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Description: The Waters of Rome: Aqueducts, Fountains, and the Birth of the Baroque City
Index
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00166.015
Index
acqua caduta. See runoff
Acqua Damasiana, 16, 18, 19, 60–61, 87, 123, 138, 199
route of, 120
acqua di ritorno. See runoff
acquaeroli. See water sellers
Acqua Felice, 3–4, 8, 9, 10, 37, 87, 96, 100, 104, 122–37, 149, 150, 153, 154, 212, 219, 222
Acqua Paola compared with, 139, 140, 141
ancient aqueduct ruins and, 3, 115, 116, 126, 127
architects for, 123, 127
beveratori of, 159–63
branch lines from, 134–35, 136, 138, 182–83, 188, 215–16
chief beneficiaries of, 127–28
commercial uses of, 173–74
distribution area of, 109, 213
drain from, 212
expansion projects for, 185–86, 187, 222
first disbursements from, 117
fistole size, 124
flow speed of, 118, 130
length of, 123
maps of distribution from, 132, 16061, 182, 191
need for, 108, 109, 115
plan of, 137
price per oncia from, 123
private concessions from, 181–88, 190, 191
private investors in, 115, 117, 118–19, 121
proposal for, 101
route of, 120, 124, 125, 127, 129, 191, 216
source springs for, 4, 5, 18, 48, 117, 118, 121, 122, 123, 139, 184, 190
terminus of (see Moses Fountain)
Acqua Marrana (artificial stream), 3, 25, 33, 36, 41, 125, 136, 138, 171
course of, 30
plan of, 3031
Acqua Paola, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 123, 138–54, 165, 212, 219
architects for, 139, 140
construction of, 37, 109, 140–41
distribution conduits of, 214
drains and, 216
financing of, 139–40
initial distribution from, 142
mills powered by, 34, 36, 146, 148, 150, 151, 152
price per oncia from, 140
private concessions and, 181, 185
route of, 140–46, 148, 149–54, 216
source springs for, 4, 5, 18, 139, 140, 141, 143, 185, 186
terminus of (see Fontanone)
yield of, 140, 144, 146, 148, 185
Acqua Pia Antica Marcia, 164, 227–28, 229, 230, 231
terminus of, 227
Acquaroni, Antonio, 34
Acqua Valle d’Inferno, 199
Acqua Vergine Nuova, 230
Acqua Vergine restoration, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8–9, 10, 35, 38–55, 135, 152, 153, 159, 173, 193, 204
Acqua Felice compared with, 123
Acqua Paola compared with, 139, 143
ancient aqueduct design and, 84
architects for, 7–8, 53, 55, 140, 185, 219–20
branch line from, 62
drains and, 199, 208
elevations and, 84
financial backers of, 77
fistole sizes, 124
further renovations of, 185, 220, 222–23
low pressure of, 60, 61, 100, 112, 130, 143, 152
pozzi of, 4647
price per oncia from, 118, 123
private concessions from, 77–80, 109, 111, 112, 152, 164–65, 177, 181–88
route of, 39, 40, 49, 50, 53, 62, 78, 82, 111
significance of, 38, 42, 43, 45, 66, 109, 122, 232
source springs for, 4, 5, 18, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 50, 52, 82, 222
specus of, 42, 42, 43, 44, 62, 81, 112, 113, 221
terminus of (see Trevi Fountain)
trunk lines from, 65, 73, 74, 76, 77, 181
water-lifting devices and, 112, 113, 114, 115, 121, 190
water-supply increase to, 222–23
Agnolo di Niccolini, Giovanni, 191
Agrippa, Camillo, 112, 113, 115
Agrippa, Marcus, 6, 16, 112, 115, 200, 202, 212, 216, 218, 226
Alberini, Rutilio, 51
Alberini family, 40
palazzo of, 198
Alberti, Leon Battista, 41–42, 57, 204, 208
Albertoni, Jacomo, 188
Aldobrandini, Cardinal, 181, 188
Alemanno, Gianni, 231
Alessandrino, Michele Cardinal, 191
Alexander VI, Pope, 24, 60, 87, 159, 195
Alexander VII, Pope, 7, 91, 122, 146
Americo, Vincenzo, 118
Ammannati, Bartolomeo, 50, 85, 86, 123, 224
Andrade, Dottore Diego, 77
animal troughs, 109, 156, 158, 159–64, 166, 169, 170, 180, 184
Anonimo romano (chronicle), 32–33
Aqua Alexandrina. See Acqua Felice
Aqua Anio Novus, 8, 118
Aqua Appia, 42, 52, 139
Aqua Claudia, 8, 117, 118, 127
Aqua Julia, 126
Aqua Marcia, 3, 115, 116, 117, 119, 124, 126, 130
existing arches of, 123, 125. See also Acqua Felice
Aqua Tepula, 126
Aqua Traiana, 18, 30, 87, 139. See also Acqua Paola
Aqua Virgo, 3, 6, 9, 48, 52, 60
builder of, 112, 115
continued use of, 16, 18, 34, 38, 39–40. See also Acqua Vergine restoration
aqueducts, ancient, 3, 6, 9–10, 37, 38, 57, 59, 84, 126, 130, 193
arches of, 123
Goth destruction of, 16, 30, 39
map designations of, 40, 116
rationale for, 139
repairs to, 39, 43
ruins of, 6, 115, 116, 118, 123, 127
source springs for, 16, 18, 117, 118
survey of, 43–44
Ara Pacis, 195, 232
Arcioni, Antonio, 25
Arco di Portogallo, 70, 72, 74–75, 166, 177
Ariosto, 36
ATM Azionefuturista 2007, 292
Audebert, Nicolas, 159
Augustus, 5, 22, 128, 200, 202
Aurelian Wall, 16, 35, 39, 126, 127, 145, 164, 183, 191
Avignon papacy (1309–77), 40–41, 42, 194
Azienda Comunale Energia ed Ambiente (ACEA), 231, 232
Azzolini, Decio Cardinal, 184
Baboon Fountain, 164, 165, 177, 229
Bacci, Andrea, Del Tevere, 35
Barcaccia fountain, 1, 6, 219, 220, 221, 227
Barrotti, Bartolomeo, 52
Barsotto, Pietro, 37
Bartolani da Castello, Matteo, 27, 37, 60, 117, 189, 200
Acqua Felice and, 123, 124–25, 127
fountain commission of, 133, 134, 163
Baths of Agrippa, 38, 39, 177, 211
Baths of Caracalla, 98, 101, 152
Baths of Diocletian, 116, 117, 122–23
Bee Fountain, 163, 186, 229
Belinzono, Ludivicus de, 70
Belisarius, 30
Bellay, Joachim du, 171
Belvedere Cortile, 60, 138, 199
Belvedere Fountain, 141, 143
Bernini, Gian Lorenzo, 1, 8, 9, 76, 82, 93, 95, 105, 106, 163, 176, 185–86, 187, 216, 218, 219–20, 221, 221–24, 226, 228
Bernini, Pietro, 185, 219–20, 221, 221–22
beveratori, 159–64, 168, 173, 180, 184, 188, 220
Bigio, Nanni di Bacio, 52, 53
Bizzaccheri, Carlo, 164
Boccapaduli, Prospero, 52, 64, 72, 97
Boccapaduli family, 40, 53, 54, 97, 105
palazzo of, 97, 98
Bonamici, Bartolomeo, 64
Boncompagni, Filippo Cardinal, 119
Bonelli, Michele Cardinal, 119
Boniface IX, Pope, 41
Bonviso, Francesco, 77
Borghese, Marcantonio, 185
Borghese, Scipione Cardinal, 136, 138, 143, 185, 186
Borghese Gardens, 20, 136
Borgia family, 24
Borgo, 4, 16, 18, 20, 31, 53, 135, 183, 215
Acqua Paola and, 109, 136, 138–39, 140, 141, 142, 143, 145, 154
drainage and, 195, 212, 216
drinking fountains and, 167
flooding of, 12, 15, 22, 199
Borromini, Francesco, 8, 26, 93, 94, 106, 106, 107
Boscaglia, Simon, 177
Bourbon, duke of, 15, 198
Bracciolini, Poggio, 44
Bramante, Donato, 44, 60, 87, 228
Brambilla, Ambrogio, 7
Buccamazzo, Alessandro, 188
Bufalini, Leonardo, 51
map of Rome (1551), 1213, 41, 49, 65, 66, 72
butchers, 27, 28, 30, 166, 211
Caelian Hill, 98, 109, 134, 135, 136, 162, 182–83
Caesar, Julius, 22
Caetani, Bonifacio Cardinal, 115, 140
Caetani, Enrico Cardinal, 185
Callisto II, Pope, 31
Camera Apostolica, 25, 28, 31, 51, 130, 164
Acqua Paola construction and, 141
beveratori maintenance by, 159
civic fountain editto from, 156, 157
moral reform and, 193
Camerino, Giovanni Evangelista Pallotta Cardinal di, 139, 191, 192, 213
Campagna, 3, 8, 32, 118, 123, 139–40, 162
Cassio plan of, 4
elite villas in, 97, 115, 183, 184, 185
Volpaia map of, 44, 48
Campo dei Fiori, 28, 45, 65, 72, 75
drains and, 203, 212, 215, 217
flooding of, 12, 15
fountain of, 73, 101, 103
regrading/paving of, 212
Campo Marzio (Campus Martius), 3, 10, 16, 25, 52, 73, 88, 194
defensive walls and, 44
drainage and, 195, 199, 212
economic development and, 70, 72
elevation survey of, 89
floods and, 12, 22, 66, 68
fountains planned for, 45, 55, 62, 65, 66, 72, 73, 89
post–1870 development and, 229
property owners of, 53
topography of, 20, 62, 68, 82, 100, 105
water distribution to, 37–40, 56, 64, 77, 78, 79, 109, 111, 115, 134, 139, 141, 181, 185, 200
water table of, 18, 20
Campo Vaccino, 162–63, 188, 195, 212
fountain planned for, 130, 132
Capilupo, Camillo, 168, 170
Capitoline Hill, 4, 10, 34, 38, 43, 53, 60, 83, 103, 133
Acqua Felice and, 124, 130, 133, 134, 160, 161, 183, 188
beveratori pair at, 162
fountain at, 118, 128, 132, 133, 134, 158, 159, 163
Capizucchi, Mario, 188
Capranica, Angelo, 186
Capua, Alonso da, 87
Caraffa, Antonio Cardinal, 119
cardinals, 7, 39, 50, 51, 52–53, 138
Church reform and, 193
civic fountain sites and, 72, 73, 110–11
hilltop properties of, 88, 109–21
papal election by, 119, 127, 184. See also private water concessions; specific cardinals
Carpi, Rodolfo Cardinal, 33
Carpo, Abraham Michael de, 70
carriages, 203–4, 205, 206, 215, 216
Cartaro, Mario, plan of Rome (1576), 4647, 72
Casale, Raffaele, 166
Casoni, Antonio, 186
cassette idrometriche, 79–80, 80, 166, 170
Cassio, Alberto, 4, 98, 183
castelli, 57–60, 74, 82, 99, 179, 192, 230
ancient ruins of, 115, 116
branch lines from, 62
fountain position and, 60, 61, 64, 135, 141, 145, 149, 150
inscription noting, 79
Quirinal and, 61, 132, 167, 184
terminal fountains and, 158. See also San Sebastianello castello
Castelli, Domenico, 140, 143
Castel Sant’Angelo, 11, 12, 22, 25, 35, 44, 111, 143, 179, 194, 199, 229
Catharina (laundress), 33–34, 174
Catholic Church, 5, 39, 43, 70, 87, 196, 223
challenges to, 41, 45
prestige restoration to, 3, 73–74, 193, 218
spiritual cleansing of, 122, 193, 202, 213, 217, 218, 219
symbols of, 221. See also cardinals; Counter-Reformation; Vatican; specific popes
Cavalieri, Tommaso dei, 53, 64–65
Cellini, Benvenuto, 35
Cenci, Baldassarre, 118
Cenci, Cesare, 32, 166
Cenci, Cristoforo, 79, 79
Cenci, Valerio, 177
Cenci family, 32, 97, 98, 105
Ceulo, Muzio, 184
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, 15, 44
chiaviche. See drains; sewers
Chiesa, Andrea, 21
Choiseul, Etienne-François de, 220
Christina, queen of Sweden, 146
Christina of Lorraine, 190
Cicero, 22, 24
Circus Maximus, 30, 3031, 41, 117
civic fountains, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7–10, 36, 37, 44, 45–46, 49, 53, 55, 61, 62–82, 83–108, 109, 135, 138, 152, 180, 192, 212, 220, 228
ancient Rome and, 16, 18, 57, 193
aqueduct families and, 6
average citizens and, 155–56
classification of, 156
current status of, 228, 229, 231, 232
drinking water from, 36, 45, 133, 136, 145, 156, 158, 159, 162, 163
elites and, 96–97, 109–10, 111, 112
functions of, 96–97
locations proposed for, 72–73
major trunk lines of, 158–59
map of, 18, 19
new baroque design for, 219, 220–26
overhead view of, 95–96, 104, 105, 110
papal patronage of, 88, 127–30
posted use restrictions, 155–56, 157, 168
prestige of, 1, 7, 10, 73–74, 84–85, 155, 218, 219, 220
runoff from (see runoff)
types of, 84–85, 86, 87, 168, 169
Clement VII, Pope, 15, 35, 195, 196
Clement VIII, Pope, 7, 22, 212
semi-public drinking fountains and, 162–63, 165, 184
water concessions and, 132, 134–35, 136, 138, 182–83, 184, 187, 188, 190, 191
Clement XI, Pope, 164, 225
Clement XII, Pope, 226
Cloaca Maxima, 24, 25, 172, 194, 200, 212, 216, 217
interior view of, 201
coaches. See carriages
Colonna, Ascanio Cardinal, 111, 117, 184, 185
Colonna, Marcantonio Cardinal, 110, 111, 115, 117, 119, 121
Colonna, Maurizio, 117, 123
Colonna family, 7, 111, 136
Colonna fountain, 9, 10, 45, 65, 82, 94–97, 103–6, 109, 225
innovation and, 105, 106, 219
low water pressure and, 91, 94
ornamentation of, 162
proposal for, 73, 89, 90
study of, 95
symbolism and, 133
Colosseum, 171
Cometo, Bartolomeo, 36
Compagno, Vincenzo, 77
conciatori. See tanners
Constantinople, 41, 42, 50, 62
Conte, Jacopo del, 168, 170
Cornaro, Giovanni Luigi Cardinal, 52, 53, 72, 164
palazzo of, 54, 69, 72
Corso. See Via del Corso
Council of Trent, 5, 7, 70, 88, 193
Counter-Reformation, 84, 88, 122, 193, 200–201, 202, 218, 219, 221
Cusani, Agostino Cardinal, 187
Customs House, 11, 12
Damasus, Pope, 60
della Porta, Giacomo, 10, 22, 73, 76, 83–108, 132–33, 134, 143, 162, 171, 173, 188, 222, 225, 227
accomplishments of, 7–8, 53, 55, 83, 105–6
beveratore design and, 162–63
fountain design and, 9, 88, 94–95, 105, 130, 219, 220, 223
water-distribution system and, 60–62, 64, 65–70, 71, 80, 81, 82
water gift to, 185, 186
della Porta, Guglielmo, 69, 73, 74, 76, 80, 82
Dezza, Paolo Cardinal, 186
Dioscuri statues, 129, 131
disease. See public health
distribution basins. See castelli
Dosio, Giovanni Antonio, plan of Rome (1561), 72, 74–75
drains, 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 24, 25, 37, 52, 79, 192, 193–203, 208–18
cleaning of, 195, 212–13, 216
map of, 200, 217
private connections to, 198, 211, 216, 219, 229
street-level apertures, 211, 212. See also sewers
drinking fountains, 7, 93, 128, 129, 131, 133, 136, 138, 143, 145, 152, 153, 156, 158, 159–70, 214, 232
design of, 149, 162–63, 164, 168
Mussolini replacements of, 230
nasoni, 228, 228, 231
semi-public, 98, 156, 164–70, 173, 177, 179, 180, 181, 184, 204
wall mounting of, 109, 164
drinking water, 42, 61, 73, 109
average citizens and, 155
sources of, 18, 35–36, 43, 45, 50, 53
Du Pérac, Etienne, 6
map of Rome (1577), 78, 98, 111, 116, 176
Egiziaca, Maria, 171
electricity, 230, 231
Eliot, Frances, 172
Esquiline Hill, 4, 94, 109, 115, 119, 128, 136, 182
development of, 122
drainage and, 215. See also Villa Montalto
Este, Luigi Cardinal d’, 110, 115, 118–19, 189
Evelyn, John, 141
Fabretti, Rafaello, 40
Farnese, Alessandro Cardinal, 53, 69, 112, 115, 119, 152, 188
Farnese, Odoardo Cardinal, 135, 152, 185
Farnese, Ranuccio Cardinal, 35, 53
Farnese family, 7, 111, 136, 153, 168
Fea, Carlo, 101, 115, 117
Ferdinand, king of Spain, 148–49
Ferrabosco, Martino, 142
ferries, 27, 28, 29, 229
Fichard, Johann, 43
fistole, 59, 79, 80, 123, 124
Flemmyng, Robert, 43
floods, 11–15, 16, 20–26, 31, 33, 39, 45, 51, 111, 123, 138, 146, 148, 199, 215, 221–22
contour line left by, 66, 68
drain backflow from, 195
markers of, 14, 22–24, 66, 67, 68
response in 1870 to, 20, 22, 37, 229, 230
Florence, 66, 89, 222
Neptune fountain in, 85, 86
Foglietta, Guidobaldo, 206, 212, 214
Fontana, Carlo, 59, 146
Fontana, Domenico, 9, 22, 174, 183, 189, 190, 206, 214
Acqua Felice and, 123, 127
fountain design and, 128, 129–30, 131, 167
Fontana, Giovanni, 22, 117, 127, 140, 147, 149, 189
Fontanone, 7, 142, 146, 147, 148, 150, 154, 158, 164, 214, 226
Forli, Melozzo da, 43
Formosus, Pope, 24
Forum. See Roman Forum
fountains. See beveratori; civic fountains; drinking fountains; private fountains; specific fountains
Four Fountains, 58, 129, 130, 131, 132, 167, 189–90, 207
Four Rivers Fountain, 1, 76, 93, 159, 219, 220, 222, 223, 223–24, 226, 227
Frangipane, Fabrizio, 110–11, 117
Frangipane, Mario, 51
Frangipane, Ortensio, 117, 118
Frangipane family, 32, 40, 41, 136, 184
Frontinus, Julius, 52, 56, 57
De Aquaeductibus urbis Romae, 43–44, 56
fullers, 155, 156, 170–71, 177, 179
fullers’ drain, 199, 202, 204
Gabrieli, Alessandro and Girolamo, 80
Gabrielli, Geronimo, 184
Gaia Fountain (Siena), 62, 64, 84, 85
Gallo, Galeazzo, 99
Gambarini, Bernardo, 21
garbage. See waste disposal
gardens, 49, 50, 53, 54, 60, 62, 77, 79, 80, 108, 112, 113, 121, 154, 181, 192, 218
Acqua Felice benefit to, 127, 129, 132, 136, 138
drainage of, 215
map of, 120
private aqueducts for, 62, 115
urban development obliteration of, 229. See also private fountains
gates, city, 26, 70, 212, 216
Giant Mask fountain, 168, 169
Giorgio, Francesco di, 59, 62
Giudea fountain, 72, 73, 97–99, 134
design of, 104–5, 107
Gloviero, Alessandro, 130
Gonzaga, Giuseppe Cardinal, 119
Goth armies, 16, 30, 39
Gottifredi, Girolamo, 49
Gracco, Ottavio, 73, 110
Grandi, Alessandro, 77, 164, 165, 204
gravity flow, 37, 56–60, 62, 82, 84, 87, 91, 105, 112, 188, 218, 227
print illustration of, 57
Grazzini, Simone, 165
Gregory I, Pope, 39, 203, 204
Gregory VII, Pope, 194
Gregory XIII, Pope, 14, 27, 35, 38, 51, 53, 77, 83, 200, 203, 204, 210
civic fountain redesigns and, 88–89, 90, 91, 100, 105
death of, 119
drinking fountains and, 166–67
new aqueduct plans and, 101, 113, 115, 117, 118, 119, 121, 123, 189
water concessions from, 112, 164, 182, 183, 185, 186, 187
Gregory XIV, Pope, 191
Gregory XV, Pope, 185, 187
Greuter, Matteus, map of Rome (1618), 3, 29, 138
Grillo, Angelo, 219
Grimani, Domenico Cardinal, 44, 117, 189
Grimani family, 115, 189
Gritti, Bartolomeo, 9, 51, 53, 55, 110, 200, 211
water-distribution system and, 60–61, 62, 70, 76, 79, 83
water gift to, 184, 185
Guidetti, Guidetto, 53
Guidotti, Ottavio, 118
Guiscard, Robert, 194
Hadrian, Emperor, 22
Hadrian I, Pope, 39, 87
Hasan Aga, 50
Haussmann, Georges-Eugène, 229
health hazards. See public health
Heemskerck, Martin van, 87
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, 194
Hero of Alexandria, 59
hilltop properties, 88, 109–21, 122–54, 229
as Acqua Felice beneficiaries, 127–28, 154, 184
map of, 116
new aqueduct plan and, 115–21, 122
papal water gifts and, 183, 184, 185
Horse Guards, 138, 199
“Horse Tamers” sculptures, 129–30, 131
hospitals, water gifts to, 109, 132, 181–82, 184
hydraulic pumps, 112, 190
mechanical, 227–28, 230
hydrological cycle, 227, 232
imperial Rome, 57, 59, 193, 224
drainage system of, 24, 200, 202, 212, 216, 217–18
Mussolini program and, 230
roads and, 206, 208, 212
water-distribution system of, 57, 59. See also aqueducts, ancient
industry, 27–28, 30, 122–23, 155, 166, 170–71, 173, 180, 192
Innocent IX, Pope, 191
Innocent X, Pope, 223, 224
Innocent XI, Pope, 146, 148
Isabella, queen of Spain, 148–49
Italian unification (1870), 3, 228, 229
Janiculum Hill, 4, 7, 22, 30, 36, 136, 138–39, 214
Acqua Paola and, 109, 139, 141, 142, 145–46, 148, 150, 151, 158
elevation of, 146
Jewish Ghetto, 26, 27–28, 36, 53, 65, 72, 97, 211
Acqua Paola water and, 141, 142, 151, 152–54, 176
civic fountain of, 154, 214
drains and, 212, 216
public laundry and, 176
semi-public water fountains and, 166
street paving and, 213–14
Jubilee Years, 5, 70, 73–74, 87, 196
Julius II, Pope, 7, 34, 43, 141, 159
Julius III, Pope, 7, 35, 53
Acqua Vergine and, 49, 50, 69, 70
Juturna spring, 162, 163, 194, 195
Kirkçesme system (Ottoman), 41, 50
Lago Bracciano springs, 4, 139, 185
Lancellotti, Scipione Cardinal, 119, 183, 191, 192, 213
palazzo of, 79
Lanciani, Rodolfo, 25, 27, 34–35, 194
Landini, Taddeo, 99, 100, 101
Laparola, Giacinto, 113
latrines, 156, 177, 179, 180, 192, 199, 216
laundresses, 28, 30, 32–36, 41, 109, 156, 171–77, 180, 226
laundries, 156, 170, 173–77, 178, 180
basement, 214, 215
Lavatoio Felice, 173, 174, 175, 176
lavatrice. See laundresses
Leminard, Giovanni, 88
Leo X, Pope, 43, 44
Leonardo da Vinci, 20, 57, 69
Leonine Wall, 11, 16, 18, 199
Lepanto, Battle of (1571), 111
Ligorio, Pirro, 51, 52
Lilius, Aloisius, 77
lion’s mouth fountains, 162, 162, 166
Little Ice Age, 16
Livy, 16, 24
Lombardi, Carlo, 215
Lombardi, Pietro, 230
Lomellini, Benedetto Cardinal, 51
Lucatelli, Pietro, 184
Ludovisi, Ludovico Cardinal, 185
villa plan of, 187
macellatori. See butchers
Maderno, Carlo, 9, 22, 87, 106, 136, 140
Piazza San Pietro fountain design of, 141, 144, 155, 222
Madonna dei Monti Fountain, 128, 130, 132, 133, 154, 158, 212
Maffei, Tomasso, 3031
Maggi, Giovanni Battista, map of Rome (1625), 32, 172, 176, 191, 217
Maggi, Giovanni Paolo, 215
Maggiore Fountain (Perugia), 84, 85
malaria, 195, 215
Manriquez, Tommaso, 77, 184
Marforio fountain, 95, 103, 162
markers (flood), 14, 22–24, 25, 26
della Porta’s use of, 66, 67, 68
markets, 103, 109, 159, 162–63, 165, 168, 194, 197, 203
Marmorata (Marble Wharf), 25
Martin, Gregory, 174
Martin V, Pope, 3, 42, 45, 111, 194
Mascherino, Ottaviano, 189
Massaio, Pietro del, map of Rome (1474), 87
Massimi, Orazio, 184
Massimi family, 32, 110, 111
Mattei, Girolamo Cardinal, 98
Mattei, Ludovico, 52, 64, 97–98
Mattei, Muzio, 54, 98–99, 101, 104, 117, 118, 121, 207, 212
Quirinal Hill property of, 189–90
Mattei, Pauluzio, 177
Mattei family, 32, 40, 53, 54, 97–98, 115, 136
Mattei fountain (Turtle Fountain), 98–101, 103, 104, 105, 109, 132, 133, 163, 215
elites’ symbolic possession of, 112
runoff from, 153
sculpture surface damage and, 231
water distribution to, 133–34
Mausoleum of Augustus, 30, 44, 53, 65, 183, 199
drain of, 217, 218
Mazza, Giovanni Battista, 99
Medici, Catherine de’, 185, 190
Medici, Ferdinando Cardinal de’, 112, 115, 117, 119, 164, 213
Acqua Felice construction and, 121, 123, 127, 135, 190
water gift to, 184, 190–92. See also Villa Medici
Medici, Francesco de’, 190
Medici cardinals, 7, 111
Mehmed II, Sultan, 41, 50
Meier, Cornelius, 209, 210
Meier, Richard, 232
Mendicanti, 26, 32, 34, 151, 152, 177
Messina, 85, 89, 222
Michelangelo, 8, 53, 55, 83
Millini, Paolo, 140
mills, 4, 28, 29, 30–32, 41, 138, 199, 229
Acqua Paola and, 34, 36, 146, 148, 150, 151, 152
flood damage to, 11, 20, 31, 146
Milvian Bridge, 22
Modio, Giovanni Battista, 35, 53
Molara, Gasparo della, 168
monasteries, 177, 178, 193
water gifts to, 80, 109, 132, 181–84
Montaigne, Michel de, 203
Montalto, Cardinal (Felice Peretti), 115, 116, 120. See also Sixtus V, Pope; Villa Montalto
Monte Cavallo, 124, 215
Monte Citorio drinking fountain, 167–68, 169
Monte Giordano, 72, 75, 185
Montorsoli, Giovanni Angelo, 224
Moor Fountain, 220
Mordione, Antonio da, 177
Moses Fountain, 58, 129, 130, 134, 146, 191, 213, 220, 226
as Acqua Felice terminus, 88, 115, 122, 127, 132, 158
description of, 128–29
recirculated runoff from, 167, 182
Mussolini, Benito, 230
Muti, Alessandro, 140, 188
Muti, Orazio de, 110–11, 117, 188
Narducci, Pietro, 217
Nari, Fabrizio, 80, 184
Nari, Horatio, 51, 77, 80
Nari, Hortensia, 181
nasoni. See drinking fountains
Navagero, Bernardo, 14
Nebbia, Cesare, 173, 175
Neptune fountains (Messina, Florence), 85, 86, 89, 96, 105, 222
Nibby, Antonio, 101, 115, 117
Nicholas V, Pope, 42, 87, 141, 183, 195, 203
Acqua Vergine repairs and, 38, 40, 41, 42–43, 45
Niger, Marcello, 64, 97
Nigrone, Giovanni Antonio, 123
Nolli, Giambattista, map of Rome (1748), 182
Numitor, 16
Onofrio, Cesare d’, 6
Orsini, Alessandro, 145, 185, 186
Orsini, Flavio Cardinal, 7, 52, 53, 94, 109
gardens of, 54, 77
water access of, 111, 164, 183, 184
Orsini, Giovanni Antonio, 177
Orsini, Virginio, 139, 140, 185
Orsini family, 97, 111, 136
Orta, Andrea da, 74
Ottoman Empire, 5, 41, 50, 111
Pagno, Raffaello di, 123
Palatine Hill, 7475, 188
Palazzo Borghese, 145, 185, 225
Palazzo dei Conservatori, 34, 53, 133
Palazzo Farnese, 45, 83, 112, 198, 200
twin fountains of, 152, 153
Palazzo Laterano, 135
Palazzo Orsini, 72, 72, 73, 75, 76, 89, 93, 94, 95, 109–10
Palazzo Quirinale, 10, 130, 131, 176, 206, 222
Palazzo Venezia, 53, 72, 73, 101
Palladio, Andrea, 44
Pamphilj family, 110, 223
Panini, Giovanni Paolo, 220, 224
Pantano dei Griffi springs, 48, 117–18, 184, 190
Pantheon Fountain, 55, 65, 73, 82, 89, 90, 94, 104, 109, 130, 143
drain and, 211
later alteration of, 91, 110
reused runoff from, 159, 183. See also Piazza della Rotonda
paper manufacture, 155, 166
Parnassus, 112, 113, 114, 121
Paul III, Pope, 35, 53, 69, 115, 198
Acqua Vergine restoration and, 42, 43, 44–45, 49, 152
Paul IV, Pope, 11, 14, 69, 111, 133, 199
Paul V, Pope, 3, 7, 136, 159, 165, 176, 179
fountain construction and, 141, 142, 143, 154, 214
third aqueduct and (see Acqua Paola)
urban development and, 122, 139, 150, 213, 214
water gifts from, 185, 188
water infrastructure and, 38, 77, 135–36, 138, 146, 180, 200, 225
paving. See streets and roads
Peretti, Camilla, 115, 119, 121, 127, 174, 177, 214
Peretti, Felice. See Montalto, Cardinal; Sixtus V, Pope
Perugia, 84, 85
Peter, Saint, 221
Peter the Deacon, 44
Peto, Luca, 51, 52, 184, 185
Petronio, Alessandro, 35, 50
Piazza Altieri fountain, 65, 130
Piazza Aracoeli fountain, 87, 128, 132, 133, 135, 163
Piazza Barberini. See Triton Fountain
Piazza Colonna, 7, 10, 82, 95–97, 159, 210
degraded condition of, 92
flood damage to, 11, 12. See also Colonna fountain
Piazza dei Santissimi Apostoli, 65, 70, 111, 130
Piazza della Bocca della Verità, 159, 164, 212
Piazza della Morte fountain (Perugia), 84, 85, 85
Piazza della Rotonda, 16, 99, 159, 183, 194
drain from, 200, 211, 212
flooding of, 11, 13, 14, 22
water delivery to, 45, 71, 79. See also Pantheon Fountain
Piazza del Popolo, 10, 44, 64, 210, 214
beveratore in, 159, 173
conduits to, 76, 77
flooding of, 12, 66, 67
fountain design for, 44, 45, 70, 73, 74, 80–81, 82, 88–89, 90, 94, 104, 109, 130, 133
laundry fountain in, 172, 173, 174
water pressure and, 91
Piazza di Santa Maria, 10, 18, 19, 123, 139, 151, 214. See also Santa Maria Fountain
Piazza di Spagna, 44, 62, 69, 70–72, 163, 204. See also Barcaccia fountain
Piazza di Trevi. See Trevi Fountain
Piazza Farnese, 10, 101, 112
Acqua Paola and, 142, 151, 152, 153
paving of, 203
twin fountains at, 7, 153, 168, 185, 219
Piazza Giudea, 53, 87, 194
drain from, 198
fountain project and, 72, 73, 97–99, 103–4, 128, 132, 153, 166, 219
map of buildings, 98
semi-public fountain at, 166
water distribution to, 65, 134
Piazza Mattei, 54, 65, 70, 104–5, 132
elevation of, 100
paving of, 212. See also Mattei fountain
Piazza Mercatello, 28, 142, 154, 166, 213, 214
Piazza Montanara, 65, 134
fountain at, 73, 103–4, 128, 130, 132, 133, 153, 215
Piazza Navona, 10, 28, 53, 88
beveratore at, 93, 109, 159, 220
drain-use regulations, 211
flooding of, 11, 12, 15, 22
garbage depot at, 194
as key site, 73
low water pressure and, 94
palaces and, 109–10, 111, 112
plan for fountains at, 55, 72, 73, 76, 89, 109
trunk line and, 65, 69, 73, 76, 77, 78, 79
two fountains at, 7, 89, 91, 93–95, 97, 99, 104, 105, 106, 220, 222
water spectacle at, 224, 224. See also Four Rivers Fountain
Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano, 10, 123, 132, 132
Piazza San Marco, 12, 15, 72, 101–3. See also San Marco fountain
Piazza San Pietro, 22, 61, 123, 159, 167, 174
flood damage to, 11, 12
new fountain design for, 141, 142, 143, 144, 155, 222
water distribution to, 141. See also Santa Caterina Fountain
Piazza Scossacavalli, 142, 143, 145, 163, 167
Pierbenedetti di Camerino, Mariano Cardinal, 191
pietra di livello markers, 79–80, 80
pilgrims, 5, 61, 71, 129, 135, 173, 189, 200
drinking fountains for, 129, 131, 145, 166–67
main route of, 143, 194
public urination by, 179
street project for, 203, 206
Pincian Hill, 39, 43, 44, 45, 52, 70, 112, 189, 191, 195
Acqua Felice delivery to, 109, 134–35
Acqua Vergine route and, 50, 53, 60, 62, 77, 78, 111, 156
development plans for, 122
high-level distribution towers and, 227–28
villa water gift and, 185, 187
water level and, 114, 115
Pinto, John, 6–7
pipes. See fistole
Piranesi, Giovanni Battista, 25, 208
Pisano, Nicola and Giovanni, 84
Pius IV, Pope, 3, 7, 24, 27, 53, 119, 141, 230
Acqua Damasiana restoration and, 123
Acqua Vergine restoration and, 50–51, 77, 122, 139, 164
building programs of, 84, 129
death of, 52, 199
public laundry facility and, 171, 172
spring-fed civic fountains and, 18, 19, 53, 138
street paving and, 203, 206
Vatican project of, 199–200, 214, 216
Pius V, Pope, 3, 24, 28, 35, 36, 38, 39, 119, 122, 164, 171, 230
Acqua Vergine restoration and, 52, 55, 56, 83, 84, 85, 97, 122, 193, 199
civic fountains and, 55, 62, 76, 87, 88, 89, 90, 193
death of, 88
urban development and, 7, 70, 193, 198–200, 202–4, 224–25
water gifts from, 181–82, 183
Pius IX, Pope, 227, 228
Pliny, 14, 52
pollution, 18, 24, 27–28, 53, 156, 171, 231
human waste and, 179
standing water and, 52, 76, 193–96, 208, 211, 215
Pons Antonianus, 25, 26
Ponte Cestio, 26, 29, 138, 215
Ponte Fabricio, 11, 13, 26, 29, 138, 215
Ponte Milvio, 22
Ponte Quattrio Capi, 196, 213
Ponte Rotto. See Ponte Santa Maria
Ponte Santa Maria, 26, 29, 31, 32, 135, 138
flood damage to, 11, 13, 14, 26–27, 123, 138, 215
restorations of, 123, 139, 140
Ponte Sant’Angelo, 25, 26, 31, 35, 45, 65, 73, 143, 166–67, 194, 197, 214
Acqua Paola crossing of, 141, 145
flooding of, 12, 15
public urination and, 179
restoration of, 199–200
Ponte Sisto, 26, 32, 33, 139, 151–53, 214, 217
Acqua Paola crossing and, 141, 150, 151, 152
flood damage to, 11, 12, 14, 21
fountain of, 151–52, 151, 152, 153, 177
Porta Cavalleggeri, 18, 19, 138, 159, 199
Porta del Popolo, 35, 40, 41, 42, 45, 60, 70, 73, 164, 196, 212, 216
Porta Maggiore, 124, 126, 127, 134, 162–63, 183
Porta Pia, 88, 129, 130, 212, 213
Porta San Lorenzo, 124, 127, 164, 212
Porter’s Fountain, 168, 170
Porto di Ripetta, 23, 28, 37, 64, 65, 196, 217, 229
enlargement of, 224–25
flood damage to, 11, 12
semi-public drinking fountain, 165–66
pozzi, 39, 44, 4647, 114
private fountains, 16, 60, 62, 77, 78, 105, 115, 181, 186, 220
drains and, 211, 212
elites and, 109, 112
water flow to, 4, 80, 116, 133, 136, 141, 215
water gifts for, 183–84, 185, 190, 192
water theft and, 186
private water concessions, 60, 61, 69, 77, 80, 109–12, 115, 122, 133, 136, 143, 145, 150, 152, 154, 168, 177, 180, 181–92
as charitable gifts, 181–83, 192
drains and, 211
flaunting of, 112
illegal taps and, 81
maps of recipients of, 78, 132
obligations of, 188–89
pipelines and, 79, 181
price per oncia of, 118, 123, 140
retraction of, 186–87
sale of, 64–65, 73, 118–19
semi-public drinking fountains and, 164–70
transfer of rights and, 186
water meters and, 79–80
Procopius, 30
prostitutes, 28, 33, 171, 174, 193
public fountains. See civic fountains; drinking fountains
public health, 5–6, 62, 70, 215
open drains and, 52, 198–99, 202, 203, 206, 211
Roman civic reforms and, 193
standing water and, 195
purgatoi, 155, 156, 170–71, 176
Quattro Fontane. See Four Fountains
Quercia, Jacopo della, 84
Quirinal Gardens, 58
Quirinal Hill, 4, 13, 15, 167, 217
Acqua Felice and, 109, 119, 121–24, 127–33, 154, 158, 182, 184, 190
distribution castello, 58, 60, 61, 132, 167
drain from, 212
elevation of, 146
high-elevation distribution towers and, 227–28
map of property owners, 189
monastery water gifts and, 182
papal development plans for, 88, 122, 130, 154, 189–90
public laundry facility at, 173–74, 176
villas on, 111, 115, 117, 119, 184. See also Moses Fountain
Rabelais, 204
rag trade, 166
Rainaldi, Girolamo, 9, 106, 135, 138, 152, 153, 169, 215, 219
Rea Silvia, 16
renovatio Romae, 3, 38–55, 73, 138, 192, 199–202
cleansing of Church linked with, 122, 193, 202, 218, 219
initiation of, 42
Mussolini’s, 230
Paul V’s projects and, 154
Rome’s preemience and, 219
Steuco’s proposals and, 45, 49
stone paving and, 212
water as agent for, 38, 42, 43, 45, 55, 109, 122, 128, 154, 217, 218, 224, 232
Riccia, Giovanbattista, 188
Ricci da Montepulciano, Giovanni Cardinal, 49, 52, 53, 54, 62, 72, 94
water gift to, 111, 112
Rieti springs, 230
Ripa Grande, 26, 27, 138, 139, 149–50, 162
roads. See streets and roads
Roberti, Roberto de, 166
Roman Forum, 4, 20, 95, 130, 194, 195, 197
beveratore at, 162, 188
drain under (see Cloaca Maxima)
ruins of, 162, 163. See also Campo Vaccino
Romulus and Remus, 3, 16
Rucellai, Ferdinand Cardinal, 181
Rucellai, Orazio, 184
runoff, 58, 61, 79, 80, 158
distribution/reuse of, 64, 133–35, 151, 153, 156, 158, 159, 163, 166–68, 171, 179–83, 194
drains and, 192, 198, 199, 211, 215, 216
pipes for, 194
as water gift, 183, 188, 189–92, 211, 216
Rusticucci, Girolamo Cardinal, 119, 127
sacks of Rome: (537–38), 16, 30, 39
(1084), 194
(1527), 15, 24, 45, 195, 196, 198
Sailors’ Fountain, 225, 227, 232
Saint Peter’s Basilica, 4, 7, 18, 35, 73, 213, 229
della Porta’s work on, 55, 83
dome completion of, 123
drains and, 196, 199
height of, 139. See also Piazza San Pietro
Salone springs, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42–43, 44, 50, 51, 52, 82, 231
elevation of, 118
force of water flow from, 45
map position of, 48
Mussolini’s tapping of, 230
overhaul of, 55
supplemental springs and, 222
Salvi, Nicola, 1, 2, 219, 220, 226–27
Salviati, Antonio Maria Cardinal, 185
Sangalo, Antonio da, the Younger, 44
San Giorgio spring, 171, 172
San Giovanni in Laterano, 30, 33, 41, 123, 135, 162
sanitation. See public health
San Marco fountain, 45, 65, 73, 101–2, 103, 162
San Pietro Church and Monastery, 146, 148, 149
San Sebastianello castello, 62, 64, 65, 67, 69, 70, 71, 73, 77, 80, 81, 94, 103, 109, 112, 130, 156–58, 204, 223
supplements to, 82
San Severina, Cardinal, 167–68, 170
San Silvestro Monastery, 70, 198–99, 211
Sansovino, Jacopo, 26
Santa Caterina Fountain, 19, 61, 87, 90, 99, 105, 138, 141, 159, 199, 222
Santa Croce family, 97, 98, 105
Santa Maria della Trinità, Monastery, 62, 191, 192
Santa Maria Fountain, 18, 70, 87, 90, 105, 132, 135, 142, 149, 150
beveratore and, 163
modifications to, 228
as primary distribution castello, 150
Santa Maria Maggiore Basilica, 129, 132, 133, 158, 189, 207
civic fountain, 135–36, 156, 183, 215–16
Santa Maria sopra Minerva, 210, 211
flood markers, 14, 22, 23, 66, 68
Santis, Francesco de, 225
Santo Spirito Hospital, 31, 132, 135, 143, 183
Sanvitale, Galeazzo, 140
Sargent, John Singer, 172
Schela, Francesco, 74
Scoglio Fountain, 141, 142, 158
Scola Caeciliana, 152–53, 176, 216
Serbelloni, Giovanni Antonio Cardinal, 51
sewers, 1, 4, 7, 24, 25, 193, 203, 208, 210, 229, 231–32
Sfondrati, Paolo Emilio, 150
Sforza, Alessandro Cardinal, 164, 187
Sforza, Francesco Cardinal, 115, 119, 184, 187
Sforza, Paolo, 117, 184
sidewalks, 206
Siena, 62, 64, 84, 85
Sinan, Mimar, 50
Sixtus IV, Pope, 11, 40, 42, 43, 173–74, 183, 195–96
Sixtus V, Pope, 7, 32, 119, 151, 165, 173, 215
beveratori and, 159, 162, 230
civic fountains and, 82, 128, 129, 130, 131, 188
death of, 134, 190, 212
election of, 119, 121, 122, 184, 185, 190
emblem of, 102, 162
gardens of (see Villa Montalto)
map of water distribution by, 132
mural commission by, 173–74, 175
palace of, 131, 176
reforming zeal of, 174
street projects and, 203, 205, 206, 210, 213–14
urban renewal agenda of, 122–23, 230
water gifts from, 183–84, 187, 189–90
water infrastructure and, 3, 38, 130, 154, 171, 173, 174, 175, 176. See also Acqua Felice; Montalto, Cardinal
Sormani, Leonardo, 89, 90
Spanish Steps, 225
Specchi, Alessandro, 225
Spoglia Christo, 177
springs, 3, 4, 10, 16, 18
debris blockage of, 194
elevation of, 57, 124, 139
maps of, 5, 18, 19, 48, 117
public laundry facility at, 171, 172
seepage from, 52, 195. See also Salone springs
Stephen VI, Pope, 24
Steuco, Agostino, 44–45, 49, 51, 52, 73, 152
streets and roads, 1, 10, 193–218
in antiquity, 206, 208, 212
construction of, 123, 139, 150
extramural, 216–17
flooding of, 14
gradient of, 208
human waste in, 179
later development of, 229
paving of, 123, 192, 193, 195–96, 203–6, 208–10, 212–14, 216, 219
semi-public drinking fountains and, 166–67, 168. See also drains; sewers
Süleyman the Magnificent, Sultan, 50
surveying techniques, 10, 65, 67, 208
sventramento of Rome, 230
Taccola (Mariano di Iacopo), 59
tanners, 20, 26, 27, 28, 211
Targone, Pompeo, 29, 138, 139, 140
Tassone, Ottavio, Monsignor, 139
Tempesta, Antonio, map of Rome (1593), 120, 172, 176, 189
Theater of Marcellus, 53, 73, 197
Tiber Island, 26, 27, 152, 183, 217, 231–32
Acqua Paola crossing of, 141, 145, 152
bridge across, 29, 138, 141
floods and, 11, 13, 22, 66
mills and, 28, 31, 32
Tiber River, 1, 4, 7, 10, 11–37, 60, 167, 232
aqueducts and, 10, 37, 38, 135, 138, 141, 145, 151
artifacts found in, 25, 27
course of, 15
drains and, 79, 192, 195, 196, 198, 199, 203, 211
as drinking water source, 18, 35–36, 43, 50, 53, 138
dumping into, 18, 24–28, 32, 53, 195, 231–32
embankment walls (1870) of, 20, 22, 37, 229, 229, 230
floating mills and, 28–32
flooding of (see floods)
gate access points and, 26
golden color of, 20
left bank of, 3, 4, 26, 37, 109, 140, 145, 152
map of, 17
right bank of, 26, 37, 136, 138–39, 229
Sailors’ Fountain and, 225
scavengers and, 24–25
seventeenth-century view of, 29
Steuco rejuvenation plan for, 45, 49
tributaries of, 15, 17, 39
water workers and, 27–28, 30, 32–37
Torres, Ludovico, Monsignor, 52, 53, 54
palace of, 72, 89, 109–10
Traspontina Vecchia fountain, 142, 143, 145
Trastevere, 4, 10, 20, 22, 28, 33, 98, 171
acquaeroli and, 36
Acqua Felice branch line to, 134, 135, 138, 149, 183
Acqua Paola and, 136, 138, 139–40, 141, 146, 151, 154
commercial activity in, 138, 139
distribution castello for, 150
drainage and, 194, 195, 212, 214
flood markers in, 22
inhabited area of, 53, 136, 138
new road to, 139
street paving and, 213–14. See also Santa Maria Fountain
Trevi Fountain, 16, 19, 36, 49, 84, 210
as Acqua Vergine terminus, 10, 39, 40, 41, 43, 49, 51, 55, 56, 60, 70, 78, 111, 156, 158, 222, 226
Alberti design for, 41, 42
beveratore and, 163
description of, 226–27
drain from, 196, 198, 199, 217
elevation of water and, 58, 62, 64, 67
purgatio/lavatio of, 171, 176, 226
recirculating pump for, 231
redefinitions of, 7
repair of, 196
replacement (1762) of, 1, 2, 7, 146, 219, 220, 225–27
restoration (1563) of, 53, 55
as Rome’s heart, 232
stone paving and, 204
three basins of, 40, 53
Trevisi, Antonio, 14, 51–52, 53, 81, 82
map of Rome reprint (1560), 41, 49, 65, 66
Triton Fountain, 1, 7, 89, 94, 105, 163, 186, 187, 218, 219, 223
description of, 222
troughs, 61, 73, 109, 156. See also beveratori
Tureen fountain, 103
Turtle Fountain. See Mattei fountain
typhoid, 52, 199
Urban VIII, Pope, 3, 7, 122, 146, 159, 163, 200, 217–23
symbols of, 221
Trevi Fountain and, 176, 222–23, 225–26
water gift from, 185–86, 187
urine, 171, 177, 179, 199
Valle, Claudio de, 184
Valperga, Belardino, 215
Varo, Sebastian, 171
Vatican, 4, 6, 10, 15, 16, 18, 22, 51, 77, 87, 179, 199–200, 214, 216
acquaeroli for, 34, 35
Acqua Paola service to, 109, 136, 138–39, 140, 141, 142
elevation of, 146
water infrastructure of, 199–200, 214, 216
Vatican Gardens, 60–61, 143, 199
fountains of, 141, 142, 158
Vatican Library, 43, 44, 141
Vatican Secret Archive, 206
Vatican Wall, 19, 215
Velabro, 4, 18, 117, 159, 171, 173
Velli, Antonio, 118
Vespasian, Emperor, 43–44, 177
Via Appia, 208
Via del Corso, 44, 45, 69, 70, 71, 73, 77, 94, 101, 102, 210
drain through, 198
map position of, 7475
semi-public drinking fountain at, 166, 168
Via Felice, 129, 131, 163, 167, 177, 207
construction/paving of, 123, 129, 206
Quirinal development and, 188, 189–90. See also Four Fountains
Via Flaminia, 70, 159, 164, 166, 216
Via Giulia, 65, 72, 109, 215
Acqua Paola branch line and, 141, 151, 152
semi-public drinking fountain, 168, 169
Via Paolina, 44, 72, 77, 164, 204
map position of, 7475
Via Pia, 58, 117, 127, 129, 191, 206
property development and, 189–90
stone paving of, 213. See also Four Fountains
Villa Borghese, 132, 136, 230
Villa d’Este, 51, 62, 63, 115, 116, 119
Villa Farnese, 132, 135, 158, 168, 188, 212
gardens of, 62, 115
water displays and, 152, 153
Villa Giulia, 39, 50, 159, 181
Villa Medici, 39, 45, 112, 114, 121
water distribution to, 132, 135, 189, 190–92
Villa Montalto, 115, 123, 124, 127, 168, 174, 185, 215
plan of, 120
razing of, 229
water distribution to, 132, 183
Villa Ricci, 53, 54, 62, 112
villeggiatura, 115, 216
Virgil, 20
Vitelli, Giulio, Monsignor, 130, 184
Viterbo, Egidio Cardinal da, 15
Vitruvius, 59, 129
Volpaia, Eufrosino della, Campagna map (1547), 44, 48
Volterra, Francesco da, 167
walls, 16, 44, 48, 141, 145–46, 199
Washerwomen’s Street, 172
waste disposal, 193–96
chamber pots and, 179
dumping in Tiber, 24–26, 32
dumping proscriptions, 25–26, 179, 179, 194, 198, 211
garbage stench and, 196
official collectors for, 28, 194–95
terms for, 193–94. See also drains; sewers
water distribution, 56–82, 88, 107, 109–21, 179, 192
conduit design and, 69–70, 74, 76
conduit routes and, 65, 66, 69, 132, 135–36, 167
elevation and, 57–58, 61, 63
flow and, 9, 10, 37
graft and, 80, 81, 82, 186
hierarchy of, 155–80
mechanical pumps and, 227–28, 230. See also Acqua headings; civic fountains; private water concessions
water pressure, 9, 38, 58, 59, 60, 61, 64, 112
Acqua Felice strength of, 101, 123, 127, 130
Acqua Paola strength of, 143, 144, 146, 148
equalization of, 82
factors affecting, 124
fountain design and, 133, 143, 227
fountain problems with, 91, 94, 97, 99–102, 104–5, 129, 130
fountain sculpture as compensation for, 89, 105
level of water availability and, 79, 80, 81
measurement of, 59
mechanical pumps and, 56, 112, 113, 227, 227
relative elevations and, 65, 130
standardized fistola sizes and, 123, 124
water sellers, 7, 15, 20, 26, 28, 30, 32–37, 138
wells, 4, 7, 18, 43, 138
depth measurement of, 67
wellhead, 20, 87
Western Schism (1378–1417), 42, 194
wool manufacture. See fullers
World War II, 230
Ximenes, Alessandro, 173
Zanten, Jan van, 9, 143
Description: f00ii-01