Index
AA. See Architectural Association
Aalto, Aino, 171, 172, 233
Aalto, Alvar, 164, 167, 171, 172, 229, 232–36, 311
Abercrombie, Patrick, 76–78, 220–23
ABI Building (Rio; Roberto Brothers), 199
Abrams, Charles, 258, 261, 318
Abuja (Nigeria), plan for (Tange), 243, 319
acceptera, 232
Ackerman, Frederick J., 126, 129, 130, 131, 136, 184, 258
Adams, Thomas, 81, 89, 102, 132, 134, 189
Adams Brothers Adelphi Terrace (London), 27
Adshead, Stanley, 76–77, 102
Africa, regional planning in, 318–19. See also individual nations; West Africa
Agache, Alfred, 69–70, 75, 149, 201, 326
agricultural land, urbanization of, 102
Agrupacion Espacio, 320
Air Force Academy (Colorado Springs; SOM), 213
Alberti, Leon Battista, 9, 280
Albert Kahn Associates, 192
Alexander, Christopher, 265–66, 280–81, 301
Algiers, 27
plan for (Le Corbusier and Jeanneret), 170, 171
Allgemeine Baugesetz (General Building Act; Saxon; 1900), 36
allotment gardens, 158
Alphand, Jean-Charles Adolphe, 23, 58
Alte Heide Siedlung (Munich; Fischer), 151
Altneuland (Old-New Land; Herzl), 108
Alton Estate (LCC), 226
Alton West (LCC), 226–27
Alvorada Presidential Palace (Brazil; Niemeyer), 243
Amazing Archigram, 290–91
American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), 115–16
American City Beautiful Civic Centers, 63
American City magazine. 131–32
American City Planning Institute, 116, 119
American Institute of Architects, 129
American Institute of Planners, 119
American urbanism, 184, 265, 297. See also New Urbanism; urbanism; United States; U.S. city listings
American Vitruvius, The: An Architect’s Handbook of Civic Art (Hegemann and Peets), 112
Americas, colonization in, 41–46
Amon Carter Center (Fort Worth, TX; Johnson), 243
Amsterdam, 139–41, 156, 166, 274–75, 280
Amsterdam Municipal Orphanage (Van Eyck), 275, 276
Amsterdam School, 140–41, 143, 166
Amsterdam South (Berlage), 140
Anatomy of a Metropolis (Regional Plan Association of NY and Harvard School of Public Administration), 298–99
apartment buildings, 23, 81, 94. See also high-rises; public housing
Aranya (Indore, India; Doshi), 324
Archigram, 272, 290–94
Archisystems, 319
architects: ecological concerns of, 328–29
military service for, 205
new role for, 258
purpose of, 280
Architectural Association (London), 227, 256, 292, 310
Architecture of Country Houses (Downing), 55
architectural education, Beaux-Arts model of, 68
architectural ideology, 306–7
Architectural Institute of Japan, 284
Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism (Wittkower), 276
architecture, 49, 67
ad culture and, 292
city planning and, 271
distinct from engineering, 35
enhancing the core, 270
existence-will and, 277
new applications for, 38
postmodernism in, 305
serving business, 152
signification in, 304
social meaning and, 307
social order and, 139, 152
surrealism and, 272
urbanism and, 141
Architecture of the City, The (Rossi), 305
Architecture since 1400 (James-Chakraborty), 3
Architecture of Social Concern in Regions of Mild Climate, An (Neutra), 238
Architecture and Utopia: Design and Capitalist Development (Tafuri), 306–7
Artek, 233
ASCORAL (Assemblée de constructeurs pour la rénovation architectural / Constructors’ Association for the Renovation of Architecture), 203, 230
ASNOVA, 144–45
ATBAT (Atelier des Bâtisseurs / Builders’ Workshop), 230, 231, 268
ATBAT-Afrique, 257, 269, 318
Atelier de Montrouge, 271
Athens Charter, 203, 230
Atlanta (GA), 53, 211
Augur, Tracy, 130, 189, 205–6, 217
Australia, 75, 76–78, 103
Austro-Hungarian Empire, 13, 30
automobiles, 115–17, 122. See also commercial strips; highways; parkways; shopping centers; strip malls; suburbs
avant-garde, 139
Soviet, 145–46, 153, 154–55
Soviet rejection of, 168
Avesta town center proposal (Sweden; Aalto and Stark), 236
Aymonino, Carlo, 306, 312
Bäckstrom & Reinius, 233, 234
Bacon, Edmund N., 253, 254, 261–64
Bakema, Jacob (Jaap), 229, 268, 269–70, 273–74, 279, 309
Baker, Herbert, 73–75
Baldwin Hills Village (Los Angeles; Stein), 217–18, 255
Baltimore (MD), 47, 118, 325
Bangladesh, 248, 278
Banham, Reyner, 224, 226, 228, 293, 309
Barcelona, 28–30, 149
CIAM and, 169
city of cities strategy in, 314
housing in, 169
plans for, 68, 173
reconstruction of, 314, 315
Bardi, Lina Bo, 194, 300
Bartholomew, Harland, 118, 120, 132, 134–35, 187–89, 206–7
Bassett, Edward N., 119, 124
Battery Park City (NY; Eckstut), 313–14
Bauentwurfslehre (Architects’ Data; Neufert), 232
Bauer (Bauer Wurster), Catherine, 130, 180–81, 183, 217, 256, 261, 296
Bauhuas, 145–46, 149, 152, 153, 155, 164, 166, 170, 288–89
Baumeister, Reinhard, 34–38
BBPR, 259, 260, 305
Beaux-Arts. See École des Beaux-Arts
Bedford Park (England), 86
Beijing (Peking, Beiping; China), 6, 112, 244–47
Beijing Central Railway station (Yang), 247
Beirut (Lebanon), 13, 266
Belgium, retail buildings in, 152
Benjamin Thompson Associates, 300
Bergson, Henri, 99, 232
Berlage, H. P., 139–40, 143, 156, 166
Berlin, 5, 32, 36, 51, 150
building code for, 33
Collective Plan for reconstructing, 228
density of, 35
division of, 228
expansion plan for, 33, 34
growth pattern in, 7–8
land speculation in, 33
medieval city of, extended, 5–6
population growth of, 35
postwar urbanism in, 307–9
public housing in, 309
railway system in, 13
redesign of, 196–97
Ring group in, 152
social reform efforts in, 153
Berlin Free University project (Candilis-Josic-Woods), 278, 279
Berlin Hauptstadt competition (Smithson, Smithson, and Sigmond), 273, 289
Berlin Kulturforum (Cultural Center; Scharoun, Mies, et al.), 307–8
Berlin Wall, 307–8, 310
Bethnal Green housing complex (London), 81, 82
Bhakra Nagal Dam (India), 249
big roof style, 245
Bing, Alexander, 127, 129, 130
bio-realism, 258
Birmingham (Britain), 8, 13, 14, 102
Blaise Hamlet (Bristol, Britain; Nash), 11
“blight,” 120, 121–22, 134
Blom, Piet, 280, 281
Bodiansky, Vladimir, 230, 231, 257, 269
Bogotá (Colombia) core project (Le Corbusier), 270
Bombay. See Mumbai
Bombay Improvement Trust, 103, 104
Bond-Ryder, 299
Boston (MA), 10, 44, 59
coherence in, 295
Fanueil Hall, 300
Government Center redevelopment in, 265
Mount Auburn Cemetery, 55
streetcar suburbs in, 52
transportation plan for, 285
urban districts in, building of, 27
user experience of, 295
Bouvard, Joseph, 69–70, 149
Brasília (Brazil), 240–43, 268
Brazil: auto industry in, 242–43
ecological development in, 326–27
Motor City in (TPA), 236, 237–38, 251
national identity in, 199
1930s modernization in, 198–201
postwar urbanism in, 237–38, 240–44
World War II and, 237
Brazil Builds (Museum of Modern Art), 200, 237
Brazilian Ministry of Education and Public Health building (Rio; Costa et al.), 199–200
Brazilian Pavilion (New York World’s Fair; 1939), 237
Breslau. See Wrocław
Britain: architectural split in, 227
CIAM and, 219, 256–57
colonial cities of, in America, 44–46, 72–73
decentralization in, during and after World War II, 219–28
dispersed metropolitan development in, 11
Education Act (1944), 227
express highway system in, 224
Garden City movement in, 87–93
high-rise housing in, 225–26
Housing Acts, 81–82
imperial mandate of, 108
industrial cities of, health and social conditions in, 79
industrial growth in, 16
land distribution in, inequality of, 102
land planning in, 220–21, 223
New Towns in, 224, 263
pedestrian spaces in, 263–64
philanthropy in, and housing reform, 81–82
public health in, 79–80
Public Health Act, 17, 81–82
reconstruction in, after World War II, 219
school design in, 227–28
Special Roads Act of 1949, 224
Town Planning Act (1909), 101–3
urbanization of, 101
urban planning in, 18, 219
urban population of, 17
welfare state in, 232
British Association for Planning and Regional Reconstruction, 325
British Empire, 15, 44–46, 89, 107
British Mandate Palestine, 78, 107
British Ministry of Town and Country Planning, 221, 222
British Ministry of Works and Buildings, 220
British Town Planning, 78
Broadacre City (F. L. Wright), 126, 176, 178–79, 126, 184, 190, 214
Brooklyn (NY), 58, 83, 128, 300
Brutalism, 231, 282
Budapest (Hungary), 26, 30
Buenos Aires (Argentina), 14, 26, 41, 122, 149
Buffalo (NY), 48, 49, 58
building bulk, control of, 120
building codes, 125, 312–13
building components: repetitive use of, 29
standardization of, 155–56
building groups, infrastructure and, 279, 280
building materials, World War II and, 205
Buildings of England (Pevsner), 263–64
bulk zoning, 38
Bunshaft, Gordon, 179, 209
Burle Marx, Roberto, 200, 213, 243–44
Burnham, Daniel H., 60–62, 64–66, 113, 132, 176, 179, 62
Calcutta. See Kolkata
California, 224, 119. See also entries for California’s cities
Cambridge Seven Associates, 285
Canada, 41, 43, 103, 183. See also Montréal; Toronto
canal networks, 48
Candilis, Georges, 268–69, 275, 278
Candilis-Josic-Woods, 273, 275–76, 278, 281, 288, 308
Can Our Cities Survive? (Sert), 174, 235, 238
capsule tower, 279
Caribe Hilton (San Juan; Toro, Ferrer & Torregrosa), 239
carioca modernism, 200–201, 237, 238, 240
Carl Mackley Homes (Philadelphia; Kastner and Stonorov), 181
Casablanca (Morocco), 149
master plan for (Prost), 71, 72
Casa Bloc housing (Barcelona; Sert et al.), 169
Casa del Fascio party headquarters building (Italy; Terragni), 194
Casa Elettrica (Electric House), 194
Case Study Houses (Los Angeles), 214
Castles on the Ground, The (Richards), 227
central business district (CBD), 210
central cities, 261, 313
Central Park (New York), 56–57, 123, 130–31
central place theory, 197, 198, 259
Centre Pompidou (Paris; Piano & Rogers), 293, 294
Centrosoyuz (Moscow), 154, 160, 170
centuration, 47
Century of Progress exhibition (1933; Chicago), 179
Cerdà i Sunyer, Ildefons, 2, 28–29, 69
Česky Tĕŝín (Teschen), 37
Chadwick, Edwin, 17, 79
Chandigarh (India), 231, 242, 248–51, 268, 285
Charleston (SC), 9, 10, 44, 49
Charte de l’architecte reconstructeur (Reconstruction Architect’s Charter; Vichy government), 203
“Charte d’Habitat” (Habitat Charter), 271
Charte d’urbanisme (MRU), 230
Chassériau, C. F. H., 27
chawls, 103–6
Cheesman, Wendy, 294
Chennai (Madras; India), 6, 13
Cheonggyecheon Restoration Project (Seoul), 329, 330
Chicago (IL), 49, 50–51, 58, 59, 87
Century of Progress exhibition (1933), 179
City Beautiful movement in, 64–65
City Residential Land Development Corporation competition in (1913), 125–26, 129
Commission on Race Relations, 119
development of, 136
Great Migration and, 118
growth of, 53
high-rise public housing in, 211
layout of, 52–53
Marina City, 283
Millennium Park (SOM et al.), 65, 329
neighborhood preservation in, 300
Near South Side of, 118–19, 218, 259
New Urbanism in, 65
Northerly Island, 65, 179
outlying districts in, 54
postwar urban populations in, 208
race riots in, 118–19
skyscraper city, 147, 148
slum clearance in, 208
South Side Planning Board, 208
suburbs of, 52, 54–55, 116
subways in, 211
urban growth and, 185
Chicago Fair. See World’s Columbian Exposition (1893)
Chicago Forest Preserves, 64
Chicago School of Sociology, 184, 185, 187, 215
Chicago Tribune tower (Hood and Howells), 175–76
Chicago World Exhibition. See World’s Columbian Exposition (1893)
Chimbote (Peru; Sert and Woener), 251, 266, 321
China, 111–12: architecture and urban design education in, 245
big roof style in, 245
Five Year Plan (2005), 331
mass housing in, 162
modernization of, 244–45
population shifts in, 330
postwar changes in, 244–47
Qing dynasty in, 14
Socialist Realism in, 245
Soviet aid for, 244–45
treaty ports in, 6
urban development in, 330
urbanism in, 163, 330–31
War of Resistance against Japan, 244
cholera, 17, 18, 79
Christaller, Walter, 197, 198, 259
Church, Thomas D., 217, 234
Churchill, Winston, 219, 319
Churchill Gardens (London; Powell & Moya), 225–26
Church of St. Joseph (Le Havre; Perret), 230
CIAM (International Congresses of Modern Architecture), 3, 155–75
advocating for pedestrian encounters, 263
Barcelona and, 169
“core” concept of, 274
democratic assembly and, 242
depoliticizing of, 173
dissolving of, 260
division in, 155, 160, 173
Dutch, 166
in England, 256–57
four functions concept of, 164–66, 169, 172, 203, 237, 269, 270
functional housing and, 162
Greece and, 170–71
heart of the city concept and, 242, 251, 254, 263, 269
individual dwellings as focus of, 156, 159–60
integrating arts with urbanism, 240
in Italy, 254, 259
in Latin America, 170
Le Corbusier and, 155–58, 160
legacy of, 254
made illegal in Germany and the USSR, 198
May and, 156–59, 162
Moscow and, 162, 166, 169–70, 173
new categories proposed for, 271, 272
non-Western architectural cultures and, 269
postwar, 271
publishing texts from CIAM 4, 174
revised urbanism of, 268
Spain and, 173–74
Summer School, 256
in Sweden, 232, 233
CINVA center for housing research (Bogotá), 318
circulation, as traffic concept, 23
circulation systems, consequences of, 294
CIRPAC (London), 173
Cité Industrielle (Industrial Settlement; Garnier), 69–71, 138
Cité Napoleon (Paris), 82
Cité Ouvrière (Workers’ Settlement; Mulhouse, France), 82
cities, 1–2
advertising in, 232
built to impress, 8–9
centered on high schools, 259
clearing and rebuilding of, 180 (See also public housing; slums: clearance of)
coherence of, 294, 304
conveying social meaning, 307
culture and, 253–54, 261
decentralized development of, 115–16
as divided places, 6–7
ethnic groups unwelcome in, 8
extending medieval centers, 5–6
as flows of persons and goods, 294
increasing greenery in, 55
as living organisms, 282
as manifestos, 310
new elements in, 7
obsolescence of, 179
originating institutions of, 305
poor in-migrants to, 257
reorganized for the working masses, 155
segregated racially, 6–7
social problems of, 17–18, 54–55
street trees in, 5
topography and reorganization of, 174
walkable, 259–60 (see also entries for pedestrians). See also urban entries.
Cities and Town Planning Exhibition (Geddes), 103–4
Cities of Tomorrow (Hall), 3
City, The (Eliel Saarinen), 253
City, The: Suggestions for Investigation of Human Behavior in the Urban Environment (Park and Burgess), 185
City Assembled, The (Kostof), 3
City Beautiful movement, 40, 60, 62–66, 103, 112, 127, 214, 247
influence of, 72–78
Japan and, 109
city building (Städtebau), field of, 34
City Efficient approach, 122
City Hall (New York; Post), 53
City Housing Corporation, 129, 130
City of London Corporation, 210
city planning: architecture and, 271
freezing the social order, 296
misguided, 297
profession of, 132. See also urban planning
City Shaped, The (Kostof), 3
City University (Rio), 240
Ciudad Lineal (linear city) concept, 93
Civic Center (San Francisco) complex, Burnham and, 63
civic centers, modernist, 256
civic cores, 251
civic culture, 253–54
civic design, training program in, 76–77
civic surveys, photography and, 99
Civil Rights Act of 1965, 298
Clarke, Gilmore D., 124, 195, 217
Clarke and Rapuano, 217
classicism, questioning of, 37
Claudius-Petit, Eugène, 203, 230, 231
Clavan, Irwin, 216, 261
Cleveland (OH), 49, 62, 118
Clinton administration, 316
CNU. See Congress for the New Urbanism
Coates, Wells, 170, 173
CoBrA artists’ group, 289
codes, form-based, 3-D, 312–13
cognitive mapping, 295
COHAB (Curitiba public housing agency), 327
coherence, 294, 304
“Colisée de Fer” (Iron Colosseum; Le Play), 26
Collage City (Rowe and Koetter), 309
collective housing, 159, 233
collective services, integration of, 153–54
Cologne (Germany), 36, 38
colonialism, 6, 15–16, 41–46, 72–73, 78, 266
Colonial Terraces (Newburgh, NY), 126
Colorado Street Bridge (Pasadena, CA; Waddell and Harrington), 123
Colquhoun, Alan, 227, 237
Columbia Square housing complex (London), 81
commercial strips, 116, 302, 303–4
Commerzbank (Frankfurt; Foster), 329
Commonwealth Avenue (Boston), 27
Communal House concept (USSR), 153–54
communal structure, societies centered on, 139
communes, 141–42
Communist Manifesto (Marx and Engels), 25, 81
Communist Party (London), 225
Communist Party Central Committee (USSR), 143, 144
Communist Party of China, 111, 112, 244
Community and Privacy (Chermayeff and Alexander), 265–66
company towns, 86–87, 189
Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (Venturi), 300–301, 303
Computer City collage (Crompton), 292
concentric ring development model, 185–86, 215
Concourse in Singapore (Rudolph), 286
concrete, reinforced. See reinforced concrete
Condition of the Working Class in England, The (Engels), 11, 81
Congress for the New Urbanism, 3, 270, 312, 316
Congress Party (India), 248
Constant (Nieuwenhuijs), 272, 289
Constructivists, 145, 153
consumer societies, 20–21, 272
Contemporary City for Three Million (Le Corbusier), 148, 176
“Continuous Monument” project (Superstudio), 293, 310
conurbations, 98
Cook, Peter, 290, 292, 309, 310, 312
Cooperation versus Socialism (Geddes), 97
Cooperative Bank of Western Nigeria buildings (Fry, Drew, Drake & Lasdun), 248
cooperative housing associations, 317
Co-op Himmelb(l)au, 328
Copacabana (Rio), 244
COPAN building (São Paulo; Niemeyer), 242
Corbett, Harrison, and MacMurray, 176, 177
Corbett, Harvey Wiley, 69, 311
core: as collective awareness, 270
concept of, 274
CORE (Congress on Racial Equality), 298
corporate campuses, 212
Cosanti Foundation, 326
Cosanti II (Arcosanti; Arizona), 326
Costa, Lúcio, 199, 213, 240, 242
Costa & Niemeyer, 237
Country Club District (Kansas City, MO), 116–17, 135, 136
country estates, 55
County Council housing estates, 223
County of London Plan (1943), 220, 221–22, 225, 250
courthouse squares, 46
courtyard houses, 266, 321
covenants, 117–18, 134, 208
Coventry (UK), bombing of, 203
CPC. See Communist Party of China
Crabgrass Frontier (Jackson), 187
Cranbrook Academy (Eliel Saarinen), 212, 253
Crane, Jacob Leslie, 257–58, 318
critical theory, 306–7
critical utopias, 310
Crompton, Dennis, 290–91, 292
Cross Acts (England), 81
Crown Zellerbach (San Francisco; SOM), 209
cruciform planning, 242
Crystal Palace (Paris), 15, 25
Cuba, 66–67, 267
Cubism, 144, 147
cultural landscapes, 303
culture, cities and, 253–54, 261
Culture of Cities (Mumford), 233
Curitiba (Brazil), 326–28, 334
Dallas (TX), 53, 115
Dandora Community Development project (Nairobi), 324
Das Englische Haus (The English House; Muthesius), 94
Das Kapital (Capital: A Critique of Political Economy; Marx), 25
Dawes Plan (1925), 151
Dearborn (MI), 115
Death and Life of Great American Cities, The (Jacobs), 295–97, 315–16
Debord, Guy, 288, 289, 296
de Carlo, Giancarlo, 279, 281, 303, 308, 309
decentralization, 88–89, 101, 115, 127, 154–55, 212, 296
ethnic succession and, 187
industrial plants and, 192
military reasons for, 205
in North America, 253
Wright advocating for, 177–79
decolonization, 274
“Deconstructivist Architecture” (Museum of Modern Art), 328
De 8 (The Eight), 166
defense housing settlements, 193
Delano, Frederic A., 64, 132, 134, 206
Delaware Park (Buffalo, NY), 58
Delirious New York (Koolhaas), 310
de Mandrot, Hélène, 155, 235
democratic centralism, 112
Denen-Chōfu settlement, 111
density, 225, 258, 197
department stores, 116, 152, 153
Der Städtebau (Stübben), 37–38
Der Städtebau nach seinen künst-lerischen Grundsätzen (City Building According to Artistic Principles; Sitte), 34, 36–37, 139
Design of Cities (Bacon), 254
Design with Nature (McHarg), 325
De Stijl movement, 139, 143, 147, 166
Detroit (MI), 43, 49, 59, 115, 180
Art Deco towers in, 176
Great Migration and, 118
postwar populations in, 208
riots in, 298
sprawl in, 173
Deutsche Akademie für Städtebau, Reichs-und Landesplanung (German Academy for Town, National, and Regional Planning), 198
Deutsche Gartenstadtgesellschaft (German Garden City Association), 94
development, 16, 30, 58, 326
Die gegliederte und aufgelockerte Stadt (The Ordered and Dispersed City; Göderitz, Hoffman, and Rainer), 198
Die Gross-stadt (The Metropolis; O. Wagner), 39
Die Stadtkrone (The City Crown; Taut), 139
Die Wohnung für das Existenzminimum (CIAM), 160
Diller Scofidio + Renfro, 329
dime houses, 245–46
Disappearing City, The (F. L. Wright), 177
Disney Concert Hall (Los Angeles; Gehry), 329
Disneyland (Anaheim, CA), 302
displaced persons, settlements for, 156
disurbanists, 154, 157, 164
diversity, as urban value, 297
van Doesburg, Theo, 139, 166
Dōjunkai (Mutual Benefit Society; Japan), 110, 197–98
Dominion Centre (Toronto; Mies), 210
Doom Manifesto (Team 10), 270
Doshi, Balkrishna, 303, 324
Downing, Andrew Jackson, 55–56, 61
downtowns: divisions in, 180
importance of, 212
interstates and, 206, 207
monuments in, 213
pedestrian routes in, 210 (see also entries for pedestrians)
postwar changes in, 208–9, 217. See also center city listings
Doxiadis, Constantinos, 243, 258–59, 266–67, 318
Doxiadis Associates, 266–67, 318–19
Dresden (Germany), 35, 36, 204
Drew, Jane, 247–48, 318
drive-ins, 116, 131
dual city, 108
Dual Mandate for Tropical Africa (Lugard), 108
Duany, Andres, 312, 313
Dubai (UAE), planning for, 319–20
Dugway Proving Ground (UT), 205
Dunbar Apartments (New York; Thomas), 135, 136
Dust Bowl, 191
Dutch CIAM, 166
Dutch structuralism, 281, 308
Dymaxion deployment units, 205
Dymaxion House, 179
Dymaxion World Map, 205
Dynapolis, 267
Eads Bridge (St. Louis), 50
Eames, Charles, 214, 263
Eames Foundation (Pacific Palisades, CA), 214
East Asia, postwar transformation in, 244–47
East Berlin (Germany), 228–29, 309. See also Berlin
Eastern Europe: mass housing in, 162
Zahringer towns in, 42
East River Houses (NYCHA), 184
Eckbo, Garrett, 191, 217
Ecochard, Michel, 231, 257
École des Beaux-Arts, 20, 67–69, 76, 112, 100, 138
École Polytechnique, 20, 35
ecological economics, 258
Economist building (former) (London; Smithsons), 274
EDAW, 191
edge cities, 326
Edinburgh (Scotland), 11, 97, 99, 106
van Eesteren, Cornelis, 164, 166–67, 171, 173, 198
EFC. See Emergency Fleet Corporation
E42 World’s Fair, 195
Eichler home developments (California), 214
Eisenman, Peter, 300, 309–12, 328
Eixample (Barcelona), 28, 29
Ekistics (journal), 258
electrification, 51–52
elevators, 50–51, 183–84
Emergency Fleet Corporation, 126–27, 129
eminent domain, 221
Empire State Plaza complex (Albany, NY; Harrison & Abramowitz), 300
ENBA. See Escola Nacional de Belas Artes
enclosed courtyards, 254–55
Engels, Friedrich, 11–12, 23, 25, 81, 97, 143, 164
engineering, 20, 35
England. See Britain Enlightenment, the, 15, 20
Equitable Building (NYC), 119–20
Equitable Building (Portland, OR; Belluschi), 209
Erie Canal, 48
Escola Nacional de Belas Artes (Rio de Janeiro), 199
Esherick, Joseph, 300, 301–2
Euclid v. Amber, 125
Europe: cities of, 4–8, 108
colonial powers of, 6, 41
colonies of, independence of, 266
Nazi building standardization and, 232, 235
post–World War I, 138–39
reinhabiting central urban areas in, 314. See also individual cities
Existenzminimum, 159
“Exodus” project (Koolhaas), 310
Experiencing Architecture (Rasmussen), 264
Expo ’67 (Montreal), 281, 291
Expressionism, 139, 143, 144, 152
exterior surfaces, politics and, 152
factories, 16, 115
Fanueil Hall Marketplace (Boston; Benjamin Thompson Associates), 300
FAR. See floor area ratio
Farms, Fields, and Factories (Kropotkin), 98
Farsta (Sweden), 233
fascism, 193–98
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (US), 190
Federal Housing Act (US; 1949), 253
Federal Housing Administration (US), 184, 186–87, 188, 216
Federal Plan Commission (Canada), 103
Federal Public Housing Authority (US), 207
Fenway (Boston), 59
Ferriss, Hugh, 120, 121, 311
festival marketplace, 300
Fiat-Lingotto factory (Turin; Matté-Trucco), 194
Fifth Avenue Association (NYC), 119
Fine Building (Fry), 220
Finland, 232, 234–36
Finsbury estate (London; Tecton), 226
Fischer, Theodor, 95, 107, 151
flexible standardization, 235
floating structures, 283
floor area ratio, 209
Ford, Henry, 7, 115, 136–37, 162, 192
Ford Foundation, 298
Ford Motor Company, 162–63
Forest Hills Gardens (Queens, NY; Olmsted and Atterbury), 113–14, 125, 126, 129, 135
Forestier, Jean N. Claude, 67, 69–70, 149
formalism, 277
form-based codes, 38, 120
Fort Worth (TX), 115, 261, 262–63
Foster, Norman, 294, 329
Foster & Partners, 294
four functions concept, 164–66, 169, 172, 203, 237, 269, 270
Fourier, Charles, 20, 82, 153–54
Frampton, Kenneth, 3, 272, 306
France, 20, 93, 107, 202–3, 288
bastide towns in, 41–42
Fifth Republic in, 229
Garden City movement, in, 93–94
housing projects in, 320
imperial commercial interests of, 43–44
instability in, 288
national rail in, 22
housing in, 82
postwar urbanism in, 229–32
public health regulations in, 68
reconstruction in, after WWI, 93
Resistance in, 229
social housing in, 278
structuralists in, 306–7
Third Republic, 26
urbanisme in, 2, 67–72
Vichy government in, 229
Frankfurt-am-Main (Germany), 31, 35, 38, 89, 128, 156, 158
Frankfurt kitchen (Schütte Lihotzky), 158
Frankfurt-Römerberg. rebuilding of, 278
Frankfurt School, 306–7
Franklin Park (Boston), 59
Freedom to Build (Turner), 321
freeways, 124
French, Daniel Chester, The Republic (statue, 1893), 60
Friedman, Yona, 290, 316
Fry, E. Maxwell, 220, 247–48, 256, 318
Fry & Drew, 250–51, 318, 321
Fry, Drew, Drake & Lasdun, 248, 318
FSA. See Farm Security Administration
full-block apartment complexes, 135
Fuller, R. Buckminster, 179, 205, 259, 291, 294
“Fun Palace” (Price), 292
Functional City, 171–72, 174
functional elements, 166
functional housing, 162
Future of Architecture since 1889 (Cohen), 3
Futurists, 139, 143, 144, 147, 194
Galesburg Village (Kalamazoo, MI), 214
Gandhi, Mahatma, 104, 249, 259
garden cemeteries, 55
Garden Cities of Tomorrow (Howard), 87, 88
Garden Cities and Town Planning Association, 102, 220
Garden City Association (England), 87, 89, 94, 102
Garden City movement, 69, 125, 128, 130, 136–37, 138, 177, 180, 189, 223
advocating Heimatstil (Style of the Homeland), 152
appeal of, 101
in Britain, 87–93
built outcomes of, 102
characteristics of, 156
CIAM and, 155
Geddes’s concepts and, 100
in France, 93–94
in Germany, 94–96, 156
in India, 106–7
in Japan, 111
medieval forms of, 139
in Palestine, 107–8
racial segregation and, 108
socialist principles and, 139
in Sweden, 233
Garden Suburb, 130
Garnier, Tony, 69–71, 138, 147
gas street lighting, 51
GATCPAC (Spain), 169, 173–74
Gateway Arch (Jefferson National Expansion Memorial; Eero Saarinen), 195, 212–13
Gateway Center (Pittsburgh, PA; Clavan), 261
GEAM (Groupe études d’architecture mobile / Mobile Architecture Study Group), 290
Geddes, Anna Morton, 97, 106
Geddes, Patrick, 2, 96–109, 127, 129, 132, 136, 174, 248, 257, 270, 296
Gehry, Frank, 328, 329
Gemeindebauten, 141–42
general systems theory, 257
General Theory of Urbanization (Cerdá), 29
gentrification, 292, 314
geodesic domes, 291
George Washington Bridge (NY–NJ), 130, 133
German Empire, 31, 94
German Expressionism, 139
German Werkbund, 94
Germany: academic specialization in, 97
bombing of, 204
building codes in, 33, 36
cities in, after unification, 32–33
Garden City movement in, 94–96, 152, 156
modernist housing in, 96
national expressway in, 196
National Socialist (Nazi) Party in, 108, 146, 158, 170, 194, 193, 196, 198, 202–3, 207, 213, 228
1930s urbanism in, 193, 196–97, 199
philanthropic housing in, 82–83
postwar urbanism in, 228–29
town planning in, 33–34
unification of, 31–32
urban planning in, 69, 92–93
Weimar Republic in, 146–47
in World War II, 202, 203–4
zoning codes in, 119
Gestalt psychology, design and, 277
Ghana, 248, 318
Ghirardelli Square (San Francisco), 300, 301
Giedion, Sigfried, 29, 141, 158, 164, 171, 173, 175, 212–13, 242, 257, 259, 260, 269, 270, 271, 274, 309
Ginzburg, Moisei, 153, 154, 157, 160, 164, 231
Giraudoux, Jean, 203
Glass, Ruth, 272, 292
Glass Chain, 139
glass-walled buildings, 154, 199, 209
GM Futurama (New York World’s Fair), 179, 206
GM Technical Center (Saarinen, Swanson & Saarinen), 212, 213
God’s Own Junkyard (Blake), 304
Golden Gate Park (San Francisco, CA), 59
Golden Lane project (London; Smithsons), 271–72, 282, 289
Golden Mile (Singapore; Lim), 286
Golden Section, 231–32
Goldschmidt, Neil, 314
Goodhue, Bertrand Grosvenor, 67, 127
Gottmann, Jean, 265, 267
Government House (New Delhi, India), 74
Grand Central Terminal (New York; Reed & Stern; Warren & Wetmore), 64
Grant Park (Chicago), 65
Grassi, Giorgio, 306, 311, 312
gray areas, 298–99
Great Depression, 133–34, 180
Greater Fort Worth Tomorrow (Gruen), 277
Greater London Plan of 1944, 220, 222–26
Greater London Regional Planning Committee, 219
Great Exhibition (London; 1851), 15, 25, 80, 81
Great Hall of the People (PRC; Zhang), 247
Great Migration, 118
Great Society, 298
Greece, 170–71, 258
Greenbelt (MD), 190–91
greenbelts, surrounding cities, 85, 87, 89, 95, 168
Greenbelt Towns, 184, 189–91, 224
Greenbrook (NJ), 191
Greendale (WI), 191
Greene, David, 291, 292
Greenhills (OH), 191
“Greensward” (Central Park, NY), 56
Greenway Principle, 262
Greenwich (UK), 15
Greenwich Hospital, 73, 74
grid plans, 39, 42–48, 86
Griffin, Walter Burley, 76, 77
Grondal (Stockholm; Bäckstrom & Reinius), 234
Groothandelsgebouw (Rotterdam; Van Tijen and Maaskant), 274
Gropius, Walter, 139, 145, 147, 149, 153, 159–62, 164, 167, 174, 229, 234, 259, 269, 270
Gross, S. E., 54, 57
Grossdale, Incorporated, 57
Group Form, 284, 285
Growth of Cities in the Nineteenth Century, The (Weber), 87
Gruen, Victor, 218, 261–64, 277, 296
Gruppo 7, 193, 194
habitat, Team 10’s focus on, 271
Hall of Fame terrace (former NYU Bronx campus), 62
Halprin, Lawrence, 302, 314, 316
Hampstead Garden Suburb (London; Parker and Unwin), 2, 91–92, 102, 130, 156
Hansson, Per Albin, 232–33
Harding administration, 125
Häring, Hugo, 152, 153
Harlem (NY), rebuilding of, 309
Harlem River Houses (NYCHA), 182, 188
Harlow (Britain; Gibberd), 224
Harrison, Wallace K., 209, 311
Harrison & Abramowitz, 256, 300
Harumi Apartments (Ōtaka), 283
Harvard University, Graduate School of Design, 59, 191–92, 213, 234, 236, 253, 254, 256, 259–61, 285, 294
Harvard Urban Design Conferences, 260–64, 294
Haughwout Building (NY; Gaynor), 50
Haussmann, Georges-Eugène, 19, 21–23, 26–27, 37, 68, 149
Havana (Cuba), plans for, 67, 149, 267
Havana Malecón (Cuba), 67
heart of the city concept, 242, 251, 254, 263, 269
Hébrard, Ernest, 71, 77, 149
Hebrew University (Jerusalem), 107
Heimatschutz, 156
Hejduk, John, 311, 312
Hellerau (Germany), 95
Helsinki Plan (1918; Eliel Saarinen), 96, 168
Hénard, Eugene, 26, 69–70, 71
Hennebique engineering firm, 138
Herron, Ron, 291, 292
Hertzberger, Herman, 281, 308
High Line (New York; Corner and Diller Scofidio + Renfro), 329
high-rises: hotels, model for, 239
middle-income, 218
public housing, 159–60, 174–75, 184, 316 (See also public housing)
highways, 148
Hilberseimer, Ludwig, 149–50, 151, 166, 179, 218
Hillside Homes (Bronx, NY; Stein), 181
Hillside Terrace (Tokyo; Maki), 285, 286
Hiroshima Memorial Park (Tange), 282
historic cities, 305, 306
historic preservation, 99
Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, 175, 226
Hitler, Adolf, 146, 202, 203–4
Hoberman & Wasserman, 299
Hobrecht, James, 33, 34
Hochschle für Gestaltung Ulm, 288
Hoener, Baum, and Froese, 187–88
HOK, 311, 329
HOLC. See Home Owners Loan Corporation
HOLC maps, 186–87
Holford, William, 78, 210
home ownership, encouraging, 184–85
Home Owners Loan Corporation, 185–87
Homesgarth cooperative housing (Britain), 90–91
Hong Kong, 111, 330
Hood, Raymond, 176, 311
Hood, Godley, and Fouilhoux, 176, 177
Hoover, Herbert, 125, 132, 133–34, 136, 184
Hoover Dam, 136
Hope VI program, 316
horizontality, 183
Horsfall, Thomas Coglan, 92–93, 96, 101
Hötorgscity (Stockholm; Markelius), 209
Houses of Parliament (London), 72
House of Tomorrow (Keck and Keck), 179
housing, government-subsidized. See public housing
housing blocks, 168
housing combines, 163
housing conditions, social unrest and, 81
housing estates, Garden City concept and, 102
housing production, standardized, 160–61
housing projects, 174–75
housing settlements, 126–27, 156. See also settlements
housing societies, worker owned, 140
Housing Study Guild, 181, 183, 184
Houston (TX), 53, 209, 325
Howard, Ebenezer, 2, 29, 87–90, 93, 95, 96, 101, 107, 111, 138, 163, 296
Howe, George, 183, 212
How the Other Half Lives (Riis), 84
Hufeisensiedlung (Berlin/Britz; Taut), 150–51
Hull House (Chicago), 99
human association, 270–71
human environment, design of, 191
human settlements, biology and, 96–98, 100, 160–61, 173, 174, 197
Hunstanton Secondary Modern School (East Anglia; Smithson and Smithson), 228
Hyderabad (India), 13, 103
hydropower, decentralization of, 98
Hygeia: A City of Health (Richardson), 86
IIT (Illinois Institute of Technology), 179, 212, 218
ILAUD (International Laboratory of Architecture and Urbanism), 303
Image of the City, The (Lynch), 261, 295
Imaginist Bauhaus group, 289
Imatra Master Plan (Finland; Aalto), 236
immigrants, slums for, 85
Improved Industrial Dwellings Company (London), 81
Improvement of Dwellings and Surroundings of the People, The: The Example of Germany (Horsfall), 92–93, 101
Improvement Trusts, 103, 105, 106
Independent Group (IG; London), 228, 272, 292
India, 106–7, 248, 258
British power in, 6, 73
capital of, 73–75
civic reconstruction in, 104
Improvement Trusts, 103
independence of, 248
modernization of, 258
partition of, 248
planning in, 103–6, 247–48
railway systems in, 13, 14
slums in, 105
street design in, 27
villages in, guidelines for, 280–81
as welfare state, 249
Indian Institute of Architects, 248
Indian Institute of Management (Ahmedabad; L. Kahn), 278
industrial cities, 87, 138, 156–57, 167
industrial communities, 85–86
industrialization, 32–33, 87–88, 325
Ineffable Space, 254
informal settlements, 317, 331–32
infrastructure, building groups and, 279, 280
Inland Steel (Chicago; SOM), 209
in-migrants, settlements for, 317
Institute for Architectural Research proposal (Aalto), 235
Institute for Architecture and Urbanism (IAUS; Museum of Modern Art), 310
Institute of Contemporary Art (ICA; London), 292
Institute of Town Planning of India, 248
Institute of Urban Research and Planning (IPPUC; Brazil), 326
Instituto Casa Populare (ICP), 194
Interbau ’57 exhibition, 229
International Architecture, 153
International Building Exhibition (IBA; Berlin), 312
International Congresses for Modern Architecture. See CIAM
International Federation for Housing and Town Planning (IFHTP), 257
International Garden City Congress, 93
internationalism, 138–39, 151, 152
International Style, 175, 183
International Style, The: Architecture Since 1922 (Museum of Modern Art), 175
Investigations in Collective Form (Maki and Goldberg), 284
Irvine Ranch (Los Angeles; Jerde), 325, 326
Isaacs, Reginald R., 208, 259
Islamabad (Pakistan), plan for (Doxiadis), 243, 266
Islamic countries, neighborhood centers in, 267
Israel, 107, 232, 248
Istanbul (Turkey), 13–14, 15, 71, 321
Italy: CIAM in, 254, 259
Mussolini regime in, 194–95
New Empiricism in, 305
1930s urbanism in, 193–95
urban center renovation and, 194
welfare state in, 232
Itamaraty Palace (Brazilian Foreign Relations Department; Niemeyer), 243
i10 (journal), 166
Jackson, John Brinckerhoff, 302–3, 305
Jacobs, Jane (Butzner), 261, 268, 295–98, 300, 301, 304, 315–16, 320
Jamestown (VA), 44
Jamma Masjid, 74
Jamshedpur (India), 106–7, 248
Japan, 209: artificial land and, 283, 284
annexing Korea, 109
bombing of, 204
building height laws in, 283
China’s War of Resistance against, 244
City Beautiful concept in, 109
city planning and building legislation in, 109, 110
Garden City movement in, 111
Housing Associations in, 109
housing cooperatives in, 110
Korean War’s effect on, 282
Metabolists in, 282–86
1930s urbanism in, 193, 197–98
opening of, 109
regional planning in, 204
welfare state in, 232
in World War II, 204
Jardines del Pedregal de San Ángel (Mexico City), 239–40
Jaussley, Léon, 67–70, 149
Jeanneret, Charles-Edouard, 138. See also Le Corbusier
Jeanneret, Pierre, 154, 250–51
Jefferson, Thomas, 46, 177, 212
Jefferson Memorial (Washington, D.C.; Pope), 62, 213
Jefferson National Expansion Memorial. See Gateway Arch
Jensen, Jens, 64, 126
Johannesburg, 6, 16, 122
John Hancock Center (Chicago; SOM), 211
Johnson, Lyndon B., 298, 304
Johnson, Philip, 175, 209, 243, 256, 299, 310
Journal of the Town Planning Institute, 102
Julian, Kennedy and Sahlin, 106
Kahn, Albert, 163, 176, 194
Kahn, Louis I., 175, 261, 262, 264, 239, 277–78, 307, 309
Kaiser Eames, Ray, 214, 263
Kansas City (MO), 116–17, 136
Karachi (Pakistan), 13, 73
Karl Marx Hoff (Ehn; Vienna), 142
Karlsruhe, 5, 32
Kaufmann, Richard, 94, 107
Kauttua (Finland; Aalto), 234
Keck and Keck, 179
Kepes, Gyorgy, 261, 285, 294–95
Kessler, George, 117, 120, 127
Khedive Ismā’il (Cairo), 26
Kidder-Smith, G. E., 200
Kiefhoek (Rotterdam; Oud), 150
Kikutake, Kiyonori, 283
Kiley, Dan, 205, 212, 217
Kingsway-Aldwych improvement (London), 72
KMT. See Kuomintang
Knickerbocker Village (NY; Ackerman), 136
Koenigsberger, Otto, 106–7, 247–48, 318, 321
Kohn, Robert D., 126, 129
Kokemäenjoki River Valley Regional Plan (Finland; Aalto), 235
Kolkata (Calcutta), 6, 9, 10, 13, 103
Königsberg (Kaliningrad), 31
Koolhaas, Rem, 309–11, 328
Korea, 109, 110, 282
Korn, Arthur, 164, 219, 289
KPF, 329
Krier, Léon, 311, 312, 316
Krier, Rob, 311, 312, 316
Kritische theorie der Formbildung (Modern Theories of Development; von Bertalanffly), 197
Kubitschek, Juscelino, 240–44
Kuomintang, 111–12, 244, 245
Kurokawa, Kisho, 279, 280, 282–83, 312
Kuwait, 249, 309, 319
Labor Housing Conference, 181
Labour Party (Britain), 225, 293
La Charte d’Athènes (The Athens Charter; ASCORAL), 174, 203
la Cité de la Muette (Drancy; Beaudouin and Lods), 175
La cité jardin (The Garden City; Benoît-Levy), 93
La Città Nuova (The New City; Sant’Elia), 139
L’architettura della città (The Architecture of the City; Rossi), 254
Lafayette Park (Detroit; Mies et al.), 218
Lafayette Square (Washington, D.C.), 62
La géographie universelle (Universal Geography; Geddes), 96
Lagos (Nigeria), 6
La Guardia, Fiorello, 190, 238
Lahore (Pakistan), 13, 73, 248–49
Lake Meadows (Chicago; SOM), 218
Lakeshore Drive Apartments (Chicago; Mies van der Rohe), 209
Lambert, Phyllis, 209
Lanchester, Henry Vaughn, 73, 105, 106
land, 16, 113, 125, 134. See also zoning
Landscape (journal), 302–3
landscape architecture, 57, 58, 59, 259
landscape design, 58, 59
Landwehrkanal (Berlin), 310
Lansing (MI), 47
La Sarraz Declaration (1928), 155
Lasdun, Denys, 226, 282
La Strada Novissima (The New Street), 312
La Tendenza, 311, 312
Latin America: Good Neighbor Policy in, 237
grid plans in, 44
housing models in, 318
postwar urbanism in, 237–44. See also entries for individual nations
La Ville Radieuse (The Radiant City; Le Corbusier), 158, 174
La Ville Souterraine, 210
Laws of the Indies, for town layouts, 42–43
LCC. See London County Council League of Nations, competition for, 155
Learning from Las Vegas (Scott Brown, Venturi, and Izenhour), 303–4, 310
Lebanon, 107
Le Corbusier, 2, 69, 70, 147–55, 164, 167, 168, 213, 277
ATBAT and, 230
Blom’s influence on, 280
Bogotá core project of, 270
in Brazil, 199–201, 240, 241
calling for worldwide “Charter of Habitat,” 269
CIAM and, 155–58, 160, 169
Contemporary City for Three Million, 176
criticism of, 288
early writings of, on urbanism, 138
on five points of new architecture, 199
founding ASCORAL, 203
in France, 229, 230, 231
on the Functional City, 171–72, 174
in India, 250–51
Ineffable Space and, 254
Jacobs’s criticism of, 296–97
killing the street, 164
modern houses of, 276
Modulor, 231–32
North American influence of, 176–77
post-Soviet urban proposals of, 170
Radiant City, 296
Saint-Dié-des-Vosges project, 226, 229, 230
7V traffic system of, 250, 319
on three human establishments, 220, 221
trailers and, 193
UN design and, 209
urbanism of, 158, 160–62
in the United States, 231
using human scale in urban design, 254
in Vichy France, 203
Ville Contemporaine, 296
Ledoux, Claude-Nicolas, 20, 307
L’Enfant, Pierre, 46, 61, 307
Lefebvre, Henri, 2, 307, 320
Léger, Fernand, 171, 212
Leicester University Engineering Building (Stirling), 279
Lemco, Blanche (Blanche van Ginkel), 230
Lenin, V. I., 141, 143, 144, 162
Le Play, Frédéric, 25–26, 96–97, 109
Le Playist Musée Social, 68–69
Les cités jardins d’amérique (American Garden Cities; Benoît-Levy), 93
les grandes ensembles, 229
Les ouvriers européens [European workers] (Le Play), 25–26
L’espirit nouveau (The New Spirit), 147, 149
Letchworth Garden City (Parker and Unwin; Britain), 69, 89–91, 101, 223
Lettrist International, 268, 288, 289
Leva Fronta, 162
Lever, W. H., 89, 102
Lever Brothers soap company, 87
Lever House (New York; Bunshaft), 209
Levitt, Alfred, 215, 216
Levittowners, The (Gans), 216
Levittowns, 192, 214–16
Liang Sicheng, 112, 209, 244–47
Libera, Adalberto, 194, 195
Life and Labour of the People (Booth), 82
Lijnbaan project (Rotterdam; Van den Broek & Bakema), 273–74
li-longs, 112
Lima (Peru), 43, 323, 323
Lincoln Center (New York; Johnson; Harrison and Abramowitz; Belluschi; and Eero Saarinen), 243, 256
Lincoln Highway, 116
Lincoln Memorial (Washington, D.C.), 62
Lincoln Tunnel (NY–NJ), 133
Lindsay, John V., 298, 299
Littoria (Latina; Italy), 194
Liverpool, 8, 11, 16
Liverpool University, School of Civic Design, 76–78, 101, 102, 248
Living City exhibition (Archigram), 292
Ljubljiana (Slovenia; Laibach), 30, 37
Llewellyn-Davies, Richard, 224, 311
Loebl, Schlossman & Benne, 224
Logue, Edward J., 265, 299
London, 41, 227
Bethnal Green district, 272
bombing of, 203
building code in, 17–18
City Beautiful movement’s influence in, 72
commuter suburbs of, 86
Covent Garden, 9
development in, 16
East End, 10–11
electricity in, 51
elevated walkways in, 210
environmental issues in, 17–19
gas street lights in, 51
government buildings in, 72
as global metropolis, 6–12
Grand Junction Canal, 11
Great Fire of, 9
inspiring today’s megacities, 6
land area of, 17
medieval centers in, 7
Metropolitan Board of Works, 18, 72, 81, 82
model housing in, for working classes, 80
new government buildings in, 72
as 1960s cultural center, 292
19th-century transformation of, 7
Park Villages in, 11
population of, 10
rail commuter lines in, 13, 14–15
rebuilding of, 19, 219–20, 225–26, 271–72
Rebuilding Act (1667), 9–10
Regent’s Canal, 11
Regent’s Park, 11, 12, 55, 56
Regent’s Street, 11
road plan for, 102
sewage system in, 17, 18–19
slum clearance projects in, 81–82
street widths in, 18
suburban apartment housing in, 82
Towns Improvement Clauses Act of 1847, 18
urbanisme’s influence in, 72
West End, 10–11
London County Council, 72, 82, 102, 129, 142, 221–22, 226–27, 291, 330
London Sociological Society, 99
Long Island (NY) State Park Commission, 124
Long Island Motor Parkway, 123
Long March, 244
Loos, Adolf, 139, 147, 158, 317
Los Angeles, 119, 180, 295
Case Study Houses in, 214–15
central city in, 313
development of, 136, 325–26
as extended city, 173
reinforced concrete and, 123
subdivisions in, 192
Watts riot in, 298
zoning in, 38, 114–15
Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies (Banham), 224
Los Angeles Cathedral (Moneo), 329
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (St. Louis, 1904), 126
Louisville (KY), 47, 59, 118
Lower East Side (NYC), 83, 84
Lower Manhattan Expressway (LOMEX) proposal (Rudolph), 298, 299
Lucknow (India), 78, 106
Luleå shopping center (Sweden; Erskine), 234
lumber milling, 49
L’urbanisme spatiale (Friedman), 290
Lutyens, Edwin Landseer, 73–75, 92
L’viv (Ukraine; Lemberg), 30
Lyautey, Hubert, 68, 203
Lynch, Kevin, 205, 261, 285, 294–95, 316
Lyndon, Donlyn, 302, 303
Macià Plan (Barcelona), 169
MacKaye, Benton, 124, 129
Madras (India), town planning for, 105
Madrid (Spain), 8, 163
Maekawa, Kunio, 204, 283
Maginot Line, 202
Magnitogorsk (USSR), 163
Mahony Griffin, Marion, 76, 77
Maistrasse, Alexandre, 93–94
Maki, Fumihiko, 279, 283–85, 301, 322
Malagueira quarter (Évora, Portugal; Siza Vieria), 323–24
Malevich, Kasimir, 145
Manchuria, 109, 111
Manhattan Project, 204–5
Manila (Philippines), 65–66
Margaretenhöhe (Metzendorf; Germany), 94, 95
Marine Insurance Company building (Tokyo; Yoshizō), 110
Mark I New Towns (Britain), 224
Mark II New Towns, 224
Markelius, Sven, 209, 233
Märkisches quarter (Berlin: Ungers et al.), 308–9
Marne-la-Vallée (France; Bofill), 311
MARS (Modern Architecture Research) group, 170, 219–20, 269, 256, 272, 282
Marshall Plan, 228, 258
Martin, J. Leslie, 226, 227
Marx, Karl, 23, 25, 81, 97, 143, 164
Masdar City (Abu Dhabi; Foster), 329
Mason-Dixon Line, 47
mass transit, 211, 218, 315
mass urbanization, 317
mat building concept, 198, 278, 309
May, Ernst, 95, 156–60, 162, 163, 164, 167, 171, 180, 183, 219
Mayer, Albert, 181, 191, 249–50, 258
May 4th Movement, 111
McHarg, Ian, 311, 319, 325
McKim, Mead & White, 60, 62, 67
McMillan Plan, 60–63
Mechanization Takes Command (Giedion), 257
Medellín (Colombia; Sert and Wiener), 251
megacities, first steps toward, 30
Megalopolis, 267
Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States (Gottmann), 265
megastructures, 285, 289
Meier, Richard, 299, 306, 311
Menara Mesiniaga (Selangor, Malaysia; Yeang), 286
Mendelsohn, Erich, 141, 150, 152, 153, 168, 205
Metabolists (Japan), 272, 282–86, 291
Metropolitan Association for Improving the Dwellings of the Industrious Classes (London), 79
Metropolitan Board of Works (London), 72, 81, 82
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 135, 216, 225
Metropolitan Research Association (Tokyo), 109
Metzendorf, Georg, 94, 95
Mexico, postwar urbanism in, 239–40
Mexico City, 41, 138
street improvements in, 26
urbanization of, 240
Meyer, Hannes, 94, 95, 162, 164, 166, 239, 248
Meyerson, Martin, 259, 261, 265
MIAR (Italian Movement for Rational Architecture), 194
Midtown Plaza (Rochester, NY; Gruen), 263
Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig, 164, 179, 209, 210, 212, 218, 228, 277, 300–301, 307
Migge, Leberecht, 95–96, 158
Milan Galleria (Paris), 21
Mile High Center (Denver; Pei), 256
Mill Creek Valley (St. Louis), 118 Millennium Park (Chicago; SOM et al.), 65, 329
mill towns, 85
Milton Keynes (Britain; Llewellyn-Davies and Walker), 224–25
minimal modern dwelling unit, 156
Ministry of Justice (Brazil; Niemeyer), 243
Ministry of Reconstruction and Urbanism (France), 229–30
Minoprio and Spencely, 266
MIT, user-based theories at, 294
MIT-Harvard Joint Center for Urban Studies, 261, 265–66
mixed-use pedestrian central-city projects, 256
MLTW (Moore-Lyndon-Turnbull-Whitaker), 301–2
mobile architecture, 290
model communities, 85–86
model dwellings (Cottages), 79–81
Model Houses for the Industrial Classes (London), 81
Model Housing for Families. See Parnell House
Modena cemetery (Rossi), 306
modern architecture: crisis in, 304–5
criticism of, 300–301
formalism in, 277
reductiveness of, 300
Modern Architecture (Frampton), 3
Modern City, The: Planning in the 19th Century (Choay), 3
modern design: Gestalt psychology and, 277
graphic techniques of, 145
related to local climate and culture, 247
Moderne Architektur (O. Wagner), 38
Modern Housing (Bauer), 180–81
modernism, critiques of, 316
modernist housing settlements, 96
Modern Movement (architecture), 150, 154
modern urbanism, criticism of, 298, 304–5, 310
Modulor, 231–32
Moholy-Nagy, László, 145, 149, 171, 205
Momijigaoka civic center (Yokohama), 283
Mondrian, Piet, 139, 275
Monte Amiata social housing project (Milan; Rossi and Aymonino), 306
Montréal (Canada), 43, 59
monumental architecture, 285
Monumental Core (Chandigarh; Le Corbusier), 251, 285
Monument to the People’s Heroes (Liang and Lin), 246–47
Monument to the Third International (Communist Party Congress) of 1918 (Tatlin), 144
Monza Triennale, 194
Moore, Charles W., 301–2, 312, 316
Moore, Ruble, Yudell, 312
Morocco, 68, 71–72, 203, 257, 269, 318
mortgage insurance, 187, 215–16
Moscow (USSR/Russia), 143–44
CIAM and, 157, 164, 166, 173
Communal House concept in, 154
plans for, 162, 167–70, 245
workers’ clubs in, 153
Moses, Robert, 124–25, 179, 206, 216, 238, 297, 298, 314
Mount Auburn Cemetery (Boston), 55
Mount Fuji, complex for (Japan), 204
Mount Royal Park (Montreal), 59
Movement Systems, 285
MRU. See Ministry of Reconstruction
MRU style, 230
Mughal Empire, 73
multifamily housing, 84–85, 129
multilevel streets, 69
Mumbai (Bombay), 6, 13, 41, 72–73, 247
Mumford, Lewis, 3, 127–28, 174, 180, 181, 226, 233, 235, 237–38, 253, 296
Mundaneum, 99
Munich (Germany), 31, 32, 35, 36
municipal housing, 128. See also public housing
municipal socialism, 140, 143
Muratori, Saverio, 305, 308
Musée Social, 68–69, 71, 93
Museum of Modern Art (NY), 175, 200, 234, 237, 328
Museum of Modern Art (Rio; Reidy), 244
Myrdal, Gunnar, 233, 235
Nairobi (Kenya), 324
Nakagin Capsule Tower (Tokyo; Kurokawa), 279, 283, 284
Naked City, The (Debord), 289
Nanjing (Nanking; China), 112
Napoleon, Louis. See Napoleon III
Napoleon I, 8, 23
Napoleon III, 2, 19, 21–23, 25, 26
NAREB. See National Association of Real Estate Boards
Narkomfin apartments (Ginzburg and Milinis; Moscow), 154
Nash, John, 11, 12
National Association of Housing Officials (NAHO), 181
National Association of Real Estate Boards, 117, 188
National City Planning Conference, 113, 121–22, 132
National Gallery (Washington, D.C.; Pope), 213
National Interregional Highway Committee (NIHC), 206, 207
National Museum of History (PRC; Zhang), 247
National Outline Plan (Israel), 248
National Trust (UK), 59
National University (Mexico City). See Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
natural systems, 59, 99–100, 106
Navi (New) Mumbai, 249
Navy Pier (Chicago), 65
Negro Housing (President’s Conference), 135
Nehru, Jawaharlal, 248–49, 258
neighborhood composition rule, 182, 183
Neighborhood Gardens (St. Louis; Hoener, Baum, and Froese), 142, 187–88
neighborhood preservation, 300
neighborhood risk, assessment of, 185–87
neighborhood unit concept, 125–26, 131, 134, 135, 163, 197–98, 220, 238, 259
Netherlands, the, 152, 232. See also Amsterdam
Neubühl project (Zurich; Swiss CIAM), 234
Neues Bauen (New building), 152
Neue Stadt project (Cologne; Ungers), 308
Neufert, Ernst, 232, 235
Neurath, Otto, 142–43, 171
Neutra, Richard, 150, 164, 173, 212, 235, 238, 247
new architecture, five points of, 199
New Babylong (Constant), 289
New Bauhaus, 205
New Brunswick (Canada), 103
new Brutalism, 228
New City, The (Hilberseimer), 218
New Deal, 180–93
building principles of, 238
public housing and, 130
New Delhi (India), 73–75, 78, 103
New Earswick (England), 89, 90
New Empiricists, 227, 305
New Harmony (IN), 85
New Haven (CT), 44, 265
New Law Courts (London; Street), 72
New Monumentality, 212–13, 292
New National Gallery (Berlin; Mies van der Rohe), 308
New Orleans (LA), 43, 47, 48
Newport Center (Los Angeles; Jerde), 326
New Town (St. Charles, MO; Duany and Plater-Zyberk), 313
New Towns, 220, 223–24, 233–34, 236, 263
New Urbanism, in the United States, 312–16
New York: Art Deco towers in, 176
City Beautiful movement in, 63–64
Commissioner’s Plan of, 48
Croton Aqueduct, 50
development of, 136
electrical power in, 51
financial and cultural centers shifting to, 208
fires in, 83
Great Migration and, 118
highway planning in, 133, 297–98, 299
housing legislation in, 128
housing shortage in, 128
importance of, 208–9
overcrowding in, 85
philanthropic housing in, 83
public housing in, 181–84
regional planning and, 123, 132–33
retrospective manifesto for, 310–11
skyscrapers in, 50, 53, 147–48
SoHo, 298
tenements in, 83–85
traffic circles in, 69
white outmigration in, 216
zoning in, 38, 119–20, 121, 209–10
New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, 83
New York City Housing Authority, 181–84, 225
New York Exhibition (1854), 50
New York Five, 311
New York State: plan for, 124
Reconstruction Commission, 127–28
Urban Development Corporation, 265, 299, 306, 311
New York Tenement House Acts, 83–84
New York Tribune Building (New York), 53
New York World’s Fair (1939), 179, 206, 217, 234, 237
New Zealand, town planning law in (1926), 103
Niemeyer, Oscar, 199–201, 209, 229, 238, 240, 241, 243
Nigeria, campuses in, 248
Nishni-Kurinsk (USSR), 162
Normale Bauordnung nebst Erläuterungen (Standard Building Code; Baumeister), 36
Norris (TN), 189, 231
North America: development patterns in, separate from architectural education, 265
megastructural campus concept in, 282
modern architecture introduced to, 175
Spain’s impact on, 43
urbanism introduced to, 184
Northeastern University (Mukden [Shenyang]), 112
Northland Center (Southfield, MI; Gruen), 218, 263
Norton, Charles Dyer, 64, 132
Norway, 271
Notes on the Synthesis of Form (Alexander), 280–81
Nottingham Shopping Centre (Britain), 292
Novacap (Brazil), 241
Nova Scotia, 103
Novocomum (Como; Terragni), 193
Nowicki, Mathew (Maciej), 209, 250
NYCHA. See New York City Housing Authority
Oak Ridge (TN), 205–6
office buildings, height of, 119–20
Office for Metropolitan Architecture, 311, 312
O’Gorman, Juan, 239, 240, 241
Okhitovich, Mikhail, 154, 157
Olivetti factory town (Ivrea), 194
Olmsted, Frederick Law, 2, 56–59, 65–66, 117, 123, 131
Olmsted, Frederick Law, Jr., 59–62, 113–14, 119, 126, 127
Olympic Sculpture Park (Seattle; Weiss/Manfredi), 329
OMA. See Office for Metropolitan Architecture
On the Art of Building (Alberti), 9
Opbouw, 166
open-access galleries, 79
open society, 309
open work, 304
Oppositions (journal), 310
ordering systems, 276
Oregon Land Conservation and Development Commission, 315
OSA (Union of Contemporary Architects; USSR), 153, 160
Ostrava/Mariánské-Hory (Marienberg), 37
Ōtsuka Women’s apartments (Tokyo), 110–11
Oud, J. J. P., 141, 150
Our Cities (Federal National Resources Committee), 184
Outlook Tower (Geddes; Edinburgh), 97, 98, 99
Paddington Estate reconstruction (London; Lasdun), 226
PAGON group (Norway), 271
Paimio Sanitarium (Aalto and Aalto), 171, 172
Pakistan, 247, 248
Palace of Italian Civilization (Rome; La Padula, Guerrini, and Romano), 194
Palace of the Soviets, 162, 168, 195
Palestine, 78, 107–8
Pampulha resort (Brazil), 200–201, 240, 243–44
Panama Canal, 122
Parc de la Villette (Paris; Tschumi), 328, 329
Parc des Buttes-Chaumont (Paris), 23
Paris, 8, 41
apartment buildings in, 23
building regulations in, 23
as capital of the 19th century, 20–21
controlled environment of, 8
fortifications replanning, 69
Haussmann’s plan for, 22–23
height limit in, 147
landscape parks in, 19
Louis XIV’s beautification of, 4
medieval form of, 6
modernization of, 19–27
occupation of, 26, 202
Père Lachaise cemetery, 55
perspectival effects in, 22
political culture in, 23
population growth of, 23
public health in, 23
regional plan for, 202–3
shopping arcades in, 20–21
traffic system in, 22–23
Travaux de Paris, 69
urban beautification in, 6
urban culture of, 23
Paris Commune, 26
Paris Exhibitions, 26, 69, 99, 153
Paris Street, Rainy Day (Caillebotte), 21
Parkchester apartment complex (Bronx, NY; Clavan), 216
Parker and Unwin, 69, 89–92, 94, 147, 156
Park Hill public housing project (Sheffield), 282
parking spaces, 116
parks, 55–57
parkways, 123–24, 140
Parkwyn Village (Kalamazoo, MI), 214
Parnell House (Bloombury, Britain), 80–81, 83
Pasanella + Klein, 299
pastoral ideal, 55
patio house, 255, 266, 269
patios, 254–55
patriarchal nuclear family, design based on, 26
Patrick Geddes in India (Tyrwhitt), 257, 258
Pattern Language, A (Alexander), 281
Paulsson, Gregor, 232, 235
Paxton, Joseph, 15, 25, 56
Peabody and Stearns, 126
Peabody Terrace Married Student
Housing (Harvard; Cambridge, MA; Sert, Jackson & Associates), 268
Peabody Trust, 82
Peachtree Center (Atlanta; Portman), 211
pedestrian life, 268
pedestrian pathways, 274
pedestrian pocket, 312
pedestrians: cities for, 259–60, 262–63, 278–79, 314
environments for, 266, 269, 276, 291, 302
encounters between, 254–55, 263
equal rights for, 273
informal public space for, 275
spaces for, 263, 264, 275
Pei, I. M., 205, 210, 256, 265, 296
Pennsylvania Turnpike, 206
Pentagon (Arlington, VA), 214
People’s Republic of China, 244, 247
Père Lachaise cemetery (Paris), 55
perimeter block housing, 141–42, 187
Perret, Auguste, 69–70, 147, 168, 203, 229, 230
Perriand, Charlotte, 154, 171
Perry, Clarence, 125, 130, 131, 163, 198, 239
Peruvian Ministry of Public Works, 320
Pevsner, Nikolaus, 263–64, 308
phalanstery, 82, 153–54
Philadelphia, 9, 10, 44, 45, 47, 48, 119
Center City, designs for (Kahn and Tyng), 277
Great Migration and, 118
pedestrianizing of, 277
planning in, 132, 261–62, 263
postwar urban populations in, 208
Philadelphia Centennial exhibition (1876), 53–54
philanthropic housing, 81–83, 155
Philippines, City Beautiful movement in, 66
Piacentini, Marcelo, 194, 195
Piano, Renzo, 294, 303
Piano & Rogers, 293
piloti, 199–200
Pittsburgh (PA), 47, 261
Place Bonaventure (Los Angeles; Portman), 211
Places (journal), 303
Place Ville-Marie (Montreal; Pei and Cobb), 210, 256
place-work-folk concept, 97, 100
Plan d’Aménagement de la Région
Parisienne (Prost), 71
Plan of Chicago (Burnham and Bennett), 64–65, 66, 113, 132, 176, 179
Plan of London (MARS), 219–20, 253
planners, military service for, 205
planning: auto-dependent, 122
biological necessity and, 248
citizen participation in, 258
modern tradition of, Jacobs rejecting, 296
profession of, 119
sustainability and, 217
planning commissions, 113
Planning Neighborhoods for Small Homes (FHA), 189
Planning for Residential Districts (President’s Conference), 134–35
Planning the Twentieth-Century City (Ward), 3
Plano Piloto, for Braslia (Costa), 242
Plan Piloto de la Habana (Havana Master Plan; TPA), 267
Plants as Inventors, The (Francé), 146
Plan for the Valleys (McHarg), 325
Plaslaan apartments (Rotterdam; Van Tijen & Maaskant), 225
Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth, 312, 313
playgrounds, 274–75
Plessy v. Ferguson, 117
Plug-in City (Cook), 292
Plumber and Sanitary Engineer magazine, 83
point block towers, 227
Port Arthur (Manchuria), 109
Portland (OR), 314–15
Portugal, settlement housing in, 323–24
postmodernism, 305
postmodern urbanism, 268
postwar modernism, apolitical spirit of, 254
Potlach (journal), 288, 289
Potteries Thinkbelt project (Price), 292
Powell & Moya, 225–26
Prague (Czech Republic), 30
Praunheim (Frankfurt-am-Main), 158
President’s Conference on Home Building and Home Ownership (1931), 133–36, 188–89
Pretoria (South Africa), 73, 74, 78
PREVI complex project (Lima; Land [coordinator]), 322
Production of Space, The (Lefebvre), 320
projects, demolition of, 316. See also slums: clearance of
Prospect Park (Brooklyn), 50, 58
Prost, Henri, 26, 68–72, 77, 108, 138, 147, 149, 202–3
Pruitt-Igoe, 207, 217, 311–12
Pruitt-Igoe Homes (St. Louis; Hellmuth, Yamasaki & Leinweber), 207, 217
Prussian Empire, 31
Prussian Planning Act (1875), 34, 36
Public Health Act (Britain; 1848), 79–82
public health, 17–19, 23, 56, 68
public housing, 130, 134, 180–84
demolition of, 183
design standards for, 181
elevators in, 183–84
high rises in, 184
national standards for, 183
opposition to, 188
redlining and, 187
Public Works Administration, 181, 182, 183
Puerto Ordaz (Venezuela), pedestrian core for (Sert and Wiener), 255
Puerto Rico, 66, 238–39, 318
Purism, 147
Queensboro Corporation, 135
Quinta Palatino (Havana), patiopark in (Town Planning Associates), 255
Quonset hut, 205
racial conflict, 118–19, 298
racial discrimination, 216, 297
racial hierarchies, 15–16
racial segregation, 108, 114, 117–19, 135–36, 180, 182, 187, 259
Radburn (Paterson, NJ), 130–33, 135, 137, 184, 191, 198, 224, 255, 296
Radiant City (Le Corbusier), 160, 296–97
Ragusa (Dubrovnik), 8
rail systems: 11–16, 22–23, 48–50, 53–54, 61–62, 111
Rangoon (Yangon; Burma/Myanmar), 73
Rasmussen, Steen Eiler, 264
rational architecture, 311
rationalism, 193, 144–45
real estate appraisal, 185–87
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC), 136
redlining, 187
Red Hook Houses (NYCHA), 183–84, 217
Red Vienna, 141–43, 156, 194, 232
Reed & Stern, 64
reform housing, 81
Regent’s Park (London), 55, 56
regionalism, 96, 100, 101, 127, 132
Regional Plan Association, 132–33
Regional Plan of New York and Environs, 102, 132–33, 184, 221
regional planning, 98, 102, 129, 132, 184, 189, 204, 223, 256, 318–19
Regional Planning Association of America, 124, 127, 129–30, 134, 137, 177, 181, 217, 296
regional socialism, 143
regional surveys, 99
Rehousing Urban America (H. Wright), 183
Reichsautobahnen Gesellschaft (National Autobahn Company), 196
Reichsforschunggesellschaft (RfG), 159
Reichstag (Berlin), 186–97
Reidy, Alfonso Eduardo, 200, 238, 240, 244
reinforced concrete, as building material, 69–70, 122–23, 124, 138, 147, 199
Reinhard and Hofmeister, 176, 177
Renaissance Center (Detroit; Portman), 211
rent barracks, 83
rent control, 128
Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain (Chadwick), 79
Republican Party (US), 188
Republic of China, 244
Resettlement Administration, 190–91
respiration exacte (exact breathing), 154
restrictive covenants, 117–18, 134, 208
retrospective manifesto, 310
reurbanization, 265
revivalism, medieval, 139
RIBA. See Royal Institute of British Architects
Right to the City, The (Lefebvre), 320
Ring group (Berlin), 152
Ringstrasse (Vienna), 31, 32
Rio de Janeiro, 26, 41, 122, 149, 201, 244, 321
Risshō University (Tokyo; Maki), 285
Rivera, Diego, 239, 240
Riverside (IL), 57, 58
Roberts, Henry, 80–83
Rochester (NY), 59, 263
Rockefeller, John D., Jr., 136, 176, 208–9
Rockefeller, Nelson, 234, 237, 265, 299–300
Rockefeller Center (NYC), 176, 177
Rockefeller Foundation, 294, 296
Rogers, Ernesto, 257, 259, 263, 268, 271, 305, 308
Roman Empire, 73
Rome (Italy), 4, 8, 26, 194, 195
Rome Prize (École des Beaux-Arts), 67–70
roofs, 152m 199, 200
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 180, 190, 192, 206, 238
Roosevelt (Franklin) administration, 181, 185
Roosevelt Island (NY), 265, 299, 311
Rossi, Aldo, 2–3, 254, 305–6, 308, 311
Rosta-Örebro (Sweden; Bäckstrom & Reinius), 234
Rotfront brigade, 162
Rotterdam (Netherlands), 141, 150, 174–75, 273–74
Route 66, 116
Rowe, Colin, 276–77, 309
row houses, 9–10, 12–13, 27, 47, 80, 101, 102, 126
Royal Commission on the Distribution of the Industrial Population (1937; Britain), 219
Royal Institute of British Architects, 76, 102, 248
RPAA. See Regional Planning Association of America
RPNY. See Regional Plan of New York and Environs
Rudolph, Paul, 205, 286, 298, 299, 316
Ruskin, John, 37, 89, 97, 99, 101
Russell Sage Foundation, 113, 132
Russian Empire, 13, 107
Russian Revolution, 143–44
Rustbelt, 192
Saarinen, Eero, 168, 179, 195, 205, 212, 213, 218, 236, 256, 263
Saarinen, Eliel, 75, 96, 168, 176, 199, 212, 213, 218, 234, 236, 253, 263, 264
Saarinen, Swanson & Saarinen, 212
Saint-Simon, Henri de, 23, 29
Sakaide Artificial Land development (Japan), 284
Salas Portugal, Armando, 240
Salt Lake City (UT), 53, 85–86
same-scale maps (CIAM), 69, 70
San Antonio de Béxar, 43
San Francisco (CA), 51, 53, 119
development of, 136
freeways rejected in, 297
laundry laws in, 114
master plan for, 62–63
neighborhood preservation in, 300
Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain, The (Chadwick), 17
Sanitation in India (Turner), 104
Santa Fé (New Mexico), 43
Sant’Elia, Antonio, 139
São Paulo (Brazil), 6, 201, 313
Sasaki Associates, 329
Saudi Arabia, development of, 311, 319
Sauvy, Alfred, 320
Savannah (GA), 44, 49, 313
Säynätsalo town plan project (Finland; Aalto), 235, 236
Scharoun, Hans, 152, 228, 307–8
Schocken department store (Mendelsohn; Chemnitz), 153
school buildings, 227–28, 239
Schütte-Lihotzky, Margerete, 158, 317
Scott Brown, Denise (Lakofsky), 272, 303–4, 305, 312, 316
SDAP. See Social Democratic Workers’ Party
Sea Ranch (CA; MLTW), 301–2
Seagram Building (NY; Mies), 209, 210
Sears Tower (Willis Tower; Chicago; SOM), 211
Seaside (FL), 313
Secessionists (Vienna), 139
Seinajoki Civic Center (Finland; Aalto), 236
self-build housing, 269, 318, 320–21, 323, 327
self-service retailing, 116
Semenov, Vladimir, 167–68
semidetached houses, 86, 223
semiology, 304
Sendai Mediathèque (Ito), 329
Senri Central District Center (Japan; Maki), 285
Sert, Josep Lluís, 2, 134, 169, 170, 173–74, 212, 235, 237, 251, 253–55, 257–61, 263–71, 285, 291, 294, 311, 316, 321
Sert, Jackson & Associates, 265, 267, 268, 299, 306, 311
Sert and Torres, 170
Sert & Wiener, 236
SESC Pompeia (São Paulo; Bardi), 300
settlements: 96, 111, 126–27, 156, 190–91, 193, 317, 320–24. See also human settlements; informal settlements; workers’ settlements
SFU. See Société Française des Urbanistes
shading systems, fixed-element, 199
Shanghai, 6, 41, 111, 112, 122
Art Deco towers in, 176
racial hierarchy in, 16
urban planning in, 331
Shar-e-Bangla-Nagar (East Pakistan / Bangladesh; L. Kahn), 278
Sharon, Arieh, 248, 258, 290
Sheffield University, 273
Sheffield University extension competition (Smithsons), 281
Shelley v. Kramer, 117–18, 187
Shenyang (Mukden; Manchuria), 111, 112
shopping centers, 131
design guidelines for, 207
as medieval town centers, 263
suburban, 224
as true spaces, 278
Shopping Centers of Tomorrow (Gruen), 263
shopping malls, suburban, 218–19
SI. See Situationist International Sibiu (Hermannstadt), 30
Siedlung Freidorf (Germany), 95
Siedlung Goldschnieden (Poland), 95
Siedlung Hof Hammer (Germany), 95–96
Siedlung Reform (Germany), 95
Siedlung Römerstadt (Frankfurt-am-Main, May), 157
Siedlungen (settlements), 151
Siemensstadt (Scharoun; Berlin), 153
signage, commercial strips and, 303
Silesia (Germany/Poland), 156
SINAMOS (Sistema Nacional de Apoyo a la Movilización Social / National Support System for Social Mobilization; Peru), 323
Sin Centre project (Webb), 292
Singapore, 6, 103, 286, 330
site organization, 311–12
site planning, 191–92
sites and services approach, 269, 317, 318
Sitte, Camillo, 2, 34, 36–39, 67, 68, 92, 94, 101, 139, 147, 166, 264
Situationist International, 289
Situationists, 268, 272, 285, 289, 293, 300, 316, 320
608 program (FHA), 216
sky exposure planes, 120
skylines, 51, 148
skyscrapers, 50–51, 53, 60, 122, 147
ecological, 329
horizontal, 145
modernity in, 176. See also office buildings
skywalks, 210
slavery, 15, 44, 46, 47
slums, 79, 80
clearance of, 81–82, 103, 206, 207, 208, 225, 315–16
conservative surgery on, 106
in India, 105
as investments, 79, 81
mill towns and, 85
redevelopment of, 217
Slums, Blighted Areas, and Decentralization (President’s Conference), 134
Smithson, Alison, 141, 228, 268–82, 289, 290, 291, 303, 308, 309
Smithson, Peter, 228, 268–78, 280–82, 289–92, 303, 308, 309
Smithsonian Gallery of Modern Art (Washington, D.C.; Saarinen and Saarinen), 213
Social Democratic Party (Sweden), 232–33
Social Democratic Workers’ Party (Netherlands), 139
social housing, 232–34, 278, 306
Social Housing Committee (Sweden), 233
socialism, 20, 25, 142
socialist cities, form of, 154
socialist internationalism, 155
Socialist Realism, 162, 169, 173, 227, 245
social order, architecture and, 139
social relations, mediation of, 289
social science, 25
social segregation, 259
social unrest, housing conditions and, 81
Société Française des Urbanistes (French Urbanist Society), 69, 138, 149
Society for the Improvement of the Condition of the Labouring Classes (London), 79, 80, 81
Soleri, Paolo, 316, 326
SOM (Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill), 179, 207, 209, 211, 311, 314, 329
Soria y Mata, Arturo, 93, 163
Sotsgorod (Socialist City; Miliutin), 163
South Africa, 73, 78, 103, 318
South Bank Arts Centre (London), 291–92
Southdale (Edina, MN; Gruen), 219
South East Study, The, 224
Soviet Social Realism, 247
Soviet Union, 141, 143–44, 164–65, 228
architectural profession in, 162
art movements in, 144–45
auto factories in, 162–63
city planning in, 150
collectivized settlements in, 154
community units in, 163
critical of Le Corbusier, 157–58
First Five Year plan for, 144, 157, 160, 162
housing combines in, 163
housing in, 160, 162–64
industrial cities in, 167
industrialization of, 162
professional architecture in, 153
social life in, restructuring, 153–54
Stalinist objections in, to modern architecture, 170
Sun Yat-Sen and, 112
urbanism in, 163, 166
urbanization in, 154
urban planning in, 245
SOW, 205–6
Spaarndammerplantsoen (de Klerk; Amsterdam), 141
space: ideological, 307
social production of, 320
Space, Time and Architecture (Giedion), 257
Spain, 28, 173–74
spatial imagination, 271
spatial justice, 320
spatial urbanism, 290
sprawl, 173, 304, 312, 313, 315
squatter settlements, 320, 321
Stadt des KdF-Wagens (Wolfsburg; Germany), 196
Städtebau, field of, 38, 39–40
Stalin, Josef, 144, 162, 167, 168, 244
Stalingrad (Volgograd; USSR/Russia), 154, 163
Stam, Mart, 157, 160, 174
Standard Oil Company of Ohio, 116
Stanford University (Palo Alto, CA), 59
Stark, Albin, 233, 236
Station Square (Forest Hills Gardens), 113–14
Statue of Liberty (Bartholdi), 51
steamboats, 49
stedebouw, 139–40
Stein, Clarence, 127–31, 136, 179, 181, 217–18, 255
Steinberg Hall (Washington University, St. Louis; Maki), 283
Stein & Wright, 296
stem concept, 278–79, 324
Stern, Robert A. M., 311, 312
Stevenage (Britain; Stephenson), 224
Sticks and Stones: A Study of American Architecture and Civilization (Mumford), 127
Stirling, James, 279, 292, 309, 322
Stirling & Wilford, 312
St. Louis (MO), 43, 47, 48, 53, 119
perimeter block housing in, 142
planning for, 65, 207, 263
postwar urban populations in, 208
public housing in, 187
segregation in, 118, 121
zoning in, 120–21
St. Louis Jefferson National Expansion Memorial (JNEM) competition, 212, 213
Stockholm (Sweden), 14, 26, 209, 233
Stockholm Exhibition (1930), 232
storefronts, 312
streetcars, 51–52, 148
strip malls, 207
Structuralism, 281, 308
Structure and Growth of Residential Neighborhoods in American Cities (Federal Housing Administration), 186
Stübben, Josef, 36, 37, 38
Student Housing for Enschede (Holland; Ungers), 308
Stuyvesant Town (New York; Clavan), 135, 216–17, 225
Style and Epoch (Ginzburg), 153
subdivisions, 135, 137, 184, 188–89, 192
suburban campuses, 212
suburbs, 30, 52
apartment housing in, 82
civic center proposals for, 263
density of, 266
design code for, 189, 215, 216
development of, 54–55
gender and, 193
planning of, Olmsted’s influence on, 59
postwar, form of, 215–16
questioning of, 300
racial discrimination in, 119
shopping malls in, 218–19
single-family housing and, 266
zoning laws for, 58
subways, 19, 148
Suez Canal, 122
Sullivan, Louis, 60, 127, 175, 176
Sunila sulfite mill, housing for (Finland; Aalto), 234
Sunnyside Gardens (Queens, NY), 129, 136
Sunset Hills (Kansas City, MO), 117
“Superarchitecture” exhibition (Florence, 1966), 293
superblocks, 91, 108, 130–31, 164, 181, 218, 249, 267, 296
superquadras, 242, 243
Superstudio, 293, 310, 311
Suresnes (France), 93–94
surveying, patterns of, 46–47
survey before plan, 101, 105
sustainability, 217, 227, 331
Sweden, 227, 232–34
Sydney (Australia), 9, 122
Sykes-Picot treaty (1916), 107
Syrkus, Syzmon, 170
systems approach, 293
systems theory, 224–25
Tableau de Paris (Texier), 24
Tafuri, Manfredo, 3, 306–7
Taiwan, 109, 110
Takayama, Eika, 197–98, 204
Tange, Kenzo, 197, 204, 243, 273, 278, 282, 319
Taut, Bruno, 95, 107, 139, 150–51, 158
Taylor Woodrow Construction, 292
Team 4, 294
Team 10 group, 141, 268–73, 275–81, 290, 291, 303, 308, 309, 316
Technical University (Munich), 107
Technische Hochschule, 35
Tema Manhean (Ghana; Fry, Drew, Drake & Lasdun), 318
Tempelhof airport (Berlin; Sagebiel), 196
Ten Books on Architecture (Vitruvius), 9
tenements: defined, 32–33
design of, 83–84
disease spreading in, 83
as investments, 79, 81
model, 79, 81, 87, 103, 106, 128, 135, 140–41, 151
reform and, 83–85
ten major constructions (PRC), 247
Tennessee Valley Authority, 184, 189, 190, 192–93, 230–31, 235, 249
terrace houses, 79, 80
Terragni, Giuseppe, 193, 194
Texas Rangers, 276–77
textile industry, 16–17, 28, 85
The Cannery (San Francisco; Esherick), 300
Theory of the Leisure Class (Veblen), 136
Third World, urban planning in, 320
30 Rockefeller Center (NYC; Reinhard and Hofmeister; Corbett, Harrison, and MacMurray; and Hood, Godley, and Fouilhoux), 176, 177
Thomas, Andrew J., 130, 131, 135
Tiananmen Square (Beijing), 246–47
Tiburtino IV quarter (Rome), public housing in (Quaroni, Ridol & Aymonino), 305
Tokyo (Edo; Japan), 6, 109–11, 247, 282, 283, 313
To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform (Howard), 87, 88
Toronto (Canada), 209, 210, 211
Torre Velasca (Milan; BBPR), 259, 260
Town and Country Planning Act of 1943 (Britain), 219
Town and Country Planning Act of 1944 (Britain), 220–21
Town and Country Planning Association, 225
Town and Country Planning Textbook (ed. Tyrwhitt), 257
townless highways, 124
town planning, 2, 33–34, 73, 78
concept of, 29
Germanic approach to, 96, 101, 114
profession of, 88, 101–2
Town Planning Act (Australia; 1920), 103
Town Planning Act (England; 1909), 101–3
Town Planning Associates, 237–38, 250, 267, 321
Town Planning in Balrampur (Geddes), 106
Town Planning Institute (London), 102, 248
Town Planning in Practice (Unwin), 101, 102, 108, 129
Towns and Buildings (Rasmussen), 264
townscape, 263–64
town squares, 37
Toynbee Hall (London), 99
TPA. See Town Planning Associates
traffic: categorization of, 250
circles for, 26, 69
circulation patterns, 26, 93
grids for subdivisions, opposition to, 189
organization of, 130–31, 238
as planning priority, 206
Traffic in Towns (Buchanan), 293
trailers, as housing, 192–93
transects, 100, 270
transparency, 276–77
transportation, regional planning and, 132
Trenton Bath House (L. Kahn), 277
Tropical Architecture in the Humid Zone (Fry and Drew), 247
tropical areas, housing conditions in, 258
Trustees of Public Reservations (US), 59
Tugwell, Rexford Guy, 190, 206, 238–39, 318
Turner, John Francis Charlewood, 256–57, 320, 321
TVA. See Tennessee Valley Authority
Tyrwhitt, Jaqueline, 256–60, 268–72, 294, 325
UDC. See New York State Urban Development Corporation
UNAM. See Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexican National Autonomous University)
Ungers, Oswald Mathias, 308–12
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). See Soviet Union
unitary urbanism, 289
Unité d’Habitation (Neighborhood Unit; Marseilles; Le Corbusier and Jeanneret), 226, 229, 231, 268
United Kingdom. See Britain
United Arab Emirates, planning for, 319
United Nations, 257–58, 321
headquarters (NYC; Harrison), 154, 208–9
Security Council, 244
studying tropical housing conditions, 258
technical experts from, 257–58
U.N. Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat I), 321
United States: Aalto visits, 234–36
automobile ownership in, 115–16
balloon framing in, 49
Brazilian modernism in, 237
Bureau of Public Roads, 115
canal networks in, 48
central planning in, 46
cities developing in, 41
decentralization in, 115–16 (See also decentralization)
defense industry plants in, 192
demographic patterns in, 49
Department of Labor, 127
development in, 16
downtowns in, divided, 180
Farm Security Administration; 191
highways in, 115–16, 206, 207
financial institutions in, 50
Garden City movement in, 180
Housing Act of 1949, 217
Jefferson’s vision of, 46
Land Ordinance in (1785), 46
land-use control in, 219
multifamily housing in, national standards for, 84–85
New Urbanism in, 312–16
1930s urbanism in, 175–93
19th-century urban life in, 54
officials in, shifting to modernist design, 205
post–Civil War economy in, 50
postwar affluence of, 300
postwar housing design in, 217
postwar urbanism in, 208–19
public housing in, 162
racial issues in, 51, 117–19
rail lines in, 48–50, 53–54
regulation in, of urban building form, 84
residential standards in, 117
Senate Park Commission, 60–62
settlement houses in, 69
steamboats in, 49
survey grid of, 46
tenement regulations in, 83 (See also tenements)
time zones in, 50
urban growth in, 17, 49–50
urban planning in, 17, 48, 180
U.S. Geological Survey, 85
U.S. Housing Authority, 182, 188
water and sewer systems in, 50
westward expansion of, 46–48
in World War II, 204–6
zoning ordinances in, 114–15. See also individual cities
United States Housing Corporation, 127
United States pavilion (Expo ’67 Montreal), 291
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexican National Autonomous University; Pani), 239, 240, 241
University of Calabria (Italy) campus (Gregotti), 306
University of California–Santa Barbara Faculty Club (MLTW), 302
University College Ibadan (Nigeria; Fry and Drew), 248
University of Delhi School of Planning and Architecture, 248
University of East Anglia (Norwich; Lasdun), 282
University of Puerto Rico, 239
University of Texas–Austin, 276–77
Unter den Linden (Berlin), 5
Unwin, Raymond, 29, 89–92, 94, 101, 102, 108, 129
urban alienation, 289
urban analysis, open work approach to, 304
urban “blight,” 120, 121–22. See also “blight”
urban block, evolution of, 160
urban centers, architectural design of, 254
urban circulation networks, 69
urban collage, 309
urban conditions, planning and, 122
urban consciousness, 254
urban decentralization, 88–89
urban design: classical approaches to, 100–101
field of, 253
Group Form as method for, 284, 285
new approach to, post-1960, 295
pedestrian oriented, 254
politics and, 254
reuse and, 265
urban development: future, calculations of, 166
pedestrian-oriented, 278–79
regulation of, 113
self-build and, 321, 323
sustainable, 331
urban elements, 7
urban environments, 2
cognitive mapping of, 295
constant change in, 284–85
designers’ role in, 3
inspired by European cities, 4
signifying elements of, 304
user feedback on, 294–95
urban extensions, design of, 34–36
urban family house, 266
urban growth, informal settlements and, 317
urban housing reform, decentralized, 85
urban image, consistency in, 284–85
urbanism: architect-driven, critique of, 295–96
architecture and, 141
art of, 68
Chinese, 163
as contested field, 333
configurative discipline of, 280
defined, 29
emergence of, 1, 2
four functions of, 164–66, 169, 172, 203, 237, 269, 270
global, 271, 330–32
inspired by the police, 288
integrating arts with, 240
introduced to North America, 184
modern, criticisms of, 268–70, 298, 304–5, 310 (See also Team 10)
postwar American, 184
as rational distribution of functional elements, 166
reductive approach to, 269
resource-intensive, 331–32
Soviet, 163, 166. See also postmodern urbanism; urbanisme
urbanisme, 26, 29, 67–72, 138
Urbanisme (The City of Tomorrow and Its Planning; Le Corbusier), 149
urbanistes, 69
urbanists, 154
urbanization, 1
of agricultural land, 102
environmental costs of, 17
global, planning for, 321–22
industrial production and, 16
mass, 317
worldwide, 87, 98, 115
Urban League, 136
urban legibility, 285
urban life: historical understanding of, 97–98
reorganization of, 150
urban modernity, concept of, 21
urban outcomes, hybridized, 41
urban planning: apolitical, 164
legislation for, beginnings of, 36
three-dimensional, 39
urban public parks, 56
urban reform, land acquisition and, 173
urban renewal, protests against, 297. See also slums: clearance of
urban sociology, 82
urban space, state power and, 4
Urban Space (R. Krier), 311
urbs, the, 1
user-based theories, 294
USHA. See United States: U.S. Housing Authority
Usonia, 178–79
Usonian houses, 214
Usonian subdivisions, 214
USSR. See Soviet Union
utopias, 85, 86, 309, 310
Valley Section, 100, 270
Vällingby (Sweden), 233
Van Eyck, Aldo, 268–71, 274–75, 276, 279–81, 289, 308, 309, 322
Van Tijen & Maaskant, 225, 274
Vasconcellos, Emani, 200
Vaux, Calvert, 55–58, 131
Velasco, Juan, 322, 323
Venice Biennale exhibition (1980), 312
Venice Hospital project (Le Corbusier and de la Fuente), 280
Venturi, Robert, 300–301, 303–4, 305, 312, 316
Venturi, Vanna, house for (Philadelphia; Venturi), 301
verandas, 10
Verband deutscher Architekten und Ingenieurvereine (German Architectural and Engineering Association), 35–36
Versailles, 4–5, 46, 285
Vers une architecture (Towards a New Architecture; Le Corbusier), 149
Vesnin, Alexander, 145, 153
Vichy France, 202–3
Victoria Dwellings Association, 82
Vienna, 30–31, 36–38, 141–43, 194, 232, 317. See also Red Vienna
Villa El Salvador (Lima), 323
village cores, 258
Villa Stein (Garches; Le Corbusier), 277
Ville Contemporaine (Contemporary City; Le Corbusier), 147–49
Ville Contemporaine, 296
Vitruvius, 9, 42, 325
Vivekananda, Swami, 99, 104
Viviani Plan (Rome), 26
VKhutemas (Higher Artistic and Technical Studios in Moscow), 144–45
Voelcker, John, 269, 280
von Bertalanffly, Ludwig, 197, 257
von Moltke, Willo, 205, 297
VOPRA (All-Union Society of Proletarian Architects), 162
Vorticist group, 145
Wagner, Martin, 150, 153, 158, 228
Wagner, Otto, 38–39, 142
Wainwright Building (Adler and Sullivan; St. Louis), 60, 122
Walking City (Herron), 292
Wallace, David A., 319, 325
Warchavchik, Gregori, 170, 199
Warren & Wetmore, 64
Washington Monument (Washington, D.C.), 62
Washington Square Village (NY), 267
Washington University (St. Louis), 283, 284
Washington, D.C., 47
extension of, 74
last Beaux-Arts public buildings in, 213–14
layout of, 46
National Mall, 61–62
plan of (Burhan, McKim, and Olmsted), 62
replanning of, 60–62
Webb, Michael, 290, 292
Web of Indian Life, The (Sister Nivedita), 104
Weese, Harry, 234, 296
Weimar Republic, 146–47, 151–52
modernist housing in, 96
retail buildings in, 152
Weissenhofsiedlung housing exhibition (Stuttgart; 1927), 155
Weiss/Manfredi, 329
Weissmann, Ernest, 237, 257, 258, 318, 320, 321
welfare state, emergence of, 232
Wendingen (Turnings; journal), 140–41
Werkbund (German), 94
West Africa, 247, 318
West Baghdad (Iraq), master plan for (Doxiadis), 266
West Berlin (German), 273, 278
housing in, 229
urban renewal in, 309, 312
Westchester County (NY), 116, 124
West Germany, 198, 228
Wewerka, Stefan, 279, 280
white flight, 208
Wider Use of the School Plant (Perry), 125
Wiener, Paul Lester, 237, 251, 254–55, 264, 266, 267
Willamette Valley, The: Choices for the Future (Halprin), 315
Williamsburg Houses (NYCHA), 182–83
Wilson, Colin St. John, 226, 227
Wilson, Merrill & Alexander Associates, 218
Wilson, Woodrow, 115, 117, 125
Wisma Dharmala Tower (Jakarta; Rudolph), 286
WMRT, 319, 325, 325
Wohnkultur (culture of living), 141
Wolff and Phillips, 193
Wolkenbugel (horizontal skyscraper; Lissitsky), 145
Woningwet (Netherlands) town planning law, 139–40
The Woodlands (Houston; WMRT), 325
wood residential construction, 49
Woods, Shadrach, 268–69, 275, 278, 279, 309
Woolworth’s, 116
workers, 193: housing of, 85, 94, 126, 129, 140
relationships among, 25
working-class families, normative arrangement of, 81
Workingmen’s Home (New York), 83
work-unit estates, 245
World (Pulitzer) Building (New York), 53
World Bank, 321, 324
World’s Columbian Exposition (1893; Chicago), 60, 61, 99
World Trade Center (New York; Yamasaki), 211
World War II, 202–6, 219–28, 237
Wren, Christopher, 9–10, 73, 74, 91
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 75, 125, 126, 127, 131, 142, 167, 175–79, 199, 214, 239, 261, 326
Wright, Henry, 124, 126–27, 129–30, 181, 183, 191
Wrocław (Poland), 31, 152, 156
Wurster, William, 212, 234, 235, 236
Wurster, Bernardi & Emmons, 300, 301
Yamasaki, Minoru, 211, 217
Yerkes, Charles Tyson, 19, 91
Yorkship Village (Camden, NJ), 126
Yoshizō, Uchida, 110, 197
Zeckendorf, William, 210, 256
Zeilenbau housing, 151–52, 166, 311–12
ZEN housing quarter (Palermo, Sicily; Gregotti), 306
ziggurat form, for urban office buildings, 120
Zionist Organization (Vienna), 107
Zola, Emile, Travail (novel), 69
zoning, 113, 114–15, 119, 137, 209–10
building bulk and, 120
codes for, 38, 125
constitutionality of, 125
master planning and, 120–21
without planning, 119–20
racial discrimination and, 119
Zoning Primer (Hoover), 125