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Description: Abstract Bodies: Sixties Sculpture in the Expanded Field of Gender
Index
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00005.011
Index
NOTE: Page numbers followed by n and a number refer to information in the Notes. Artists’ works appear at the end of their index entries.
abstract eroticism 5, 13–15
see also Eccentric Abstraction
Abstract Expressionism 24
and Chamberlain 138–9, 142
and Grossman 154, 162, 189–90
and O’Hara, 72
and Smith 3, 68
abstraction’s rejection of human form and invocation in sculpture xii–xiii, xvi, xvii, 1–2, 6–41, 278–9
anthropomorphism 9–13
and Minimalism 9–11, 12–13
Bourgeois’s work 17
Flavin’s dedications and personhood 249–53, 256, 257–65
Flavin’s icons and figurations of the homosexual 212–27, 233–5, 237, 241–3, 261
and genders xiv–xv, 1, 2, 13–19, 44, 279–80
complication and ambiguity of gender 19–26
Gonzalez-Torres’s dedications and personhood 254, 256, 265
and Smith’s non-figurative art 2–3, 44–5, 54–5, 57–9, 62–8, 70, 80, 81–95
transgender capacity 2, 4, 34, 38–9, 276–7, 278–80
and body in Cassils’s sculpture 269–74, 278
Burton’s sculpture as furniture 274–6, 278
Grossman’s work 160
openness of Chamberlain’s work 129–42, 145
Acconci, Vito 25
activism and transgender issues xii, 26–7, 28, 29, 30
Adrian, Dennis 326n.123
Aestheticism: artists and self-representation 20
Alloway, Lawrence 8
Altieri, Charles 71
ambiguity of gender in art 4, 5, 19
ambiguity and simplified morphologies in modern sculpture 19–26
and Brancusi’s sculpture 20–2
Chamberlain’s work 131–3, 135
Smith’s non-figurative works 83, 87–95
and Lippard’s discourse 14
sculpture of Bourgeois and Hesse 17
and Smith’s work 83
see also androgyny
American Psychiatric Association 30–1
Andre, Carl 247, 249, 259
“A Word for John Chamberlain” (poem) 305n.22
androgyny
in art 5, 14, 21
interpretations of Smith’s work 83
artists’ self-representation 20, 24
see also ambiguity of gender in art
anecdotal theory 44
Anger, Kenneth 142
Scorpio Rising (film) 139, 172
animalier sculpture 283–4nn.4
anthropocentrism critique 9
anthropomorphism 5
and sculpture 6, 9–13, 145
Smith’s non-figurative work 54–5, 57–9, 61, 62–8, 70, 80, 81–95
see also sculpture: relationship with human figure
Antin, Eleanor 269
Apollinaire, Guillaume 20
Arbus, Diane 25, 198
art history see transgender studies: and art history
Artforum: Flavin’s autobiography 217–18, 219
artists and self-representation:
nonconforming genders 20, 24, 25, 149, 205
assemblage: Grossman’s sculpture 4, 18–19, 147–8, 149–79, 203
Auder, Viva: The Secret Life of William Shakespeare (film with Chamberlain) 114, 116
Auping, Michael 100
Avedon, Richard: Grossman’s studio and work 182, 184, 189, 190, 191, 194
Ayden, Eije 61
Baden, Mowry 11
Baker, Elizabeth (Betsy) 97, 102, 117, 308n.77
Bannard, Darby 106
Bass, Math 327n.13
Battcock, Gregory 324n.93
Minimal Art (anthology) 13
Bell, Larry 119
Bellamy, Richard 220
Benglis, Lynda: The Amazing Bow Wow (video) 25
Benjamin, Harry xii, 20, 28, 29
Benning, Sadie 327n.13
Berkson, Bill 61–2, 150, 177
Bernstein, Nancy 27
Besember, Linda 327n.13
Bess, Forrest 24
binary approach to gender and human form xiv–xv, 21–2
fallacy and acknowledgement of multiple genders xv–xvi, 14, 23–4, 31–2, 33, 34, 280
limitations on human experience 129
and Grossman 176–7, 179
see also dimorphism
bi-sexed and inclusive genders in art 20–1, 24–5
Grossman on bi-sexed process of art 178–9, 205
black leather and Grossman’s work
association with S/M 172, 173, 180, 191–201, 204
connotations of black leather jacket 172–4, 176
Black Mountain College and Chamberlain 117, 143, 304n.6
Blake, Nayland 179, 189, 193, 194
Blow Job (Warhol film) 172, 201
“bodily”
and anthropomorphism in sculpture 9, 11, 13
and gender and sexuality 13
body
aesthetics of transgender body 4
in sculptural work of artists 2–3
Cassils’s use of body in making of work 267–74, 278
see also human figure and shift to abstraction; viewer’s bodily relation with art
bondage see S/M community
Bontecou, Lee 142
Bosworth, Patricia 198
Bourgeois, Louise 17–18, 19, 25, 160, 301n.93
Brainard, Joe 48
Brancusi, Constantin 6, 20–2
Flavin’s dedication of work to 210
Adam and Eve 20, 21
Golden Bird 23
The Kiss 135, 140
Leda 20
Princess X 20, 22
Torso of a Young Girl [II] 20, 22
Torso of a Young Man [I] 20, 21, 22
Broadway in Flavin’s icon V (Coran’s Broadway Flesh) 212–13, 215, 222–4
Burgher, Elijah 327n.13
Burden, Chris 316n.126
Burnham, Jack 11–12, 244, 325n.96
Burr, Tom 327n. 13
Burton, Scott 274–6, 278
Five Themes of Solitary Behavior 198
Two-part Chair 276
Butler, Judith xiv, 31, 94, 127, 278, 307n.59
on acknowledgement of gender complexity xvi, 36, 41, 89–91, 267
Butt, Gavin 47
Calder, Alexander (“Sandy”) 259
Calley, Lieutenant William 185, 187–8
capacity see transgender capacity
Carney, William: The Real Thing 173, 315n.116
Caro, Anthony 11–12
Carroll, Paul 71
Cassils
Becoming an Image performance work 268–71, 268, 271–2, 273, 278
Cuts: A Traditional Sculpture 269
The Resilience of the 20% 266, 267–9, 273–4
Chadwick, Whitney 316n. 134
Chamberlain, John xii, xiii, xvi, 2–4, 39, 97–145, 121, 274, 276, 279
Black Mountain College 143, 304n.6
and poet’s approach to work 117, 143
bodies in non-figurative art 2–3, 114
challenges of describing work 100–2, 138–9, 142
interviews and evasive attitude to work 117–18, 122–3, 130, 279
Judd’s writing and interpretation 110, 118–19
and “successive states” 110–11, 114, 130
color and work 105–8, 305n.26
“fitting” process and coupling in words and work 97–8
conflicted readings of concrete and abstract 97, 108, 110–12, 143
coupling and tactics of 100, 102–16, 143
masculine and feminine in work 137
sculpture and painting 104–5, 116
and sexual in work 98, 100, 120–5, 127, 130–1
volume and mass 103–4, 112, 116
and gender multiplicity and indetermination 1, 122–42
Guggenheim retrospective (2012) 305n.27
John Chamberlain / F____g Couches exhibition 120–1
paper sculptures no, 117
sexuality
and personal interactions and interviews 119–20
and work 38, 98, 100, 120–5, 127, 129–31, 143, 145
titles and meaning of work 110, 114, 117, 249
and gender assignment 113–4, 131, 132
transformative nature of art 112–13, 114, 122, 125, 127, 145
recycling aesthetic 127
and transgender perspective 18, 26, 129–42
open-endedness and transgender capacity 129–42, 145
Bouquet 99
Chili Terlingua 124
Crowded Hearts 132
Dolores James 112
Endless Gossip 110
Endzoneboogie 110, 111
Essex 123–4
F*****g Asterisks 129
Fantail 103
Flavin Flats 3
Folded Nude 96, 133–4, 134
Four Polished Nails 126
Huzzy 113–14, 115, 131
Kiss series 135
Kiss #11 138–9
Kiss #12 140, 141
Kiss #26 141
Kiss #28 136
M. Junior love 101
Miss Lucy Pink 108, 131
Mustang Sally McBright 107
One Twin 133–4
Panna-Normanna 123, 142
Penthouse series 110
Penthouse #46 118
The Secret Life of William Shakespeare (film with Auder) 114, 116
Socket series 98, 114, 132
Son of Dudes 109, 131, 132
Three Cornered Desire 132, 133
Tongue Pictures 113
Toy 104
Ultrafull Private 144
Chave, Anna 20–1
Chicago, Judy: Dinner Party 163
Clum, John M. 320n.46
Cohen, Mark Daniel 175–6
color and sculpture
Chamberlain 105–8, 305n.26
critical reservations 105–6
Smith 48, 54, 105
Colpitt, Frances 6, 10, 284n.14
Cone, Jane Harrison 299n.58
Conner, Bruce 9
Coran, Stanley 215, 218–19, 220, 222–5, 234, 237, 242, 247
Creeley, Robert 110
Crow, Thomas 129
Curtis, Jackie 25, 30
Dalí, Salvador 20
Darling, Candy 30
Davis, Whitney 327–8n. 16
Dawson, Fielding 305n.22
de Henriquez, Fiore 24, 28
de Kooning, Willem 46, 48
de Villiers, Nicholas 219
dedications see Flavin: titles of works and dedications
Dehner, Dorothy 79
Dienes, Sari 142
difference and Flavin’s work
naming of homosexuals and visible difference 210–12, 218–19, 220–7, 233–5, 237, 239, 241–3, 259, 261
systematic interchangeability and difference and sameness 243–53, 257, 261, 264–5
dimorphism
fallacy of absolute dimorphism xiv–xvi, 129, 280
and feminist attitudes 204
gender assignment and human form in art xiv–xv
and Brancusi’s sculptures 20–2
and Chamberlain’s sculptures 131–2
and Smith’s non-figurative work 44–5, 62–4, 73–86, 89–91, 93
social insistence on assignment of gender 176–7
nomination of human gender xiv, 21–2
see also binary approach to gender and human form
Disney clay (WED clay) and Cassils’s work 273
drag/drag queens
academic study in 1960s 30
conflict with police 28, 29
Rosenblum’s drag queen names for friends 259, 262–3
visibility in Warhol’s films 25, 30
Duchamp, Marcel 6, 20
The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even 157
earthworks as art 7
Eccentric Abstraction exhibition (New York, 1966) 4, 13, 14, 16–17
Ellison, Ralph: Invisible Man (novel) 219–20
Erickson, Reed and Erickson
Educational Foundation 28–9
erotic in art
abstract eroticism 5, 13–15
see also sexuality
Factory (Warhol) films 25, 30
Fake, Edie 327n.13
Farren, Mick 172
fashion and black leather jacket 172–3, 176
Feinberg, Leslie 26, 282n.13, 289n.80
feminism
binary attitudes to gender 204
division over transgender participation 31, 291n.22
Grossman and conflicted relationship with 19, 149, 203–5
Grossman and use of vaginal imagery 162–3
Lippard on abstraction and sexual difference 15
and S/M community and practices 204
transfeminism and gender
nonconformism in art 25–6, 149, 205
Fer, Briony 12, 15
figuration see human figure and shift to abstraction
film and transsexuality 25, 27, 28, 30
Flavin, Dan xii, xiii, 2–4, 39–40, 209–65, 274, 276
bodies in non-figurative art 2–3, 213, 215
and categorization of work 209–10
as sculpture 2, 6, 210, 317–8n.5
change of direction and use of fluorescent tubes 230–43
systematic interchangeability and difference and sameness 243–53, 257, 261, 264–5
homosexuality and attitudes and work 38
and autobiography in Artforum 217–18, 219
“flesh tint” and carnal nature of icon V 213, 215, 225, 227, 234
homosexual mentors 232–43
icons and figurations of the homosexual 212–27, 228, 233–5, 237, 241–3, 261
public offensives and naming of homosexuals 216–17, 218–19, 220, 227, 233–4, 259, 261
invisibility and art of 228–9
fluorescent tubes and “approximate invisibility” 232–43, 261, 264
light and the visible in art 219–20, 239
titles of works and dedications 40, 209–10, 280
fluorescent tubes and performative dedications 247–53, 257, 261, 264
influence on Gonzalez-Torres’s naming of works 254–7, 265
naming of homosexuals and visible difference 210–12, 218–19, 220–7, 233–4, 239, 241–3, 259, 261
shifting dedication for diagonal of May 25, 1963 239, 243
transformable personhood and naming 254–65
and transgender perspective 18, 26, 257–65
alternate diagonals of March 2, 1964 (to Don Judd) 242
Dan Flavin: alternating pink and “gold” installation 248
Dan Flavin: fluorescent light installation 242–3, 242
Dan Flavin: some light installation 213, 229–30, 230
the diagonal of May 25, 1963 (to Constantin Brancusi / to Robert Rosenblum) 230–1, 231, 232, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243
East New York Shrines 220, 222, 259
European Couples installation 263
icon series 212–27, 228–30
icon IV (the pure land) (to David John Flavin [1933–1962]) 225, 226, 227, 228, 230, 241
icon V (Coran’s Broadway Flesh) 212–16, 214, 218–27, 221 228, 230, 233–5, 237, 239, 247, 261
final study 216
formation of title 250–1
plan for revised work 224–5, 224
icon VI (Ireland dying) (to Louis Sullivan) 228, 229
icon VII (via crucis) 228, 229
icon VIII (the dead nigger’s icon) (to Blind Lemon Jefferson) 228–9, 229
one of May 27th, 1963 (Construction with Red Fluorescent and Incandescent Bulbs) 237, 238
pink out of a corner (to Jasper Johns) 232, 234, 236, 237, 239, 242–3, 242
red and green alternatives (to Sonja) 211
red out of a corner (to Annina) 237, 238, 257
untitled (for you, Leo, in long respect and affection) 208, 257
untitled (in memory of “Sandy” Calder) V 257, 260
untitled (to Ellen Johnson, fondly) 252
untitled (to Janie Lee) one 246
untitled (to the real Dan Hill) 244
Flavin, David John 217, 225, 227, 242
Flesh (Warhol film) 30
Foucault, Michel 283n.19
Frankenthaler, Helen 62
Freas, Jean 48
Fried, Michael 12–13
“Art and Objecthood” essay 9–10, 278
on Caro 11–12
Fritscher, Jack 196–7
furniture as art in Burton’s work 274–6
Gallop, Jane 44
Gaudier-Brzeska, Henri 6
gay liberation movement xii
distancing from transgender community and issues 31
see also homosexuality
Geldzahler, Henry 137, 279, 284n.8
gender
as “expanded field” 40–1
fallacy of absolute dimorphism xiv–xvi, 129, 280
feminist attitudes to gender roles 204
and Flavin’s naming of works 257–65
gender identity
ascription at birth xiv
invention of term 28, 30
shift in understanding in 1960s xi–xii
historical attitudes and understandings 26–34
and human figure in art xvi, xvii
abstraction and genders xiv–xv, 1, 2, 13–19, 279–80
ambiguity of gender 4, 5, 14, 17, 19–26, 83, 94–5
assignment of gender xiv–xv, 20–3, 44, 131–2
assignment of gender and Smith’s work 44–5, 62–4, 73–86, 89–91, 93
Chamberlain’s work 114, 122–42
Grossman’s open and disruptive approach to gender 147–8, 149–50, 160–79
inclusive genders 20–1, 24–5
nonconforming genders 20, 23–6, 38, 149, 205
and literature on artists 17–18
masculine in Grossman’s work 150, 188
connotations of black leather jacket 172–4, 176
multiplicity xv–xvi, 1, 2, 14, 23–4, 33, 40–1, 279–80
Chamberlain’s work and unspecified gender 1, 122–42
historical context 31–2
see also transgender capacity
mutability xvi, 2, 19, 20, 23–4, 40–1, 127
and Chamberlain’s works 131–3, 135
and Grossman’s work 1, 147–8, 149–50, 160–79, 201–7
historical context 31–2
temporal nature of gender 127, 129
see also transgender capacity
and sexuality 36–9
complexity of Grossman’s explicit sculptures 160–76, 179, 203
see also ambiguity of gender in art; binary approach to gender and human form; dimorphism; nonconforming genders; transformation: and gender; transgender
gender research clinics xi–xii, 28–9, 30
Genette, Gérard 251–3
Gernreich, Rudi 217
Gibson, John: Tinted Venus 105, 106
Goldsmith, Bill 194–5
Glass, Charles 327n.2
Gonzalez-Torres, Felix 254–7, 265
“Untitled” (Perfect Lovers) 256
“Untitled” (Petit Palais) 254,255
“Untitled” (Portrait of Ross in L.A.) 254, 255
Goosen, E. C. 105
Govan, Michael 225
Graham, Dan 225, 245
Gray, Cleve 82, 86, 301n.94
Green, Richard 30
Greenberg, Clement 10, 54, 55, 311n.28
Greenson, Ralph 28
Groeneboer, Jonah 327n. 13
Grossman, Nancy xii, xiii, 2–4, 31, 39, 147–207, 274, 276, 279
bodies in non-figurative art 2–3
abstract assemblages 4, 18–19, 147–8, 149–79, 203
Civil Rights and anti-racism sympathies 199, 313n.69
critical reception and reputation 148–9, 163
misrepresentations of work 149, 205, 206
popularity and misreading of “heads” 192–201
drawings
commercial illustration work 167–8
and sculpture 151, 152, 155, 156–7, 181
and feminism
gender nonconformity and uneasy relationship with 19, 149, 203–5
transgender affinities 19, 26
and use of vaginal imagery 162–3
figurative art and heads 19, 148, 172, 178–207, 180, 183–4, 186–7, 189, 194–6, 200, 202, 207
bodilessness and transgender capacity 201–7
containment and disclosure theme 181–2, 184, 187–8, 191, 201
earlier abstract assemblages as precursor to 149–50, 167–8
labor and craft of making 181–3, 182
redirection of heads in 1980s 199–201
S/M association 180, 191–201, 204, 205
as self-portraits 147, 150, 179–81, 184–91, 202–3, 206
sources of inspiration and research for 189, 191
friendship with Smith and influence on work 151–60
and gender multiplicity and mutability 1
bi-sexed process of art 178–9, 205
bodilessness of heads and trans gender perspective 201–7
disruptive and open approach to gender 147–8, 149–50, 160–79
German shepherd dog 175
leather in work
black leather and cultural connotations 172–4, 176, 180, 191–201
as repurposed material 151, 152–4, 158, 165, 171–2, 177
“machine-animal hybrids” series 159, 177–8
sexuality and complexity of explicit sculptures 38, 148, 151, 160–76, 179, 203
studio and work in progress 182, 184, 189, 190, 191, 194
and transgender perspective 19, 159–60
A. F.F. 146
Ali of Nostrand 158, 175
Ali Stoker 38, 150–1, 162, 167, 169–76, 170–1, 173, 175
Andro sculptures 194–5
Arbus 198
Black Landscape 151, 132, 161, 166
Blunt 183
Bride 150–1, 154, 160–7, 161, 164, 176
Brown and Black 158
B. Y.K. 202
Car Horn 158
Caracas 193
Chiron 166–7, 166
Cob II 199
Eden 151
The Edge of Always 151, 152, 161
For David Smith 1501, 151–60, 153, 155
Hitchcock 158
Mary 185, 186–7, 187–8
M.L. Sweeney 181, 196
M.U.S. 189
No Name 180, 207
Potawatami 162, 167, 168–9
Slaves series 167, 169, 172
Totem series 311n.29
Walrus 166
Guggenheim, Peggy 241
Gypsy (Broadway musical) 222–3, 223, 258–9
Halberstam, Jack 4, 17, 18, 26, 33, 159–60, 177
Hall, Gordon 327n.13
Hammond, Harmony 327n.13
Hampson, Joan and John 28
Harwood, Michael 324n.92, 326n.124
Henriquez, Fiore de see de Henriquez, Fiore
Hepworth, Barbara 23
hermaphrodite statues and ambiguous figures 20
Hess, Thomas 79, 80
Hesse, Eva 17–18, 19, 160, 177
Ringaround Arosie 24
Höch, Hannah 160
homosexuality
black leather and clothing 172–3, 176, 195–6
Flavin’s attitudes and work
homosexual mentors 232–43
icons and figurations of the homosexual 212–27, 233–5, 237, 241–3, 261
naming of homosexuals and visible difference 210–12, 215–16, 218–19, 220–7, 233–5, 237, 239, 241–3, 259, 261
public offensives against homosexuals 216–17, 227
gay collectors
Flavin’s work 323n.82
Grossman’s work 194–5
and Gypsy musical and New York 222–3
and New York art world 46–8, 241
see also gay liberation movement; S/M community
Horosko, Marian 79–80
Howard, Richard 73
human figure and shift to abstraction xii–xiii, xvi, xvii, 277
and genders xiv–xv, 1, 2, 13–19, 279–80
abstraction and nonconforming genders 20, 23–6, 38, 149, 205
assignment of gender xiv–xv, 20–3, 44
assignment of gender and Smith’s non-figurative work 44–5, 62–4, 73–86, 89–91, 93
Brancusi’s assigned and inclusive genders 20–2
Chamberlain’s sculptures 131–2
see also abstraction’s rejection of human form and invocation in sculpture; ambiguity of gender in art; body; sculpture: relationship with human figure
Hunter, Sam 49–50
Indiana, Gary 102, 123–4, 125
International Olympic Committee (IOC) 29
intersex
artists’ self–representation 24, 25
development of history and politics of xv, 26–7, 33–4, 282n.10
Jefferson, Blind Lemon 229
Johns, Jasper 48, 72, 142, 228, 232–5, 237, 249, 259
and Flavin’s pink out of a corner (to Jasper Johns) 232, 234, 236, 237, 239, 242–3, 242
Tennyson 215, 233–5, 235, 237, 239
Johns Hopkins University xi, 29, 30
Johnson, Marsha P. 30
Johnson, Philip 323n.82
Johnston, Jill 213, 234–5
Jones, Caroline 215, 323n.78
Jorgensen, Christine xi, 27, 28, 29–30, 31, 259
Judd, Donald xvi, 9, 12–13, 142, 216, 219, 285n.16
Joyce, James 217
on Chamberlain 101, 105, 107–8, 110–11, 118–19, 120, 130
and Flavin 210, 212, 220, 228
titles of works 249, 250
Kaplowitz, Jane 324
Katz, Jonathan D. 47
Kauffman, Craig 244–5, 324n.94
Kertess, Klaus 102, 105, 120, 307n.51
Kienholz, Edward 9
Kobro, Katarzyna 6
Kosofsky Sedgwick, Eve 4–5, 201, 307n.59
Krauss, Rosalind xi, 13, 16
on attempts to overcome figuration in sculpture 6–7
on body in abstract sculpture 7
“expanded field” term 40–1
on Smith and work 72, 80, 83–4, 88
dissertation and catalogue raisonné 299n.58
Kusama, Yayoi 13, 19
language
nomination of gender at birth xiv
words and artists’ work 279
leather see Grossman: leather in work
Leider, Philip 319n.29
Leigh, Michael: Velvet Underground 192, 193
lesbian community and feminism 204
Leslie, Alfred: The Last Clean Shirt (film with O’Hara) 52
LeWitt, Sol 210, 228
Licht, Fred 241
Linder, Jean 13
Lippard, Lucy
“Eccentric Abstraction” (essay) 13, 14–15, 16, 17
Eccentric Abstraction exhibition (New York, 1966) 4, 13, 14, 16–17
“Eros Presumptive” (essay) 13–15, 16, 17, 38
on Flavin’s icon V g213
on reality of sculpture 7
literalism
and Flavin’s work 209–10
icons and figurations of the homosexual 212–27, 233–5, 237, 241–3, 261
turn to fluorescent tubes 230–2, 241–3, 261, 264
and human form xii, 2, 9, 10, 11, 38
and Burton’s sculpture as furniture 274–5, 278
Flavin’s dedications and personhood 249–53, 257–65
Lonesome Cowboys (Warhol film) 138–9
Lord, Catherine 176
Lowndes, Joan 251
Ludlam, Charles: Ridiculous Theater Company 25
McGinnes, Mac 324n.92, 326n.123
“Meet Ms. Western Artiste!” (with Rosenblum) 262–3
Malevich, Kasimir 323n.78
Mapplethorpe, Robert 195, 197–8
Untitled (Nancy Grossman sculptures) 200
Marisol 25
masculine in Grossman’s work 150, 188
associations of black leather 172–4, 176
Masheck, Joe 216
Massumi, Brian 75–6
Matisse, Henri 210
media
and misrepresentation of Grossman’s “heads” 193–5, 198, 199–201
visibility and understanding of transsexuality xi, xii, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29–30
medicine
gender reassignment surgery 29
medical discourse of sex and gender 24
see also gender research clinics
McCracken, John 324n.94
Medina, Ernest 185, 187
Meltzer, Eve 40
Mendieta, Ana: Untitled (Facial Hair Transplants) 25
Merman, Ethel 222, 223
Meyer, James 9, 10–11, 17, 212, 220
Meyer, Richard 47
Meyerowitz, Joanne 26, 27
Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig 247
Miller, D. A. 222
Minimalism 8, 16
abstraction and human figure 7, 9–13
anthropomorphism critiques 9–11, 12–13
and body in Cassils’s work 273
Burton’s sculpture as furniture 274–6, 278
and Flavin 4, 209–10
and Gonzalez-Torres 254, 256
see also Postminimalism
Money, John 24, 28, 30
“monokini” and Flavin on Barbara Rose 217
Moore, Henry 23
Morris, Robert 7, 12–13, 16, 25
Motherwell, Robert 301n.93
Moyer, Carrie 327n.13
Müller, Grégoire 256
Müller, Ulrike 327n.13
Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York
Flavin on Wilfred’s work at 217
O’Hara and Smith’s work 45–6, 48–50, 59, 61, 62
My Lai Massacre and Grossman’s work 185, 187–8
Namaste, Viviane K. xv, 292–3n.120
names
Rosenblum’s drag queen names for friends 259, 262–3
and self-determination 258–9
see also titles
Nashat, Shahryar 327n.13
Nelson, Maggie 47
Nemser, Cindy 149, 155–6, 157, 160, 162, 163, 169, 171, 311–2n.40
Neuner, Stefan 217
New York art world and homosexual networks 46–8, 241
New York School of poets 46, 47
Newman, Barnett 228, 245
Newton, Esther 30
Nine at Leo Castelli warehouse show 216–17, 218
nonconforming genders xvi, xvii and abstraction 20, 23–6, 38
Grossmans work 149–50, 205
actors and artists 20, 24, 25
see also transgender; transsexuality
Northwestern University xi–xii, 29
Nosei, Annina 237
Ockham, William of 210
O’Doherty, Brian 149
O’Hara, Frank 47
homosexuality and New York art world 46–8
as poet 70–3
“Having a Coke with You” 70
“Hermaphrodite” 25
“In Memory of My Feelings” 72
Love Poems (Tentative Title) 47
Lunch Poems 46
Smith’s appearance in “Mozart Chemisier” 50–2
and social and sexual relationships 46–7, 62
and visual art and artists 46
and Smith
Art New York interview 1, 39, 43–4, 61–8, 63–4, 66, 72, 80, 81–2, 93–5, 279
ARTnews article 53–4, 57–8, 59
as curator and role in Smith’s career 43, 44–61, 72–3
response to Smith’s sculptures 57–9, 61, 64–8, 70, 72–3, 73–86
and sexuality 75–7
visits to Bolton Landing 48–9, 50–3, 57–9, 62, 64–5
Oldenburg, Claes 9, 13
Drum Set 24–5
Olson, James 185, 187
Olympic Games in Mexico City (1968) xii, 27, 29
ONE National Gay & Lesbian Archives, Los Angeles: “Trans Activation” series 270
Paar, Jack 24, 28
paratextuality see peritextuality
Parsons, Betty and gallery 24
part-objects and gender 15, 17, 19, 177
Paterson, Jennifer 24
performativity
Flavin’s titles and dedications 209, 220
and fluorescent tube works 247–53, 257, 261, 264
Grossman’s heads as self-portraits 203, 206
nomination of gender at birth xiv
Pepe, Sheila 327n.13
peritextuality and Flavin’s dedications 251–3
Perreault, John
and Flavin’s titles and dedications 209, 210
on Grossman 192, 194
personhood in sculpture 3, 276
and “expanded field” 41
and Flavin’s naming system
performative naming of works 249–53, 257
transformable personhood 254–65
“successive states” of personhood and gender xvi, xvii, 34, 279–80
and Chamberlain’s work 110–11, 114, 130
Picabia, Francis 20
Picasso, Pablo 105
Pincus-Witten, Robert 16
Piper, Adrian: Mythic Being 25
Plunkett, Edward M. 220, 259, 320n.41
Poetter, Jochen 125–7
Pollock, Jackson 46, 48
Pop Art 3–4, 9
Postminimalism 4
and Eccentric Abstraction exhibition 16–17
Potts, Alex 44, 215, 309n.2
Preciado, Paul B. xv, 26
public art: Burton’s furniture 274–6
queer studies and queer theory 27, 37
Rasmussen, Waldo 59, 61
Rauschenberg, Robert 48, 142
Bed 235
Raven, Arlene 147, 150, 151, 156, 158, 166, 185, 187
Rechy, John 28
City of Night 48
Reis, Elizabeth 26, 27
relief assemblages of Grossman 18–19, 147–8, 149–79, 203
relief sculpture 283–4nn.3&4
reparative readings 4–5
Richardson, Brenda 249
Ridiculous Theater Company 25
Ritchie, Andrew 49–50
Rivera, Sylvia 30
Rivers, Larry 47, 48, 139
Roberts, Randy 185, 187
Rodin, Auguste 135, 273, 289n.66
Rondeau, James 235
Rose, Barbara 101–2, 105, 213, 217
Rosen, Andrea 254, 256
Rosenblum, Robert 220, 232–3, 239, 241, 243
drag queen names for friends 259
“Meet Ms. Western Artiste!” (with McGinnes) 262–3
sexual identity 241, 324n.93
Rubin, Gayle 204
S/M community
association with Grossman’s work 172, 173, 205
and head figures 180, 191–201, 204
Sahib, Prem 327n.13
Salamon, Gayle 33, 37, 165, 206
Samaras, Lucas 13
Schapiro, Meyer 24
Schapiro, Miriam 163
Schiff, Gert 193
Schor, Mira 205
Scull, Robert and Ethel 220
sculpture
and color 48, 54, 105–8
physical relationship with viewer 5–6, 7, 9, 11–12, 14–15, 277–8
O’Hara’s response to Smith’s work 57–9, 61, 64–8, 70, 72–3, 73–86
relationship with human figure 1–41
abstract sculpture and genders xv, 1, 2, 9–13
ambiguity and simplified forms 19–26, 83, 87–95, 133–4
anthropomorphism critiques 6, 9–13
and distinction as art not object 8
Smith’s non-figurative art 2–3, 44–5, 54–5, 57–9, 62–8, 70, 80, 81–95
“successive states” of personhood and gender xvi, xvii, 34, 279–80
and Chamberlain’s work 110–11, 114, 130
transformation in 1960s xi, 2, 6
see also abstraction’s rejection of human form and invocation in sculpture; human figure and shift to abstraction
Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky see Kosofsky Sedgwick
Segal, George 9
Selby, Hubert, Jr.: Last Exit to Brooklyn (novel) 27, 28
sex change see transsexuality
sexuality
and Chamberlain’s personal
interactions and interviews 119–20
and gender 36–9
and O’Hara 46–8, 75–7
in sculpture 3, 37
abstract eroticism 5, 13–15
and Chamberlain’s work 98, 100, 120–5, 127, 129–31, 143, 145
complexity of Grossman’s explicit art 38, 148, 151, 160–76, 179, 203
Grossman’s association with S/M community 180, 191–201, 204, 205
and Smith’s work 38, 75–7
see also erotic in art; homosexuality; transsexuality
Shaw, Lytle 72–3
Siegel, Anita 198
Sillman, Amy 327n.13
Sims, Lowery Stokes 174, 176
Smith, David xii, xiii, 2–4, 7, 16, 43–95, 74–5, 89, 274, 280
bodies in non-figurative art 2–3, 54–5, 57–9, 62–8, 70, 80, 81–95
and assignment of gender 44–5, 62–4, 73–86, 89–91, 93
Bolton Landing and sculptures in situ 42, 45, 48–9, 49–53, 50–3, 55–8, 57–9, 61, 62, 64–5, 67, 71, 74–8, 85–6, 88–92, 95
catalogue raisonné 299n.58
color and work 48, 54, 105
composition of work and “drawing in space” 68, 157–8
daughters and home life and work 48, 51–2, 78–9, 298n.54
death 59, 61
friendship with Grossman and For David Smith 150–1, 151–60, 153, 155
and O’Hara
Art New York interview 1, 39, 43–4, 61–8, 63–4, 66, 72, 80, 81–2, 93–5, 279
connotations of “I don’t make boy sculptures” comment 43–4, 64, 73–84, 86
and European retrospective (1966) 59, 61
misrepresentation of Smith’s comments and works 81–6, 93
“Mozart’s Chemisier” poem 50–2
O’Hara at Bolton Landing 48–9, 50–3, 57–9, 62, 64–5
O’Hara’s ARTnews article 53–4, 57–8, 59
O’Hara’s response to Smith’s sculptures 57–9, 61, 64–8, 70, 72–3, 73–86
O’Hara’s support as curator and role in career 43, 44–61, 72–3
response to O’Hara’s sexuality 75–7
rejection of words to interpret art 81
sexuality and work 38, 75–7
attitudes to women and use of term “girls” 78–80
female nudes 79
Tate Modern retrospective 1
and transgender perspective 18, 26, 87–95
Agricola I 51
Black White Forward 77
Circle and Box (Circle and Ray) 65
Cube Totem 7 and 6 51, 84, 85
Cubi series 53, 55, 68, 95, 158, 159
Cubi VI 65
Cubi VII xviii
Cubi VIII 67
Cubi XI 71
XI Books III Apples 78
Fifteen Planes 69–70
The Five Spring 57
The Hero (Eyehead of a Hero) 83, 84, 86–7
Lectern Sentinel 67
Lonesome Man 76, 78
March Sentinel (Stainless Steel Planes) 53, 53
Ninety Father 42, 53, 60, 77, 78
Ninety Son 42, 53, 60, 77, 78, 91
Noland’s Blues 60
Personage of August 57, 58
Pilgrim 57
Rebecca Circle 60
Running Daughter 57
Sentinel series 68, 83
Sentinel I 56, 57
Sentinel II 57, 58
Tahstvaat 51
Tanktotem series 68, 83
Tanktotem I 83, 84
Tanktotem IV 83, 88
Tanktotem VI 57
Tanktotem VIII 60
Tanktotem IX 83, 90
Two Box Structure 50, 53
Two Circle Sentinel 50, 53, 53
Zig series 53, 68
Zig II 49, 50, 53, 55
Zig III 49, 50, 53, 77
Smith, Jack 195
Smith, Tony: Die 9–10, 10, 278
Smithson, Robert 139, 234
speech act theory see performativity
Stanford University xii, 30
Star, Hedy Jo 27, 28
statue
assignment of gender in Smith’s
non-figurative work 44–5, 62–4, 73–86, 89–91, 93
hermaphrodite statues and ambiguous figures 20
rejection and transformation in art of 1960s xi, xii, xiii, xvii, 2, 6–7, 8, 10–11, 40
Stella, Frank 142, 220, 228, 259
titles of “Black Paintings” 249–50
Stoller, Robert 24, 28, 30
Stonewall Riots (New York, 1969) xii, 30
Street Transvestite Action
Revolutionaries (STAR) 30
Stryker, Susan xv, 26–7, 32, 36, 127, 282n.10, 292n.120
on gender and sexuality 37
on inevitability of gender attribution 176–7
on “transgender liberation” in 1960s xvi, 30–1
on use of “transgender” as term 32
“successive states” of personhood and gender in sculpture xvi, xvii, 34, 279–80
and Chamberlains work 110–11, 114, 130
Sullivan, Louis 228
Sylvester, Julie 117–18
Symbolism: artists and self-representation 20
Tatlin, Vladimir 6, 210, 323n.78
Tennyson, Alfred, Lord: “In Memoriam A.H.H.” (poem) 235, 237
theater and illusionism and Flavin’s work 222
Thek, Paul 9
Tillim, Sidney 212
titles see Chamberlain: titles and meaning of work; Flavin: titles of works and dedications
Tonight Show (US TV show) 24, 28
transfeminism and gender
nonconformism in art 25–6, 149, 205
transformation
and Chamberlain’s work 112–13, 114, 122, 125, 127, 145
and gender 279–80
and body in Cassils’s work 269–74, 278
and Flavin’s naming practices 257–65
transformed gender categories xvi, xvii
transgender experience xv, 35, 273–4
see also gender: mutability
sculpture and rejection of statue in 1960s xi, xii, xiii, xvii, 2, 6, 6–7, 8, 10, 40
transgender
activism and issues xii, 26–7, 28, 29, 30
aesthetics of transgender body 4
artists and self-representation 20, 24, 25
bi-sexed and inclusive genders in art 20–1, 24–5, 178–9, 205
Cassils’s performance and work 269–74, 278
and Grossman’s work 19
historical understanding and
acknowledgement xv–xvi, 25, 26–34
chronology of 28–30
in context of gay and lesbian culture 31, 270
naming and personhood 258, 259, 264
and temporal nature of gender 127, 129
use of term 32–3
as inclusive category xv
see also transgender capacity; transgender studies; transsexuality
transgender capacity xvi, 5, 34–6
and abstract sculpture 2, 4, 34–6, 38–9, 276–7, 278–80
and body in Cassils’s work 269–74, 278
Grossman’s work 160
openness of Chamberlain’s work 129–42, 145
usefulness as critical tool 34–6
transgender studies
and art history xiii-xv, xvi, xvii, 33
application to unexpected artists 18
and Lippard’s “Eros Presumptive” views 14
development as discipline 27, 33
and temporal construction of gender 129
Transsexual Action Organization (TAO) 30
transsexuality
historical understanding and acknowledgement xi–xii, xv–xvi, 25, 27, 28, 29–30
transgender as umbrella term xv
Tucker, Paul 79
Tucker, William 54, 84
Twombly, Cy 142
Ultra Violet (Warhol actress) 116, 121
universities: gender research clinics xi–xii, 28, 29, 30
University of California Los Angeles xi, 28
Valentine, David 32, 36
van der Marck, Jan 220
Vidal, Gore: Myra Breckinridge (novel) xii, 27, 30, 31
Vietnam War: Grossmans response 185, 187–8
viewer’s bodily relation with art 2
abstraction and bodily scale 9–10, 277–8
sculpture 5–6, 7, 11–12, 278
Lippard on “Eccentric Abstraction” 14–15
O’Hara’s response to Smith’s work 57–9, 61, 64–8, 70, 72–3, 73–86
Postminimalism and sculpture “beyond objects” 16–17
Wagner, Anne 13
Warhol, Andy 25, 27, 30, 142, 195
Blow Job (film) 172, 201
Lonesome Cowboys (film) 138–9
Warren, Vincent 47, 59
Welchman, John 249
Wilfred, Thomas 217
Wilke, Hannah 13, 14
Wilkin, Karen 83
Williams, Cristan 292n.106
Wilson, Phyllis Avon 29
Wood, Ed 28
Index
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