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Mirjam Brusius (Editor), Katrina Dean (Editor), Chitra Ramalingam (Editor)
Description: William Henry Fox Talbot: Beyond Photography
Index
Author
Mirjam Brusius (Editor), Katrina Dean (Editor), Chitra Ramalingam (Editor)
PublisherYale Center for British Art
PublisherPaul Mellon Centre
Index
Abbotsford, Scotland, 102, 105
Abel, Niels Henrik (1802–1829), 80, 82, 83, 84, 87
Accum, Friedrich, 95
Achray, Loch, 106, 107
aciérage, 175–76, 182
actinic, 262
Adam and Eve, 208
Adelaide, queen consort of the United Kingdom (1792–1849), 99
Adriatic coast, Italy, 97
Age of Reform, 274, 281
Airy, George Biddell (1801–1892), 84
Akkadian writing, 201, 202
albumen prints, 176, 232, 233, 234
alchemy, 276
Amphitype plates, 245
analytical chemistry, 281
analytic geometry, 76
Analytic Society, 70–71
Anglicans, 150
Annan, James Craig (1864–1946), 162, 180
Antarctic survey, 280
antiquarian scholarship, 14–15, 280–81
and photography, 219, 225, 226, 274
Talbot’s activities in, 16, 272
Anzu bird, 210, 211
aquatint ground, 174, 179–80
Arabic language, 206, 208
Arago, François (1786–1853), 119, 128, 129, 136, 282
Aramaic language, 206, 209
Archaeologia, 183
archaeology
biblical, 212–14
field research in, 6, 17
media used in, 227
Armstrong, Carol, 145, 154, 155
Arnold, H. J. P. (1932–2006), 3
Arnold, Thomas (1795–1842), 149
art
drawing, 122–23
magic vs., 144–45
“New Art,” 126, 128, 135, 136–37
and photography, 10–11, 14, 17, 226
and science, 12–13, 136–37
and talent, 152
Art-Journal, 284
Art of Employing Time, The, 43
Art Reproduction Company, London, 182
Art-Union, 164
Assurbanipal, king of Assyria (r. 668–627 BCE), 195
Assyrian Dictionary, 206
Assyrian Empire, 193–95, 199, 206
Assyriology
academic discipline of, 213
astronomy
discovery of Neptune, 281
media used in, 227–28
Talbot’s interest in, 76, 89
Astyages, king of Babylon (r. ca. 585–550 BCE), 209
Athenaeum, 120, 262
Atkinson, Solomon (d. 1865), 71–72
Austen, Jane (1775–1817)
Mansfield Park, 98
Persuasion, 98
Sense and Sensibility, 98, 99–100
Babbage, Charles, 34, 70, 79, 269
Babylon, Processional Way, 209, 210
Bacon, Francis (1561–1626), 146–47
Baker, Marcus (1849–1903), 85
Balfour, Francis Maitland [Frank] (1851–1882), 33
Barclay, George (b. 1802), 173
Barrow-Green, June, 67, 271, 275
Barthes, Roland (1915–1980)
Camera Lucida, 111, 144–45, 146
theory of indexicality, 156
Batchen, Geoffrey, 153
Baumé, 174
Beatty, Francis (1807–1891), 182, 184
Beaufort, Francis (1774–1857), 137
Bedford, sixth Duke of (John Russell; 1766–1839), 279–80
Bel, 202–3, 206, 207, 208, 211
“Bel, the Dragon, and the Flaming Sword,” 202–3, 206, 207–11, 208
and biblical archaeology, 212–14
and British Museum collections, 16–17, 194, 195, 202, 210, 211, 224, 280
and decipherment, see decipherment
Epic of Anzu, 210
field research in, 6
grammar and glossary, 206
The Sin of the God Zu, 210
Talbot’s interest in, 5, 16–17, 20, 199, 214, 237, 239, 271, 272
Talbot’s notebooks on, 5, 7, 9, 195–96, 196, 204–10, 206, 227, 272
use of photography in, 227–28, 235, 239, 240, 240, 280
Ben A’an, Scotland, 106
Bentham, George (1800–1884), 45
Bentley’s Miscellany, 269–70, 271
Benvenue, Scotland, 106, 109
Bertrand, Joseph (1822–1900), 87
Berwick, England, 102
Bible, see Old Testament
Biot, Jean-Baptiste (1774–1862), 262
Birch, Samuel (1813–1885), 195, 202
Birmingham, England, 281
Blackwood, William (1776–1834?), 161
Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, 282, 283
Bloor, David, 45
Borders region, Scotland, 101, 102
botany, 41–66
classification in, 44, 279
community of scholars, 53, 54–57, 279
drawings in, 60–61
microscopy in, 41–42
mosses, 42, 46–53
natural illustrations in, 59–61, 279
photogenic drawings in, 41, 42, 154–55
social networks in, 52–53
Talbot family interest in, 56–57
Talbot’s interest in, 6, 17, 42, 44, 46–53, 55–57, 61–62, 271
Talbot’s specimens collected, 7, 8–9
training of the mind in, 44–46, 60
Boyle, Robert (1627–1691), 33
Brewster, David (1781–1868), 34, 151–52, 272, 276, 278, 282, 283
Bristol Mint, 31
Britain, country houses in, 28, 29–34, 35, 275–76
British Association, Birmingham, 281, 282
British Association for the Advancement of Science, 83, 102, 176, 195, 270, 272, 275, 280
British Library
national collection of historical manuscripts in, 29
Talbot Collection in, 5–6, 7, 20, 26–28, 219, 220, 221
British Museum, 15, 252, 284
Assyrian antiquities in collections of, 16–17, 194, 195, 202, 210, 211, 224, 280
and Chaldean mythology, 202–3
circulation of objects in, 235, 239
as construction site, 241, 241, 280
cuneiform tablets in, 16, 194, 199, 224, 225, 284
Department of Antiquities, 195, 219, 228
and field scientists, 224–25
Kouyunjik Collection, 195, 199, 201, 204, 225, 239
and photography, 16, 219–30, 220, 221, 223, 231–32, 232, 233, 234, 235, 237, 239–41
scholarship controlled by, 238–39
Talbot’s requests for access to objects in, 16–17, 225–37, 240
transition period in, 224–25, 238, 280
Brooker, Thomas (1813–1885), 173, 180
Brusius, Mirjam, 1, 59, 219, 272, 274, 280, 284
Budge, Wallis (1857–1934), 199
Bunsen, Christian von (1791–1860), 273
Bunsen, Robert (1811–1899), 277, 278
Buxton, Richard, Botanical Guide to the Flowering Plants, 54–55, 54
Cadell, Robert (1788–1849), 106
Callander, Scotland, 102, 106
calotype, 28, 120, 137, 143, 153, 167, 179, 222, 281, 283, 284
Cambridge, University of
Caius College, 84
“Cambridge network,” 151
Classical Tripos in, 68
Mathematical Tripos in, 6, 68, 70–71, 74, 85
mathematics in, 6, 44, 67–73, 88–89, 272
Porson Prize for Greek Verse, 5
Talbot as student in, 5, 6, 67, 70–73, 74, 88–89, 144
Talbot conference (2010) at, 4
Trinity College, 67, 71, 88–89
camera obscura, 124, 126–27, 134, 150, 152, 275
camera vision, 41
Cantor, Geoffrey, 148
Carlisle, England, 102
Carlyle, Thomas (1795–1881), 98–99, 101, 274
Cauchy, Augustin Louis (1789–1857), 72
Cavendish, Henry (1731–1810), 282
Cayley, Arthur (1821–1895), 75
Chaldean mythology, 202–3, 205, 209, 210, 211
Chaldean Syriac (Iraqi Aramaic), 206
Chambers’ Edinburgh Journal, 277, 282
Chartists, 281
Chemical News, 278
chemical research, 28
Chippenham, Talbot as MP for, 28, 34
chronophotography, 279
Cole, Lady Mary Lucy [previously Mary Talbot, née Strangways] (1776–1855), 44, 45
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor (1772–1834), 146, 148, 149, 152, 153, 274, 276
“Common Sense” principles, 146
Como, Lake, 150, 273, 284
Continental notation (calculus), 70, 71, 72, 89
copper plates, 180
Corfu, 108
Correspondence of William Henry Fox Talbot project, 4, 27
Cowper, William (1731–1800), 98
Craik, Alex D. D., 87
Crelle, August Leopold (1780–1855), 75, 79
Crimean War, 202
Croker, John Wilson (1780–1857), 270
Crookes, William (1832–1921), 278
Crosland, Maurice, 120
Crosse, Andrew (1784–1855), 275
Culloden, battle of (Scotland), 105
cuneiform tablets
act of reading, 212
Assyrian, 195, 198
in British Museum collection, 16, 194, 199, 224, 225, 239, 284
comparisons with Hebrew, 195–96, 206–7, 214
decipherment of, 35, 193–218, 200, 201, 227, 230, 236–37, 272
determinatives in, 194, 207, 208, 212
Elamite script, 194, 195
lexical texts, 199
logograms in, 194, 207, 208, 212
Old Persian script, 194
photographs of, 20, 35, 212, 224–25, 227–28, 229–34, 236, 237, 240, 240
publication of texts, 199
syllabic readings of, 212
Tablet K 3437, 204, 205
Cuvier, Georges (1769–1832), 224, 238
Daguerre, Louis-Jacques-Mandé (1787–1851):
and discovery/invention of photography, 119, 122, 126–27, 137, 282
Le Pavilion de Flore et le Pont-Royal, 128
photography presented to the public by, 4, 161
process used by, 125–26, 127, 136–37, 162, 167
and theatrical illusion, 14
Vue du Pont-Neuf, 127, 127
daguerreotypes, 136–37, 162, 182, 270, 280, 282
Daily Telegraph, 202
Dalton, Rev. James (1764–1843), 54, 55
Dancer, John Benjamin (1812–1887), 41–42
Daniel, 207, 209
D’Arcy Wood, Gillen, 59
Darwin, Charles (1809–1882), 33, 231
Davy, Humphry (1778–1829), 126, 129, 130, 152
Dean, Katrina, 25, 270, 273
decipherment
of Annals of Sennacherib, 196
of Annals of Tiglath-Pileser, 197, 199, 200, 201
comparative etymology in, 195–96, 206, 207–9, 214, 272, 274
of cuneiform script, 35, 193, 200, 227, 230, 236–37
“decipherment event” (1857), 193, 195–98, 199, 212, 213, 273
of key points, 195–96
and prism K 1621a, 201
of Sumerian-Akkadian works, 201, 202
Talbot’s methods of, 195–96, 197, 201, 202, 204–7, 210, 214, 236–37, 272
Talbot’s notebooks on, 9, 10, 195–98, 196, 227
Talbot’s sources for, 204, 206, 207, 225
Delitzsch, Friedrich (1850–1922), Assyrische Lesestücke, 204, 204, 272
Dering, Sir Edward (1598–1644), 29
Dickens, Charles (1812–1870), 162, 269
Dillwyn, Lewis Weston (1778–1855), 47, 53, 276
discovery, as creative process, 148
Downing, Charles Toogood (1811–1873), 135–36, 137
dragons, 193, 209, 213
drawing, importance of, 122–23
drawing mistress, Nature as, 119, 122–24, 126, 137, 163, 184, 275
Dryburgh Abbey, Scotland, 102, 105
Duchâtel, Charles-Marie Tanneguy, comte (1803–1867), 136
“Dudley Stuart, Lady” (Lady Christina Dudley Coutts-Stuart, née Bonaparte; 1798–1847), 99
Dumas, Jean-Baptiste-André (1800–1884), 123
Dupin, Charles (1784–1873), 72
East India Company, 136
Edgcumbe, Caroline [née Feilding] (1808–1881), 99
Edinburgh
Edinburgh University, 179
Rampling’s Waterloo Hotel, 102, 104
Royal Society, 84, 85–86, 89, 120
Scott Monument, in, 112
Talbot family in, 179–80
Talbot in, 100, 102, 105, 179
Edinburgh Literary Journal, 101
Egypt; Egyptology, 5, 197, 202, 213
Elamite cuneiform, 194, 195
electricity, velocity of, 254, 257, 260
electromagnetic engineering, 281, 283
Ellen’s Isle, Scotland, 106
elliptic integrals, 78, 78, 79, 80, 82, 89
Ellis, Robert Leslie (1817–1859), 83, 275
Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, 129
Enüma Eliš (Babylonian epic of creation), 203
Epstein, Edward, 173
equations, cubic and quintic, 85
equilateral hyperbola, 80, 81
Esarhaddon, king of Assyria (r. 680–669 BCE), 195
etchant, 174
etymology, 196, 206, 207–9, 214, 272, 274
Euclid (b. ca. 300 BCE), 45, 70, 72, 85, 89
Euclid’s fifth postulate, 85
Euler, Leonhard (1707–1783), 79
Evelyn, John (1620–1706), 29
autograph manuscript of, 30
Evelyn family of Wotton, Surrey, 29
Fagnano, Count Giulio Carlo de’ Toschi di (1682–1766), 79–80, 85
Faraday, Michael (1791–1867), 34, 76, 123–24
and “drawing mistress” metaphor, 123, 126
experiments of, 15–16, 260, 262
“Friday Evening Discourses” of, 249, 249, 252, 264
“Notes on Lectures,” 124
on optical illusions, 250, 251, 255, 260, 261
and Royal Institution, 15–16, 123, 245, 247, 248–50, 260, 262, 278
Feilding, Caroline [Edgcumbe] (1808–1881), 99
Feilding, Horatia (1810–1851), 99
Feilding, Lady Elisabeth, née Strangways [Talbot’s mother] (1773–1846), 34, 43, 44, 70, 95, 99, 100–101
Fellows, Charles (1799–1860), 222
Fenton, Roger (1819–1869), 212, 221, 225, 228, 229–30, 231, 234, 237, 239
Cuneiform Tablet, 235, 236
The Mineral Gallery, British Museum, 233
Skeleton of Man and of the Male Gorilla (Troglodytes Gorilla), 231, 232
The Third Graeco-Roman Saloon on Artists’ Day at the British Museum, 233
View of a Bust of Aty, 234
Fermat’s Last Theorem, 84
Fermat’s Little Theorem, 84
ferric chloride, 174
Fisch, Menachem, 147
Fizeau, Armand-Hippolyte-Louis (1819–1896), Hotel de Ville de Paris (detail), 162, 163
Foucault, Michel (1926–1984), The Order of Things, 145
Fourier, Joseph (1768–1830), 72
“Fox Talbot Memorial Fund, The,” 181–82
Fresnel, Augustin (1788–1827), 129
Furniss, Tom, 106
Fyne Court, Somerset, 275–76
Galashiels, Scotland, 102
Garden of Eden, 203
Gardner, George (1812–1849), Musci Britannici, 47, 51, 56, 57
Gaucheraud, Hippolyte, 119
Gautier, Alfred (1793–1881), 72
Gazette de France, 119
gelatin, 168, 169, 173–74, 180
genius, 149, 151–52, 282
gentlemen of science, 14, 17, 33, 34, 53, 84, 237, 238, 270, 275, 281, 282, 284
Georgian society, 98
Gergonne, Joseph-Diez (1771–1859), 79
Annales de mathématiques purés et appliquées (Annales de Gergonne), 67–68, 74–76, 79
Gerini, Christian, 74
Gernsheim, Helmut and Alison, 246
Gesenius, Wilhelm (1786–1842), 207
Gibbon, Edward (1737–1794), Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 274
Gladstone, William (1809–1898), 213
Glasgow, Scotland, 105
Goodenough, Samuel, bishop of Carlisle (1743–1827), 78–79
Greek language, 206
Grote, George (1794–1871), 198
Grove, William Robert (1811–1896), 262, 272, 282–83
Hale, John, 108
half-stereo plates, 176
halftone dot, 169, 172, 184
Hamilton, William Rowan (1805–1865), 84, 148
Harcourt, Vernon (1789–1871), 282
Hare, Julius Charles (1795–1855), 148, 149
Harrow School, Middlesex, England, 44, 95
Hartwell, Buckinghamshire, 276
Hatfield House, Hertfordshire, 99
Hawkins, Edward (1780–1867), 195, 219, 228
Heath, Vernon (1820–1895), 123
Hebrew language, 196, 206–7, 208, 214
Hedwig, Johann (1730–1799), Species Muscorum Frondosorum, 46, 48
héliographie; heliogravure, 162
Henneman, Nicolaas (1813–1898), 164–65
Photographic Copy of José Roldán after Murillo, 164, 165
Herschel, John Frederick William (1792–1871), 34, 35, 151, 252, 269
and Analytic Society, 70, 71
and Antarctic survey, 280
and British Museum, 226
law of continuity, 146, 152
“Light,” 129
and mathematics, 76, 79, 84, 89
and photography, 14, 123, 129, 136, 137, 164, 225–26, 278
Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy, 136–37, 144–47, 152, 273
Specimen 9, 130, 137
and war of methods, 272–73
Herschel, William (1738–1822), 121, 129
hieroglyph, 10
Higman, John (b. 1792), 72–73
Hincks, Edward (1792–1866), 196–98, 199
Hirst, Thomas (1830–1892), 43
Historical Manuscripts Commission, 29
historicism, 274
Hobson, Edward (1782–1830), 55
Hogg, James, “the Ettrick Shepherd” (1770–1835), 97
Homer, 97
Hooker, Joseph (1817–1911), 60–61, 280
Hooker, William Jackson (1785–1865), 279, 280
and Talbot’s photographs, 59–60, 61, 272
and Taylor, Muscologia Britannica, 47, 49, 50, 54–56, 56, 57
Hopetoun House, Scotland, 100
Humboldt, Alexander von (1769–1859), 125, 280
Hume, David (1711–1776), 146
Hunt, Robert (1807–1887), 272–73, 284
Illustrated London News, 97
India, Hooker’s expedition to, 280
intaglio, 163, 169
International Exhibition (1862), London, 176, 178
Ionian Islands, 108, 271
Iraqi Aramaic, 206
Ivory, James (1765–1842), 83
Jedburgh, Scotland, 102, 105
Jerdan, William (1782–1869), 119, 123, 124, 130, 135, 270
John, king of England (1167–1216), 31
Jonah (prophet), 194
Joubert, Ferdinand (1810–1884), 181
Journal of Sacred Literature and Biblical Record, 195
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 198, 206
Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804), 146, 151–52
Katrine, Loch, Scotland, 102, 105, 106, 107–9, 107, 108, 110
Kelso, Scotland, 105
Kepler, Johannes (1571–1630), 149
King Assurbanipal’s Library (Kouyunjik Collection), 195, 199, 201, 204, 225, 239
Kingston House, Dorset, 56
Kirchhoff, Gustav (1824–1887), 277, 278
Klein, Ursula, 137
Klíč, Karl (1841–1926), 161
Kouyunjik Collection (King Assurbanipal’s Library), 195, 199, 201, 204, 225, 239
Kraus, Hans P., Jr., photographic veil illustrated by, 169, 170
Lacock, Wiltshire, England, Church of St. Cyriac, 182
Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire, England, 27
architectural photographs of, 135
and country house tradition, 28, 35
Fox Talbot Museum of Photography, 25
garden at, 57, 62
heritage of, 25–28
Lacock Magna Carta (1225), 31, 32
Lacock Pageant, 26
Lilliputian photograph of, 42
as religious house, 29, 31
as site of preservation, 29–33
Talbot family archive in, 29, 35. 274
Talbot family estate, 7, 20, 28, 29, 31, 273, 274, 275–76
Talbot’s photographic work at, 163–64, 179, 271, 284
Lacroix, Sylvestre (1765–1843), 71, 72
Lagrange, Joseph Louis (1736–1813), 72
La Motte-Fouqué, Baron Friedrich de, 100
Laplace, marquis de [Pierre-Simon de Laplace] (1749–1827), 72
Latour, Bruno, 60
Lawrence, Christopher, 152
Layard, Austen Henry (1817–1894), 16, 195, 199, 209, 225
Lee, John (1783–1866), 276
Legendre, Adrien-Marie (1752–1833), 79, 82, 85
Leitwissenschaften (core sciences), 120
Lerebours, Noël-Marie-Paymal (1807–1873), 162
Leyden jar, 245, 259
Library of Congress, Washington, DC, 31
Lilliputian photography, 41, 42
Linnaeus, Carolus, 55
Lister, Anne (1791–1840), 43
Literary Gazette, 119, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 130, 135, 136, 262, 270, 271
lithography, 162, 163, 219, 235
Llewelyn, John Dillwyn (1810–1882), 276
Lockhart, John Gibson (1794–1854), 98
London
Adelaide Gallery of Practical Science, 252, 281
Athenaeum, 252
Crystal Palace, Great Exhibition (1851), 226, 283
Science Museum, 26, 182
Talbot in, 15, 250, 252
Victoria and Albert Museum, 182
Lubbock, John (1803–1865), 82
lunar photography, 227–28
Lycia, 222
Macaulay, Thomas Babington (1800–1859), 101, 149, 150, 274
magic, 144–45, 248, 276
magic lantern shows, 248
Magna Carta, 31, 32
Maimon, Vered, 11, 101, 143, 273, 276, 279
Malfatti, Gianfrancesco (1731–1807), 85
Malfatti’s Problem, 85, 89
Marduk (Bel; Assyrian god), 203, 209, 210
Marey, Étienne-Jules (1830–1904), 246
Martin, Benjamin (d. 1782), 275
Mathematical Tripos, 6, 68, 70–71, 74, 85
mathematics
in Cambridge, 67–73, 272
curriculum changes in, 70–71, 88–89
number theory, 84–86
origins of, 45
Talbot’s interest in, 6, 67–94, 271–72
Talbot’s notebooks on, 7
Talbot’s publications in, 67–68, 74–83, 275
training of the mind in, 70
Mathews, George Ballard (1861–1922), 87–88
Maxwell, William Stirling, 165
McCormick, Robert (1800–1890), 280
Mechanics Magazine, 281
Melrose Abbey, Scotland, 102, 105
Mesopotamia, 16, 194
method wars, 272–74, 276, 277–78, 281–82
Michael, Saint, 209
microscopy; microphotography, 41–42, 60, 133, 134, 278
Middle East
cuneiform script of, see cuneiform
map, 194
Mill, John Stuart (1806–1873), 45–46, 62
Millburn Tower, Scotland, 179
Milman, Henry Hart (1791–1868), 198
mirrors, revolving, 250, 252, 253–54, 253, 254
Monge, Gaspard (1746–1818), 72
Montagu House gateway, demolition of, 241, 241
mosses, 46–53
classification of, 42, 46–47, 55–56, 59, 62
Dicranum scoparium, 46, 47
Hypnum, 46, 47, 50, 51
Phascum, 55, 56, 57, 62
Pterogonium smithii, 56, 58
sharing information about, 54–57
Talbot’s collection of, 46–53, 47, 52, 57, 62, 214, 272
Mundy, Constance (Talbot’s wife; 1811–1880), 99–100, 102, 105, 125
Murphy, Robert (bap. 1807, d. 1843), 84
Murray, John (1808–1892), 95
muscology, see mosses
Muybridge, Eadward (1830–1904), Gallop, Bay Horse Daisy, 246, 246
National Gallery of Practical Science, 252
National Trust, 25, 26
natural philosophy, 13, 89, 136–37, 260, 281
end of, 143–44
and magic, 276
transition to science, 14, 145–46, 152
and war of methods, 272–74, 276, 277–78, 281–82
Nature
and chemical processes, 125–26, 137
as drawing mistress, 119, 122–24, 126, 137, 163, 184, 275
and human nature, 152–53, 156
and imagination, 153–54
as life force, 153, 156
Natura naturans, 124–26
Neptune, discovery of, 281
Nesbitt, Alexander, 183
Newcastle, England, 102
Newton, Isaac (1642–1727), 70, 71, 72, 89, 149, 151, 152
Niebuhr, Barthold (1776–1831), 149, 273, 274
Niépce, Joseph Nicéphore (1765–1833), 162, 174
Nimrud, Assyria, 210, 211, 228
Nineveh, Assyria, 193–94, 195, 199, 202, 225, 237
Ninurta (warrior god), 209–10, 211
nitric acid, 174
Norris, Edwin (1795–1872), 195–98, 206, 212
number theory, 84–86
Old Persian script, 194
Old Testament, 195
and biblical archaeology, 212–14
Daniel, 209
Genesis, 5, 193, 202
Hebrew language of, 206–7
Oppert, Julius (1825–1905), 198
optical illusions, 247, 248–52, 251, 253–57, 260–61, 264, 276, 281
optics, Talbot’s interest in, 6, 9, 28, 76, 89
Ottoman Empire, 194
Owen, Richard (1804–1892), 231
Oxford University, 67
Queen’s College, 10, 230, 231
Panizzi, Antonio (1797–1879), 219
Paris, Académie de Sciences, 119, 120
Paris Observatory, 76
Parliament, 28, 34, 250, 254, 281
patent claims, 167, 180, 281, 282–83, 284
Patent Office, 283
Peacock, George (1792–1858), 70–71, 72, 76, 81, 82
Peirce, Benjamin (1809–1880), 87
“Pencil of Nature,” coining of term, 270, 274–75
Penrice Castle, Wales, 44, 46, 53, 56
Percij, Giovanni, 72
Persia, 194
Petit de Billier, Amélina “Amandier” (1798–1876), 101
phantasmagoria, 248
phenakistoscope, 248, 250, 252
philology, 16
Philosophical Magazine, 254, 255, 256
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (PTRS), 68, 76, 78, 79, 84
photogenic drawings, 41, 42, 119, 120, 122, 127–28, 130, 144, 150, 179, 270, 271, 276, 280, 282, 284
photoglyphic engraving, 10, 61, 166, 173–76, 175, 177, 179, 180–82, 181, 183, 184, 240
photographic engraving, 167–69, 171, 176, 178
Photographic News, 175
photographic screens, 173
photographic veil, 169, 170, 171, 172–73, 172, 174
photography
and art, 10–11, 14, 17, 226
and British Museum, 16, 219–30, 220, 221, 223, 231–32, 235, 237, 239–41
camera-made vs. camera-less, 59, 126, 129, 152, 155–56, 173, 178, 261
chemical processes in, 125–26, 127, 129, 134, 135–37, 144, 145, 152, 161–62, 164, 168, 228, 269, 275, 277
decontextualization of, 230–34
early uses of, 9–10
early writings on, 119–20, 126–29, 137, 143
fading prints, 164–66
as field research tool, 6, 9, 16, 17, 35, 219, 228–29, 238, 279
folding images, 152–56, 154, 155
functions of, 9–11, 35, 60, 120, 123, 137, 237–38
information content in, 11
instantaneous, 9, 245–47, 257, 261–64
invention/discovery of, 14, 35, 41, 42, 62, 119–20, 137, 144–45, 161, 179, 182, 222, 239, 245, 247, 271, 275, 277, 278, 282
Lilliputian, 41, 42
literature on, 162
lunar, 227–28
as “materialized epistemology,” 8
and microscopy, 41–42, 60, 133, 134, 278
of moving objects, 245–47, 246, 262–63, 269
and notebooks, 9–10, 20
objectivism of, 59, 145, 232, 234
optics in, 41, 128, 134
patent access, 226–27
as “pencil of nature,” 126–29, 153
and printing processes, 163, 166
as reproducible proxy, 228, 231
as scientific tool, 221–22, 225, 228
and showmanship, 14, 247, 248, 263
significance of, 156
silver-based prints, 161, 163–66, 167, 277
and social class, 14
spark photography, 9, 245–47, 259, 262–63, 279
Talbot’s interest in, 3, 4, 8–9, 42, 124–26, 125, 221, 260–64
photogravure, 28, 161–62, 163, 167–69, 170, 171, 173, 176, 177, 179–80, 184, 221, 240, 240, 274
photomechanical processes, 162
photometer, 250, 252, 253, 255, 257
photomicrography, 130, 133, 134, 134
Photo-sculpsit, 170, 176–82
planographic processes, 163
platinic chloride, 168
Ponton, Mungo (1801–1880), 168
potassium bichromate, 168, 173
Priestley, Joseph (1733–1804), 149
printing processes, 163, 166, 167, 173
Process Photogram, 181
Proust, Marcel (1871–1922), 108
Quetelet, Adolphe (1796–1874), 75
Ramalingam, Chitra, 1, 245, 276, 284
Ramsay, Sir James, 96
Rassam, Hormuzd (1826–1910), 195, 199
Rawlinson, Henry Creswicke (1810–1895), 196–98, 199, 235–37
Rayleigh, third Baron (John William Strutt; 1842–1919), 33
Reading, England, photographic production facility in, 164, 166
Reform Act (1832), 250, 281
Regency society, 98, 248
Reid, Thomas (1710–1796), 146, 147
relief printing, 163
resist, 167, 174
Revelation, book of, 209
Ridgway, James, 101
Ritter, Johann Wilhelm (1776–1810), 129
Robertson, Rev. James, 106
Robson, Eleanor, 193, 271, 272, 278, 280
Romanticism, 146, 148–49, 150, 151–52, 155, 274
Ross, James Clark (1800–1862), 280
Rosse, third Earl of (William Parsons; 1800–1867), 33, 226–28
Royal Artillery Institute, Woolwich, 260
Royal Asiatic Society, 195, 196, 197, 198, 273, 278–79
Royal Astronomical Society, 67
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 279, 280
Royal Institution, 284
Davy’s lectures in, 152
Faraday’s work in, 15–16, 247, 248–50, 261, 278
Library, 16
and photography, 119, 122, 124, 130, 135, 245, 247, 262
public performance and display in, 16, 247, 248–52, 249, 252, 256
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, 123
Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, 176, 177
Royal Society (London), 29, 270, 283
and Antarctic survey, 280
and natural science, 6
and photography, 119, 120, 123, 135, 225–26
Royal Medal, 76, 83–84, 283
Talbot as fellow of, 6, 16, 76, 79, 84, 271, 273
Talbot’s papers presented to, 255, 271
Talbot’s publications with, 76–83, 84, 87, 89, 123
Royal Society of Edinburgh, 84, 85–86, 89, 120
Salisbury, Marquess and Marchioness, 99
Salisbury, third Countess of (Ela Longespée; ca. 1190–1261), 25, 26, 31
Salisbury, third Earl of (William Longespée; ca. 1167–1226), 31
salts of silver, 161, 163, 164
Sandby, Paul (1731–1809), 123
Schaaf, Larry, 1, 4, 161, 273, 274, 279, 283
Schaffer, Simon, 269
“Scientific Discoveries and the End of Natural Philosophy,” 143–44, 145, 151
Scheele, Carl Wilhelm (1742–1786), 129
Schindler, Valentin (d. 1604), 207
sciagraphic process, 276
science
and art, 12–13, 136–37
country house, 33–34
deductive, 274, 275
empirical, 62, 136
experimental, 247
gentlemen of, 14, 17, 33, 34, 53, 84, 158n15, 237, 238, 270, 275, 281, 282, 284
imagination in, 151–52, 153
inductive method of, 42, 62, 144, 145, 147, 150, 273, 275
information shared in, 11, 52–53, 54–57, 281
lecture courses on, 271
Leitwissenschaften (core sciences), 120
observational, 42
photography’s use in, 221–22, 227, 228, 279
as process, 8
professionalism of, 33
public institutions of, 33
as public spectacle, 264
role of the mind in, 35
state-sponsored, 280
Talbot’s philosophy of, 34–35
scientific naturalism, 14
scientific photography, 228, 246
defined, 222
scientist, coining of term, 13
Scotland, 95–115
Romantic, 106
Talbot family members’ moves to, 176, 179
Talbot’s travels in, 102–6, 103
Scott, Sir Walter (1771–1832), 18, 19, 95–101, 106, 276
The Abbot, 98, 100
Anne of Geierstein, 99
The Antiquary, 98
The Bride of Lammermoor, 98, 99
The Fortunes of Nigel, 98
Guy Mannering, 98
The Heart of Midlothian, 98
Ivanhoe, 98, 99
Kenilworth, 99
The Lady of the Lake, 95, 97–98, 106, 108, 109–10
The Lay of the Last Minstrel, 98
Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft, 276
Marmion, 98
The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, 101
Peveril of the Peak, 99
Quentin Durward, 98, 99
Redgauntlet, 98
Rob Roy, 98
Scott Monument, Edinburgh, in, 112
tomb at Dryburgh Abbey, 102, 105
Waverley, 98, 99
the Waverley Novels, 98–100, 274
Woodstock, 98, 99
Secord, Anne, 41, 271, 272, 276, 279
Sedgwick, Adam (1785–1873), 269
Selkirk, Scotland, 102
Senebier, Jean (1742–1809), Mémoires physico-chymiques, 126
Sennacherib, king of Assyria (r. 704–681 BCE), 195, 196
Shakespeare, William (1564–1616), 95–96, 97
Sharington, Sir William (1495–1553), 31
Shibden Hall, Halifax, 43
silver, tarnishing of, 163–66
Sinclair, Sir John (1754–1835), 106
Smith, George (1840–1876), 199, 202, 272
“On Some Fragments of the Chaldean Account of the Creation,” 205, 205, 209, 211
Smith, Graham, 95, 274, 276
Smith, James Edward (1759–1828), Flora Britannica, 55
Smyth, Charles Piazzi (1819–1900), 176, 177
Society of Biblical Archaeology, 202, 204, 213–14, 281
membership of, 213
sodium thiosulfate (hypo), 164
Somerville, Mary (1780–1872), 260
spark illumination, 9, 245–47, 259, 262–63, 279
spectrochemistry, 277–78
spinning wheels, 250, 255, 257, 260, 261, 263, 264
Stengers, Isabelle, 129
stereoscope, 248
Stirling, Scotland, 102
Strangways, William Fox (1795–1865), 56, 60
strobe lighting, 257, 258, 261, 276, 280
Stuart, Prince Charles Edward (1720–1788), 105
Student’s Journal, The, 43–44, 43
Students of Antiquity, 29
Sumerian-Akkadian writing, 202
Swing riots, 281
Sylvester, James Joseph (1814–1897), 89
Talbot, Charles Henry [son] (1842–1916), 31, 85, 162, 174, 179, 180–82
Talbot, Constance Mundy [wife] (1811–1880), 99–100, 102, 105, 125
Talbot, Jane [cousin] (1796–1874), 46, 56
Talbot, Sir John, 31
Talbot, Mary (Lady Mary Lucy Cole) (1776–1855), 44, 45
Talbot, Matilda [granddaughter] (1871–1958), 25, 26, 31
Talbot, Olive Sharington, 31
Talbot, Rosamond Constance [daughter] (1837–1906), 179
Talbot, William Henry Fox (1800–1877):
archival collections of, 4, 5, 8, 9–10, 12, 20, 25, 33, 162, 272
correspondence of, 4, 11, 27, 33, 44, 53, 95, 96
death of, 179
and decipherment, see cuneiform; decipherment
interests of, 3–6, 9–10, 27–28, 33, 44, 76, 87, 89, 263, 271–73, 276–80, 281, 284
knowledge production methods of, 11
as member of Parliament, 28, 34, 250, 254, 279, 281
and “original idea,” 150–52
philosophy of science, 34–35
and photogravure, 161–62, 167
social position of, 15, 16, 17, 34, 53, 84, 213, 270
on spectrum analysis, 278
and visual experiments, 252, 253–57, 260–64
Talbot, William Henry Fox, images by An Oriel Window at Lacock Abbey, 135
Assyrian Cuneiform Writing, 240, 240
Astrantia Major, 130, 131
Avignon, 182
The Barberini Ivory, 181, 183, 184
“Botanical Specimen–Bryonia Dioca,” 130, 131
Branch of Leaves of Mercuriàlis pérennis, 155–56, 155
A Cascade of Spruce Needles, 154–55, 154
Church of St. Maurice at Vienne in France, 182
Copy of a joker and cat, 130, 132
Copy of a Label for Hyposulfite of Soda, 164, 166
Entrance Gateway, Queens College, Oxford, 10, 230, 231
Folded Piece of Muslin, 169, 171
The Haystack, 1, 2, 11
The Ladder, 11, 12
Loch Katrine, 108–9, 109, 110
The Open Door, 1, 2, 11, 153
Patroclus, 1, 3, 17, 19
photogenic drawings, 4, 16, 119, 120, 122, 127–28, 130, 132, 150
photomicrography, 130, 133, 134, 134
Portal at St. Trophimus, Aries, 182
Sir Walter Scott’s Monument, Edinburgh, in, 112
Source of the Arveyron from beneath a Glacier near Chamouni, 181
Sun Pictures in Scotland, 19, 59, 95, 101, 105–6, 111, 274
The Tuileries, 175, 175
see also photography
Talbot, William Henry Fox, notebooks of, 4, 6, 6, 7–9, 17, 227
on Assyriology, 5, 7, 9, 195–96, 196, 204–10, 206, 227, 272
on botany, 44, 58
exercise books, 7, 7, 67, 68, 69
on mathematics (Notebooks D through M), 79, 80, 82, 120, 121
“Memoranda,” 17, 18
Notebook B, 76, 77, 254
Notebook N, 78, 78
Notebook P, 26, 27
Notebook Q, 26, 27
Notebook S.1, 5, 5
Notebook T, 7, 8
on optical illusions, 253, 254
on photography, 26, 167, 221
purposes of, 9
Talbot, William Henry Fox, writings of:
The Antiquity of the Book of Genesis, 5, 193
“A Brief Historical Sketch of the Invention of the Art,” 143, 150
English Etymology, 270, 273
“Essay towards a General Solution of Numerical Equations,” 85–86, 86
“Experiments on Light,” 255, 256
“The Fight Between Bel and the Dragon, and the Flaming Sword,” 202–3, 208
Hermes, or Classical and Antiquarian Researches, 5
Legendary Tales, in Verse and Prose, 100–101, 276
“On Fagnani’s [sic] Theorem,” 85
The Pencil of Nature, 10, 11, 19, 59, 105, 120, 143, 150, 153, 154, 161, 164–66, 181, 226, 230, 271
“Proposed method of transferring Photography to Steel Engraving,” 167
“Some Account of the Art of Photogenic Drawing,” 120, 143
“The Theory of Parallels,” 85
Talbot-Klíc process, 161
Talbot’s curve, 75
Talbotypes, 102, 222
Taylor, Thomas (1786–1848), 47, 55
Taylor series (calculus), 70
Tenerife, Canary Islands, 176, 177
Thirlwall, Newell Connop (1797–1875), 149
Thompson, Stephen (act. 1862–1870s), 204
Thomson, John (1837–1921), 161
Tiamat (primordial, chaotic female sea), 203, 209, 210
Tiglath-pileser I, king of Assyria (r. 1114-ca. 1076 BCE), 237
Tigris River, Mesopotamia, 193–94
Tissandier, Gaston (1843–1899), 179, 180, 182
Tomlinson, Charles, 252
Tortolini, Barnaba (1808–1874), 75
Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 68, 84–87, 89, 120
Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, 202, 208
Tregelles, Samuel Prideaux (1813–1875), 207
Trossachs, The, Scotland, 106–11
Turkey, 222
Turner, Dawson, 53
Turner, Joseph Mallord William (1775–1851), 106
Loch Achray, 107
Loch Katrine, 108
Victorian era
Assyriology of, 199
information shared in, 11, 271
intellectual life in, 7–8, 12, 270–72, 277
knowledge systems of, 12–13, 14–17, 35, 143, 284
mathematics in, 6
photography and microscopy in, 41–42
public entertainment in, 248, 261, 263–64
science in, 143, 145, 151, 156, 237, 269, 275, 280
social class in, 14–15, 16, 17, 270
war of methods in, 272–74, 276, 277–78
vision
instantaneous, 257–60
modernization of, 248
visual persistence, 9, 247, 248–52, 253–57, 259, 260–61, 264
Walton Hall, Yorkshire, 275
Washington, Library of Congress, 31
water, composition of, 281, 282
Waterton, Charles (1782–1865), 275
Watt, James (1736–1819), 282
Wedgwood, Thomas (1771–1805), 126, 130, 152, 153, 276
Wheatstone, Charles (1802–1875), 17, 247, 248–50, 252, 254, 269
and optical experiments, 257–60, 264, 276, 279
and spinning disks, 250, 255, 261, 263, 264
Whewell, William (1794–1866), 34, 35, 76, 83, 84, 150, 151–52, 278
Bridgewater Treatise, 273
and decipherment event, 198, 273
Elementary Treatise on Mechanics, 71, 72
History and Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, 144, 147–49, 273, 275
A Treatise on Dynamics, 71, 72
and war of methods, 272
Whig party, 44, 250, 269, 279, 281
Wilder, Kelley, 221
Wilkinson, Sir Gardiner (1797–1875), 198
Wilson, Horace Hayman (1786–1860), 198
Wilson’s Theorem, 84
Wiltshire and Swindon Archives, Chippenham, 29, 31
Wolf, Herta, 119, 275, 280, 282
Woodhouse, Robert (1773–1827), 70, 71, 72
Wordsworth, Dorothy (1771–1855), 106
Wordsworth, William (1770–1850), 106, 149
World War II, 31
Worsley, Thomas (1797–1885), 273
Wren, Christopher (1632–1723), 123
Wright, John Martin Frederick, 72, 74
Solutions of the Cambridge Problems, 73
Yeo, Richard, 147
York, England, 102
Young, Thomas (1773–1829), 129