  • Lovey, description
  • Lovey, description
  • Front cover, Sketches of Character, no. 3
  • Water-Jar Sellers
  • Water-Jar Sellers, description
  • Milkwoman, description
  • Milkwoman
  • Chimneysweeper, description
  • Chimneysweeper, description
  • Chimneysweeper
  • Creole Negroes
  • A New and Accurat Map of the World, 1651, from Speed, Prospect of the Most Famous Parts of the World
  • A New Map of the English Plantations in America
  • The Island of Jamaica
  • Fidicula Indorum & Nigritarum
  • A View of the Town and Harbour of Montego Bay, in the Parish of St. James, Jamaica, taken from the Road leading to St. Ann’s
  • A View of Charles Town the Capital of South Carolina in North America, from Scenographia Americana
  • West India Dock
  • Sugar nipper
  • Advertisement of Slave Sale by Alexandre Lindo
  • View of the Roaring River Cascade
  • An Indian Cacique of the Island of Cuba, addressing Columbus concerning a future state
  • Bryan Edwards
  • The Spring Head of Roaring River
  • A View in the Island of Jamaica of Roaring River Estate, belonging to William Beckford Esqr near Savannah la Marr
  • A View in the Island of Jamaica of the Bridge crossing Cabaritta River on the Estate of William Beckford Esqr
  • A View of the Iron Bridge
  • An Iron Work for Casting of Cannon
  • Old Cudjoe making Peace
  • Pacification with the Maroon Negroes
  • Trelawney Town, the chief residence of the Maroons
  • The Maroons in Ambush on the Dromilly Estate in the Parish of Trelawney, Jamaica
  • Diagram, or Plan of the Town, Inhabited by the Runaway and Rebellious Negroes, Called by Them, We No Sen’, You No Come
  • Map of the Abolition movement
  • Medallion produced for the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade; Abolitionist seal; Bracelet
  • Antislavery halfpenny token
  • Description of a Slave Ship
  • Shackles
  • Collar
  • Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African
  • The Slave Trade
  • African Hospitality
  • Barbarities in the West Indias
  • Anti-Sacharrites, or—John Bull and his Family leaving off the Use of Sugar
  • The Abolition of the Slave Trade
  • A Negro hung alive by the Ribs to a Gallow
  • Flagellation of a Female Samboe Slave
  • Abolition of the Slave Trade in 1807
  • Immediate, not Gradual Abolition; or, An Inquiry Into the Shortest, Safest, and Most Effectual Means of Getting Rid of West-Indian Slavery
  • A Representation of the Sugar Cane and the Art of Making Sugar
  • Halse Hall
  • The court-house
  • Digging, or rather hoeing, the cane-holes
  • Planting the cane
  • Cutting the sugarcane
  • The Mill Yard
  • The Boiling House
  • Exterior of the Boiling House
  • Exterior of the curing house and stills
  • Interior of the distillery
  • Carting and putting sugar hogsheads on board
  • Llanrumny Estate St Mary’s Jamaica
  • Mill Yard, Holland Estate, St. Thomas in the East
  • Account of Clothing Served to Old Montpelier Estate’s Slaves/this 17th Day of May 1827
  • Page from the Radnor Estate Journal (recto and verso)
  • Plantain Walk
  • View of Negro Village
  • Negro Hut with Figures in Plantain Walk
  • Sheet of drawings including a possible self-portrait
  • Planting Corn; Old Driver; Planting Corn; House Negro Digging Corn Holes
  • Sixteen drawings of slaves
  • Maverly Works and Part of Liguanea Mountains (St Andrews)
  • Slave Carrying Plantains on Pole
  • Woman beating Cassava
  • Man Stripping Cane
  • Driver, cold Morning
  • Digging Corn holes; La Duchesse
  • Fishpot of Split Bamboo; in foreground at Brailesford’s
  • Piazza and Stairs at Four Paths (Clarendon)
  • Costume of Jamaica / Watchman, sketch for title page
  • The Collier
  • Negro Heads with Punishments
  • Protector of Slaves Office (Trinidad)
  • The Torrid Zone. Or, the Blessings of Jamaica
  • A Grand Jamaica Ball!
  • Segar Smoking Society in Jamaica
  • Johnny Newcome in Love in the West Indies
  • Adventures of Johnny Newcome
  • John Fuller
  • Rosehill
  • Plymouth Dock from Mount Edgecumbe
  • Cascade of Terni
  • Holland Estate, St. Thomas in the East, View from the Change of Air House
  • Lyssons Estate, St. Thomas in the East, Jamaica
  • Holland Estate, St. Thomas in the East, Jamaica
  • Haughton Court, Hanover, Jamaica
  • Study for Patrons and Lovers of Art
  • Bridge over the Rio Cobre, Spanish Town
  • Waterfall on the Windward Road
  • Montpelier Estates, St James, The Property of C.R. Ellis Esqr M.P.
  • The Attack of the Rebels on Montpelier Old Works Estate in the Parish of St James’s, the Property of Lord Seaford
  • The Destruction of Roehamton Estate in the Parish of St James’s in January 1832 the Property of J. Baillie Esqr
  • A View of Montego-Bay, Taken from Reading Hill. The Rebels Destroying the Road; and Reading Wharf in Flames
  • Montego Bay from Reading Hill, from A Picturesque Tour of the Island of Jamaica, from Drawings Made in the Years 1820 and 1821
  • Proclamation of Governor Belmore Requesting That Negroes Surrender
  • Encampment of Regulars at Shettlewood Penn
  • Calendar of Prisoners for Hanover, Special Slave Court
  • A Run away negro. Jamaica
  • Emancipation, 1st August 1834
  • King’s Square, St. Jago de la Vega
  • The First of August
  • Caricature No.1, The Contrast
  • Emancipation
  • An Interior View of a Jamaica House of Correction
  • A Plan of Good Hope Estate
  • Plan of the Hospital for Sick Slaves at Good Hope
  • Quarterly inventories of slaves and stock on John Tharp’s Estates, 28 June 1795–28 Dec. 1796
  • Inventory of Good Hope estate: (a) tools &c in estate offices (b) slaves (c) cattle, mules etc, 1804
  • Document relating to claim for compensation for freed slaves on abolition of slavery, 14 December 1835
  • Two plates bearing Tharp family crest
  • Good Hope
  • Weston Favel Estate
  • Friendship Estate
  • Sugar Works at Kelly’s Estate
  • Sugar Works at Kelly’s Estate
  • View of Kelly’s Estate
  • Cocoa Walk Estate
  • Cocoa Walk District
  • Highgate, Jamaica
  • Interior of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue, London
  • Interior of Bevis Marks Synagogue, London
  • Synagogue, Duke’s Place, Houndsditch
  • An Elevation, Plan, and History of the Royal Exchange of London
  • Stock Exchange
  • A report of the trial of Arthur Hodge, Esquire
  • Studies of Haymakers
  • Title page
  • Etchings of Rustic Figures for the Embellishment of Landscape
  • Exhibition Room, Somerset House
  • Exhibition of Water Coloured Drawings, Old Bond Street
  • Scene on the River Mole, with Cattle (?)
  • Road Scene with Cattle
  • Hilly Landscape with River and Cattle
  • Evening, Bayswater
  • Letter from Jacob Mendes Belisario (?) to John Linnell, 29 April 1819
  • Letter from Jacob Mendes Belisario (?) to John Linnell, 12 July 1819
  • Letter from Jacob Mendes Belisario (?) to John Linnell, 12 July 1819
  • Letter from Jacob Mendes Belisario (?) to John Linnell, 12 July 1819
  • Untitled engraving
  • Miss E. Tree in the Character of Mrs Cregan in Eily O’Connor
  • City of Kingston from the Commercial Rooms, Looking Towards the South
  • Frances, Lady Rowe
  • Portrait of Unknown Man
  • House with Walled Garden
  • Portrait of Adolphe Duperly (1801–1864)
  • Portrait of Benjamin Caractacus Pathey
  • The Revd Isaac Lopez
  • The Parade and Upper Part of Kingston from the Church, looking towards the Port Royal Mountains
  • The Theatre, Kingston
  • Front cover, Sketches of Character, no. 1
  • List of Subscribers
  • Red Set-Girls, and Jack-in-the-Green (cont.) and Jaw-Bone, or House John-Canoe, description
  • Front cover
  • Queen or ‘Maam’ of the Set-Girls
  • Queen or ‘Maam’ of the Set-Girls
  • Queen or ‘Maam’ of the Set-Girls
  • Red Set-Girls, and Jack-in-the-Green
  • Jack in the Green or the 1st of May
  • Jaw-Bone, or House John-Canoe
  • Koo-Koo, or Actor-Boy
  • Koo-Koo, or Actor-Boy
  • French Set-Girls
  • Lovey
  • Untitled [Jewish mendicant]
  • Water-Jar Sellers
  • Milkwoman
  • Chimneysweeper
  • Sweep
  • Creole Negroes
  • The Merry Milk Maid
  • Milk Below Maids
  • Milk Below!
  • Sweep Soot 0
  • Old Clothes!
  • Slippers!
  • Milk Woman
  • Charles McGee
  • Billy Waters
  • The Butter and Milk Man
  • The Negro Banjo Player
  • The Patent Chimney-Sweep Cleaner
  • The Negro Woman
  • Country Fair
  • Bartholomew Fair
  • Panoramic view round the Regent’s Park, London, detail
  • The West India Flower Girl
  • A Negroes’ Dance in the Island of Domenica
  • No. 1, 2, 5 & 6, Negro, 3 & 4, Indian Characters, in Richard Bridgens, "West India Scenery, with Illustrations of Negro Character, The Process of Making Sugar, &c. from Sketches taken during a Voyage to, and Residence of Seven Years in, The Island of Trinidad," London: Published for R. Jennings
  • Queen or ‘Maam’ of the Set-Girls
  • Red Set-Girls, and Jack-in-the-Green
  • Portrait of Okao Aiwerioghen, Benin City, Nigeria
  • Sowei-type mask
  • Akwete cloth
  • De stadt van Louango (The City of Louango)
  • Nganga with minkisi
  • Untitled engraving
  • Manchioneal Bruckins’ Party
  • Mr. Paul Pride costumed as Pitchy Patchy at the National Jonkonnu Competitions
  • Pitchy Patchy Jonkonnu Costume
  • Pitchy Patchy Jonkonnu Costume
  • Pailles De Banane
  • Horse-Head Jonkonnu costume
  • Horse head from Lacovia, St. Elizabeth, Jamaica
  • Jaw-Bone, or House John-Canoe
  • Mask of a man with a house
  • Boat with Figures
  • Costume and mask
  • Koo-Koo, or Actor-Boy
  • Joseph Johnson
  • Model of a canoe
  • Jonkonnu House made for Christmas Fear Festival
  • Jonkonnu House
  • House Jonkonnu, Coker (Saint Elizabeth) Jonkonnu Group
  • House Jonkonnu, Edna Manly School Jonkonnu Group
  • Fan for the Goddess Osun
  • Koo-Koo, or Actor-Boy
  • White ancestor mask
  • Ngar Ball Traditional Masquerade
  • Band of the Jaw-Bone John-Canoe
  • Goombah (gumbay) drum
  • Fife from Lacovia, St. Elizabeth, Jamaica
  • Kumina Drum (Playin Cyas)
  • Kumina Drum (Kbandu)
  • Rattler
  • Sticks
  • Shell
  • Abolition of Slavery in Jamaica
  • Celebration of the 1st August 1838 at Dawkins Caymanas near Spanish Town, Jamaica
  • Commemorative of the Extinction of Slavery in Jamaica, on the First August 1838
  • The Rev. William Knibb
  • The Ordinance of Baptism as administered by the missionaries connected with the Baptist Missionary Society to 135 persons near Brown’s Town, in Jamaica
  • Baptist Chapel, St. Ann’s Bay, Jamaica
  • King Street Chapel, Falmouth, Jamaica
  • A Diagram of the Burnt District of the City of Kingston
  • James’s Foundry, & Messrs DaCosta & Maxwell’s Steam Sawing-Mills, Kingston Jamaica. Destroyed by fire on the 26th of August 1843
  • The Trinity Church in Kingston Jamaica. Destroyed by fire on 26 of August 1843
  • The Effect of the Fire from the Parade, Kingston
  • The Windward Falls, near Kingston
  • Lethé Estate on Great River, St James and Hanover
  • Belle Vue, Residence near Kingston, Stoney Hill in the Distancer
  • Mountain Cottage Scene, Cocoa Nut Trees in the Fore Ground
  • Stewart Castle Estate
  • Montego Bay from Upton Hill
  • Richmond Terrace, Surrey
  • A View of the Ordnance Yard (taken from the Wharf), Daguerrian Excursions
  • A View of the Court-House (taken on the day of an Election), Daguerrian Excursions
  • A View of King Street, Daguerrian Excursions
  • Market Falmouth, Daguerrian Excursions
  • Holland Estate, St. Thomas in the East, Daguerrian Excursions
  • Golden Grove Estate, St. Thomas in the East, Daguerrian Excursions
  • Edward John Eyre
  • George William Gordon
  • Morant Bay, the Scene of the Negro Insurrection; Kingston, Jamaica with Newcastle in the Distance; and The Hordley Estate, Morant Bay, Jamaica, 1865
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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
~This publication and the exhibition to which it relates are the results of an innovative collaboration that began within Yale University and has grown to include a network of academic and curatorial scholars and collectors across the world. The origins of the collaboration lie in a graduate seminar, “Art and the British Empire,” taught in...
Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
At the core of this book—physically and intellectually—lie twelve hand-colored lithographs, published under the title Sketches of Character, In Illustration of the Habits, Occupation, and Costume of the Negro Population in the Island of Jamaica. They were created by Isaac Mendes Belisario in Kingston, Jamaica, in late 1837 and early 1838. Small in size, and printed on fragile...

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
This essay sets the scene for Isaac Mendes Belisario’s life and work by exploring the intimate interconnections between Britain, Jamaica, and the wider British Empire in the troubled decades of the 1820s and 1830s. Its focus is on white society in Jamaica and its symbiotic relation to the “mother country.” It first tells the story of an Anglo-Jamaican family, the Barretts, and...

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
Although, as Barry Higman has observed, “representations of the past occur in a wide range of social contexts and employ many different levels of knowledge and analysis,” the written word has come to be the dominant mode of producing...

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
The aesthetics of the picturesque continually informed visual and verbal representations of the Jamaican landscape, and especially of the plantation, throughout and beyond the period of slavery. The picturesque was a genre of cultured amusements—an aesthetic category based on the idea of the...

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
Stuart Hall has observed that the Caribbean “is a place where nobody is, in the obvious sense, ‘at home,’ where everybody is to some extent dislocated, and that sense of being ‘not at home,’ or...

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
Isaac Mendes Belisario’s prints indelibly document the Afro-Jamaican masked festival known as Jánkúnu. During recent research on Kongo art...

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
Just as the Caribbean itself is an intricate layering of cultures that continually migrate and merge, the region’s art is a dynamic and constantly changing force—adapting to, responding to, and interacting with lived experience. An examination of regional artistic practice across a range of media highlights the role of religion in providing artists all over the Caribbean with access to...

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
Jamaica hangs in a nervous state of suspension. It is the mid-1830s. The abolitionists have triumphed, and slavery is on the way out. Although the colony no longer seems vulnerable to massive revolts like the “Christmas Uprising” that shook the island at the beginning of the decade, a definite edginess remains. Emancipation was declared in 1834, but many of the enslaved have yet to be...

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
Britain changed enormously in the 1830s. In October 1831 Bristol was in flames from rioting; the passing of the Reform Act the following June newly enfranchised more than two hundred thousand males...

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
Jamaica’s Jewish community, which could openly date itself back to the beginnings of English civilian settlement but likely predated the English conquest, had a peculiar relationship to the island’s evolving racial caste system. Although Jews were nominally of free European origin and therefore experienced...

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
When Isaac Mendes Belisario returned to his native Jamaica in the early 1830s from London, where he had grown up and trained as an artist, he was entering a colony preoccupied...

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
In what sense could the gaze that Isaac Mendes Belisario brought to bear on his Jamaican subjects be described as “diasporic”?On the diasporic, see Stuart Hall, “Thinking the Diaspora,” small axe, no. 6...

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
~~Jamaican society at the beginning of the nineteenth century was profoundly divided along racial lines. The central fact was that of slavery. A small white minority held a virtual monopoly on political power and land ownership. Among the island’s population, there were also people categorized as “free black” and...
Author

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
In 1823 Thomas Fowell Buxton declared in the House of Commons that “the state of slavery is repugnant to the principles of the British constitution...
Author

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
~~Isaac Mendes Belisario was born in Kingston, Jamaica, in 1795 into a Sephardic Jewish family of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Expelled from Spain in 1492, the majority of Sephardim settled in Portugal and in 1497 were...
Author

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
~~After his return to Kingston from London in the early 1830s, Isaac Mendes Belisario seems to have focused primarily on making commissioned...
Author

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
~Through public performance across the Caribbean, African cultures found common ground to express both their varied origins and shared experiences. Public art became an outlet for the ever-changing identities of the region’s populations and the traditions they sought to preserve. Jonkonnu is the Jamaican reformulation of the tradition of the masquerade, a...
Author

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
~~Apprenticeship ended on the first of August 1838, and the remaining vestiges of the legal bonds of slavery were removed. Festivities were held, as in 1834, in Spanish Town and across the...
Author

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Description: Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
Under the 1833 Act that abolished slavery in most British colonies, the British government paid £20 million in “compensation” to the owners or mortgagees of enslaved men and women. Such compensation to slaveholders for the emancipation of the enslaved in Jamaica totalled £6 million, representing an average payment of some...

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Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and His Worlds
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