List of illustrations

  • New St. Peter's seen from the north, with the Costantinian nave visible at left
  • Plan of the basilica of old St. Peter's superimposed above a portion of new St. Peter's
  • View of the basilica façade and atrium of old St. Peter's
  • View of the atrium façade of old St. Peter's
  • St. Peter's, showing position between the Mons Vaticanus and the Janiculum
  • Geological map of the Vatican City
  • Project for the completion of St. Peter's
  • Project for the façade of St. Peter's with gallery to the Vatican
  • Reconstruction of the proposal of Girolamo Rainaldi, based on a drawing dated 1605, for the façade of St. Peter's with bell towers
  • Project for completion of St. Peter's
  • Maderno's project for the façade of St. Peter's
  • Maderno's project for the façade of St. Peter's and gallery to the Vatican
  • Maderno's façade project
  • Façade of S. Susanna
  • View facing south within the attic cavity of the north bell tower of St. Peter's
  • Plan of portico and bell towers, St. Peter's
  • Plan of new St. Peter's, 1613
  • Elevation of the façade of new St. Peter's
  • Façade of St. Peter's
  • Plan of the southern half of the portico and south tower of St. Peter's at the attic level with the plan of Maderno's projected belfry
  • Façade of St. Peter's, detail
  • Fountain in the piazza of St. Peter's
  • Corridors within the walls of St. Peter's
  • Corridors within the façade wall of St. Peter's
  • Section of the portico and benediction loggia of St. Peter's
  • Longitudinal section of the northern half of the façade block and north bell tower at the level of the attic
  • Section through the northern corridor of the façade block at attic level
  • View of the interior of the Benediction Loggia facing north
  • Longitudinal section of the first two levels of the northern half of the façade block and bell tower, showing the passageway communicating with the Vatican Palace
  • Plan-project for the piazza of St. Peter's showing the north bell tower and the entrance to the Vatican Palace
  • View to the east from the dome of St. Peter's
  • Plan and section of Moderno's foundation beneath the south bell tower
  • View of the north tower
  • View of the south tower
  • Plan of the north campanile of St. Peter's superimposed above the south campanile
  • Proposal for altering the façade of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for altering the plan of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for altering the façade of St. Peter's
  • Antonio da Sangallo's proposal for the campanile of St. Peter's, detail
  • Proposal for the façade and piazza of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for the altering the façade and piazza of St. Peter's
  • Elevation proposal for the nave and façade of St. Peter's adding little domes and bell towers
  • Antonio da Sangallo's elevation proposal for completing St. Peter's
  • Antonio da Sangallo's elevation proposal for completing St. Peter's
  • Design for the bell towers of St. Peter's
  • Sketches for the campanili of St. Peter's
  • Plan variations for the campanili of St. Peter's
  • View of St. Peter's from the southwest
  • View of St. Peter's from the Room of Charlemagne
  • Roma holding St. Peter with a single-story campanile above the south tower base
  • Design for a papal altar
  • Study of the Tuscan Order after Vitruvius
  • Study of Ionic bases
  • Studies after the Pantheon
  • Reconstruction of the (1636) wooden model phase of Bernini's bell tower (left), and of the elevation of Bernini's tower following the ground plan shown in Albertina 728 (right)
  • Reconstruction of Bernini's tower as executed
  • Plan of the first level of the tower built by Bernini
  • Plan of the second level of the tower built by Bernini
  • Project for the third story and pyramid of Bernini's tower
  • Façade of St. Peter's with bell towers
  • Proposal for the bell tower of St. Peter's
  • Plan of Maderno's south tower base at St. Peter's with half-plans contrasting the solutions proposed by Bernini and Maderno for the campanile
  • View looking east from the dome of St. Peter's
  • View looking east from the dome of St. Peter's, detail showing south tower
  • Two views of Burbure
  • View facing south showing large reinforcing arch (arcone) in the attic cavity of north bell tower at St. Peter's
  • Foundation stone for Bernini's bell tower
  • Façade of St. Peter's with bell towers at night
  • View of St. Peter's from the southwest showing Bernini's tower in 1639
  • View of St. Peter's from the south showing Bernini's tower in 1639 with scaffolding in place for the second story
  • View of St. Peter's from the south showing Bernini's tower under construction
  • Plan of the south half of the façade block of St. Peter's, taken at the level of the nave roof, with the plan of the first level of Bernini's campanile, as constructed, superimposed above Maderno's south tower base
  • Plan of the first level of Bernini's tower (above) and that proposed by Bolgi (below)
  • Plans showing the position of Bernini's spiral stair within the narthex block of St. Peter's (left); details of Bernini' spiral stair design (right)
  • Spiral stair within the south bell tower
  • Spiral stair within the south bell tower
  • Elevation drawing showing Bernini's tower
  • Victories holding the escutcheon of Innocent X from the south aisle of St. Peter's
  • Victories holding the escutcheon of Innocent X from the north aisle of St. Peter's
  • Victories from the bell towers in their new position outside the Chapel of the Holy Sacrament in the north side of St. Peter's
  • Plan of Bernini's south tower
  • Plan of the third level of Bernini's campanile
  • View of St. Peter's from the north showing the south tower with scaffolding in place for the construction of the third story
  • Section through the mezzanine and pyramidal finial of the south bell tower
  • Author's reconstruction of the tower unveiled on 29 June 1641
  • Column capital from the third level of the bell tower, reused in the sacristy of St. Peter's
  • Little dome of St. Peter's
  • View looking east from the dome of St. Peter's, detail showing the north tower
  • Interior view of stair within the attic cavity of the north tower
  • View of the north bell tower from the west
  • View of St. Peter's showing the south tower and scaffolding in place for the construction of the north tower
  • View of St. Peter's from the south
  • Corpus Domini Procession in the Piazza of St. Peter's at the Time of Innocent X
  • Elevation drawing showing Bernini's tower above a portion of Maderno's attic
  • Elevation proposal for the bell towers of St. Peter's
  • The baldachin of St. Peter's
  • Southernmost entrance to the narthex of St. Peter's, detail
  • Plan and section of the southern portion of the façade of St. Peter's
  • Plan of St. Peter's with proposals for altering the subterranean drainage system
  • Section of the foundations beneath the façade block of St. Peter's
  • Attic window on the west face of the south bell tower
  • Plan of Maderno's nave and façade of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for reinforcing the foundations of St. Peter's
  • Butterfly clip from the corridor at the attic level behind the façade of St. Peter's
  • Butterfly clip from the attic cavity of the north bell tower of St. Peter's
  • Section of the foundations and south tower, and profile of the façade and foundations of St. Peter's
  • Plan of the foundations beneath the south tower of St. Peter's
  • Plan and section of the southern portion of the façade and the south bell tower, St. Peter's
  • Plan of the southern portion of the façade and south bell tower
  • Plan of Maderno's projected belfry above the south bell tower base
  • Plan of Bernini's south bell tower superimposed above the fabric of the north tower base and adjacent structures
  • View of the west attic window within the north bell tower of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for alternate towers for the façade of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for alternate towers for the façade of St. Peter's
  • Coach for Camillo Pamphili
  • Proposal for alternate towers for the façade of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for altering the bell towers of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for alternate towers for the façade of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for alternate towers for the façade of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for alternate towers for the façade of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for alternate towers for the façade of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for the bell towers of St. Peter's
  • Plan and elevation of alternate bell towers for the façade of St. Peter's
  • Elevation drawing of an alternate bell tower for St. Peter's
  • Plan for an alternate bell tower for St. Peter's
  • Proposal for altering the façade of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for the façade and piazza of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for altering the façade of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for altering the façade of St. Peter's
  • Reconstruction of the ground plan of the façade and south bell towers of St. Peter's with Bernini's proposed reentrant bay
  • Proposal for altering the façade of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for altering the façade of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for altering the façade of St. Peter's
  • Section of the façade and proposed addition to the nave of the church with bell tower
  • Elevation proposal for alternate bell towers for St. Peter's
  • Proposal for altering the façade of St. Peter's
  • Proposal for altering the façade of St. Peter's
  • Truth
  • Proposal for altering the façade of St. Peter's
  • Bernini's south tower with Fontana's proposals for reinforcing the foundations
  • Chigi tower design
  • Elevation of towers for St. Peter's
  • Chigi tower design
  • Tower design for St. Peter's
  • Composite design with the tower of "Equite Rainaldi" on the left, and that of "Cesare Bracci" on the right
  • Façade of St. Peter's with the tower built by Bernini at left, its projected counterpart at right, and a proposal to unite the bays of the original façade with an enormous pediment
  • Reconstruction of Bernardo Rossellino's plan for St. Peter's
  • Reconstruction of the exterior of old St. Peter's in ca. 330
  • Charles V Kissing the Foot of Paul III in Rome
  • Interior of the nave of old St. Peter's with a view of the porphyry stone in the center of the floor
  • The Coronation of Charlemagne, from the Grandes Chronicles de France
  • Façade of S. Maria in Turri
  • The Fire in the Borgo
  • The Coronation of Charlemagne
  • Lateran triclinium wall as restored in 1625
  • Transept façade of S. Giovanni in Laterano
  • Project for the façade of S. Maria Maggiore with two bell towers
  • Ideological project for St. Peter's
  • S. Agnese in Piazza Navona
  • St. Paul's
  • Free variation on Bernini's bell tower design
  • Elevation and half-plan of a central-plan church project
  • The royal church of Superga, Turin
  • Proposal for the façade of S. Giovanni in Laterano, Rome
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
Contents
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
~~MANY PEOPLE and many institutions have contributed to this book. I would like first to thank three professors at Columbia University. My debt to them is enormous. Joseph Connors suggested the topic and directed the dissertation with which this book began. His example, his friendship, and his conversation have enriched the...
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
~~ON THE twenty-ninth of June 1641, Gianlorenzo Bernini completed the south tower of the facade of St. Peter’s. The Barberini pope, Urban VIII (1623–44), who had commissioned Bernini’s three-tiered design thus began to realize the intentions of popes and architects as far back as the mid-fifteenth century to...
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
~THE CONSTRUCTION, destruction, and rebuilding of St. Peter’s basilica have a millennial history. Work on the site of new St. Peter’s has absorbed the talents of generations of architects over several centuries with its design and structural challenges. The central role of the basilica in the city and the glacial pace of its construction survive...
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
~ON THE FIFTH of February 1629, Gianlorenzo Bernini assumed the title of architect to the basilica of St. Peter’s. An avviso of the same date records the event. “The Cavaliere Bernini has been named the new architect of the Vatican Basilica and the Apostolic Palace in place of...
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
~THE FATE OF Bernini’s towers was decided by Urban VIII’s successor, Pope Innocent X Pamphili. It was he who called for an investigation of the cracks in the facade of St. Peter’s, he who oversaw the subsequent architectural competition, and he who gave the final order to dismantle Bernini’s towers. Innocent’s decision spelled...
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
~IN THE FIRST months of his pontificate, Innocent X turned his attention to the completion and decoration of the basilica of St. Peter’s. When Innocent arrived on the papal throne, Bernini’s tower stood as it had been left in 1642, when the more urgent problems of the war of Castro had usurped attention and funds...
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
~ON MONDAY the ninth of October, the Congregation convened for a third time. The pope was no longer interested in engineering reports alone but wanted to see how other architects might amend Bernini’s design. The meeting was held in the palace of Cardinal Marcello Lante in the...
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
~THE FABBRICA included Pietro Paolo Drei and Santi Moschetti in the campanile discussions for tactical reasons. Their memories of what had taken place on the site, enhanced by a seasoned rivalry, served the Fabbrica in its fact-gathering process. And even though their designs were not credible alternatives, the small scale of the campanili they proposed...
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
~ON THE twenty-third of February 1646 the cardinals and prelates assembled once again. The pope was absent and so was his nephew. The meeting was relatively brief. The Latin minutes record that in...
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
~BERNINI’S BELL tower lay dismembered on the roof of St. Peter’s until 1653, when Innocent X gave the order to sell off the parts.See Doc. 39. In the decades that followed, documents record the sale and transportation of the materials. Fragments of Bernini’s...
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
Documents
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
Catalogue of Drawings
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
Works Cited
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
Index
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Description: Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
Photo Credits
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Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican
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