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List of illustrations

  • Itala fragments of Book of Kings: Instructions to the artist
  • Page of interlace patterns
  • Dioscordes, "Materia Medica": The artist painting a plant
  • The masks for the actors of Terence's "Andria"
  • Gellone Sacramentary: Initial "B" with the name "David"
  • Canon Table of Gospels from Tours
  • Canon Table of Gospels
  • Presentation of the Vivian Bible to Charles the Bald
  • Commentary on the Apocalypse: The scriptorium at Tavara
  • Self-portrait (?) of St. Dunstan worshipping Christ
  • Gospels: Self-portrait of Abbot Otbert of St Bertin adoring Christ at the Nativity
  • Psalter from Bury St Edmunds: Initial "B" with illuminator portrait
  • Jerome on Isaiah: Self-portrait of Hugo "pictor"
  • Augustine, Commentary on the Psalter, vol. 2: Initial "I" with self-portrait of Robert Benjamin at the feet of Bishop William of St Calais
  • Ambrose, Misc. Texts: The processes of making a manuscript
  • Pericope Book: Scribe and illuminator at Echternach
  • Florus on St Paul's Epistles: Initial "P" with self-portrait of Felix
  • Sacramentary: St Gregory the Great with self-portrait of Hildebertus with his assistant Everwinus and the scribe, "R"
  • Augustine, "Civitas Dei": Self-portrait of Hildebertus with his assistant Everwinus
  • Wernherus "pictor" with the monk, Reinhard
  • Homiliary: Initial "Q" with self-portrait of Engilbertus
  • Gregory the Great, Dialogues
  • Hrabanus Maurus, "De Laudibus Sanctae Crucis": Initial "O" with Rainaldus the scribe and Oliverus the painter
  • Missal: Initial "R" with self-portrait of the illuminator
  • Legendary: Initial "R" with self-portrait of Frater Rufillus of Weissenau
  • Dover Bible: Initial "S" with self-portrait of the illuminator and his assistant
  • Evangeliary: Self-portrait of Isidore (s.n., fol. 85v)
  • Martyrology, Necrology, etc.: Self-portrait of the priest Sintram with the scribe, the nun Guta
  • Homiliary: initial "D" with self-portrait of Guta
  • Bible: Initial "D" with parchmenter
  • Psalter: Claricia swinging on an initial "Q"
  • Bible: Initial "V" with St. Jerome as a scribe ruling parchment
  • Bible: Initial "A," detail with self-portrait of illuminator painting a head
  • Tree of Consanguinity
  • Bible: Initial "P" with illuminator
  • Chronicle: Self-portrait of Matthew Paris of St Albans praying to the Virgin
  • Book of Hours: Initial "C" with self-portrait of William de Brailes
  • Self-portrait of William de Brailes rescued by his guardian angel
  • Pontifical: Notes of payment for "champ" initials
  • Pontifical: Note of payment for an historiated initial
  • Bible: Signature of the scribe, Robert de Billyng, with names of Jean Pucelle and his collaborators
  • Augustine, Letters
  • Matthew Paris, Lives of the Offas: Drawing of the Apocalyptic Christ
  • Gradual: Self-portrait of Fr Johannes de Valkenburg, O.F.M.
  • Lectionary: Self-portrait of Fr Johannes Siferwas, O.P., with the patron, Lord Lovell
  • Pliny the Elder, Natural History: Initial "M" with self-portrait of Fr Petrus de Pavia
  • Stratto delle Porte. Libro di Gabelle fiorentine: Books hanging up for sale
  • St. Albans' Benefactors' Book: Self-portrait of Alan Strayler
  • Giovanni Colonna, "Mare Historiarum": Self-portrait of an anonymous illuminator receiving visitors
  • Gradual: Self-portrait of Nicolaus Bertschi with his wife, Margaret
  • Self-portrait
  • Gradual: Self-portrait of Bartolomeo Neroni
  • Life of St. Cuthbert: Space where a miniature on pasted-in parchment has been removed
  • Villola, "Memorie": Parchment-seller's shop
  • Gospels: Hardpoint drawing of St Matthew photographed by ultraviolet light
  • Glossed Gospel of St Mark: Graphite drawing of Christ on the Cross
  • Ecclesiastes: Initial "U" with unfinished drawing in graphite strengthened with pen and gilt
  • Arnstein Bible: St Jerome, graphite drawing with later pen strengthening
  • Encyclopedia of James le Palmer: Initial "C" for "Color"
  • Nikolaus of Dinkelsbühl: Unfinished initial "D" with Moses receiving the Ten Commandments
  • Nikolaus of Dinkelsbühl: Initial "D," partly painted, with Christ preaching
  • Apocalypse: Unfinished miniature, the Blessed wash their robes in the blood of the Lamb
  • Apocalypse: Unfinished miniature, the New Jerusalem comes down to earth
  • Aelfric, Hexateuch: Unfinished miniature, Moses and the Israelites
  • The Puiset Bible: Thessalonians, initial "P" with a note "de auro"
  • Bestiary: Two Fishermen on an Aspidochelone
  • Drawing of the Crucifixion with directions to the illuminator for subject and color
  • Guido de Columna, "Historia Troiana": Unfinished miniature of the Trojan Horse
  • Book of Hours: Unfinished page with drawings for marginal drolleries
  • Book of Hours: Silhouette of lost woodcut formerly pasted in
  • Life and Miracles of St Germain: St Germain
  • Lectionary: St Germain with Sts Rusticus and Eleutherius
  • Miniature of the Asp pricked for tracing
  • The Belleville Breviary: December and building the New Church with bricks from the Old
  • Psalter: Initial "I" for Psalm 125, etc.
  • Bible Moralisée: Colophon miniature with donors, author, and scribe
  • The Holkham Bible Picture Book: Dominican adviser with the illuminator
  • Maquette for Honoré Bouvet: "Somnium super materia schismatis," with directions for the illuminator
  • Homiliary: Initials "I" and "M" with St Mark
  • Homilary: Sketch of initials "I" and "M" with St Mark
  • Joinville, "Credo": Scenes of Pentecost, baptism, and marriage, etc.
  • Sallust, "Catalina": Sallust as author writing the work
  • Sallust, "Catalina": The arrest of Vulturcius
  • Guillaume de Deguileville, "Pèlerinage": Grace Dieu shows the pilgrim the armor of the Virtues
  • Bible: Chronicals II, initial "A" with Adam and Eve
  • Bible: Illustration of II Samuel, men fight lions
  • Alexander Romance: Alexander battles the Cyclops
  • Roman de la Dame à la Licorne: Marginal instruction for a miniature of a Queen at table
  • Calilah et Dimnah: An ox pulled out of the mud
  • Canticles, hymns, etc.: The Jews before Pilate and the release of Barabbas
  • Bible moralisée: The journey to Bethlehem
  • Robert de Boron, "Histoire de Merlin": Preliminary drawing with notes by Jean Colombe
  • Glossed Bible: Initial "O" for Habakkuk with preliminary marginal drawing
  • Jacobus de Voragine, "Legenda Aurea": St. Giles with the deer, marginal drawing and instruction
  • Bible: Initial "P" for II Corinthians and St Paul escapes from Damascus
  • Bible historiale: Banquet of King Ahasuerus
  • Psalter: Initial "D" for Psalm 51
  • Bible: The Creation
  • Bible: Judith with marginal drawings (very faint)
  • Bible: Initial "O" for the Song of Songs, Solomon and Ecclesia
  • Bible: Marginal sketch of Solomon and Ecclesia
  • Bible: Initial "E" for Esdra II
  • Bible: Marginal sketch of Offering a ram
  • Bible: Initial "C" for II Chronicles, offering a ram with marginal sketch
  • Petrus Riga, "Aurora": Initial "P" and marginal drawing of grapes carried on a pole
  • Meditationes Vitae Christi: Christ teaching in the Temple
  • Meditationes Vitae Christi: Christ praying in the Temple with marginal drawing and a second marginal drawing of Christ teaching in the Temple
  • Aristotle, "Libri naturales": Initial "N" with Moses and the Brazen Serpent
  • Aristotle, "Libri naturales": Marginal sketch for Moses and the Brazen Serpent
  • Bestiary: Unfinished drawing of the capture of the unicorn
  • Alexander Romance: Miniature of Alexander on horseback with marginal drawing
  • Chroniques de France: King Louis before the reliquary of St Denis
  • Chroniques de France: Drawing for miniature of King Louis before the reliquary of St Denis
  • Meditationes Vitae Christi: Christ healing the Paralytic with marginal drawing
  • Pontifical: Initial "R" with bishop blessing a nun
  • Pontifical: Initial "O" with bishop blessing
  • Pontifical: Initial "O" with bishop blessing a vestment
  • Bible: The Prophet Ezra as Scribe
  • The Lindisfarne Gospels: St Matthew
  • Psalter: Psalm I
  • Psalter: Psalm I
  • Psalter: Marginal drawing below illustration for Psalm XV (16)
  • The Leofric Gospels: St Mark
  • The Lorsch Gospels: Christ in Majesty
  • The Gero Gospels: Christ in Majesty
  • The Leofric Gospels: St Mark
  • Gospels: St Mark
  • Tours Gospels: St Matthew
  • Breton Gospels: St Luke
  • Hrabanus Maurus, "De Laudibus Sanctae Crucis": The Presentation of the Book to Pope Gregory IV
  • Life of St Cuthbert: The ravens penitent before St Cuthbert
  • Single leaf with a figure and inhabited scroll
  • Astronomical Miscellany: Inner pastedown with added drawings
  • Prudentius, "Psychomachia": Patterns for ornament added on a fly-leaf
  • Gradual: Drawing of ornament
  • Drawings by Adémar de Chabannes of the Deposition, etc.
  • Life of St Cuthbert: Cuthbert playing as a boy rebuked by an Angel
  • Life of St Cuthbert: Cuthbert's vision of the death of Hadwald by falling from a tree
  • Life of St Cuthbert: the Scottish army attacking Lindisfarne
  • Life of St Cuthbert: St Cuthbert in a vision sees the soul of St Aidan received into Heaven
  • Life of St Amand: The death of St Amand
  • The Hornbach Sacramentary: The scribe Eburnant presents the book to Abbot Adalbert
  • The Hornbach Sacramentary: Abbot Adalbert presents the book to St Pirmin
  • The Hornbach Sacramentary: St Pirmin presents the book to St Peter
  • The Hornbach Sacramentary: St Peter presents the book to Christ
  • Pontifical: The Scribe Fridericus presents the book to Christian I, Archbishop of Mainz
  • Psalter: Initial "N"
  • Persius, Satires: Initial "N"
  • Passionary: Initial "R"
  • Bible: Initial "V"
  • Sacramentary: The stoning of St. Stephen
  • Psalter: Initial "B" and border
  • The Scribe Guntfridus presents the book to St Vaast
  • Alphabet Pattern Book: Intitials "A" to "D"
  • Bible: Initial "A" with Apocalyptic Christ
  • New Testament: Initial "A" with Apocalyptic Christ
  • Bible: Initial "Q" with the annunciation to Zacharias and the annunciation to the Virgin
  • Bible: Initial "A" with David and the Ark
  • Miscellaneous Texts: Drawings for Psalm initials, Samuel anoints David and David and Goliath
  • Christ and Zacchaeus
  • Pattern Book: Figure studies
  • The Rein Pattern Book: Bestiary subjects
  • Hugo de Folieto, "De rota verae religionis": Wheel of the Bad Monk
  • Hugo de Folieto, "De rota verae religionis": Wheel of the Bad Monk
  • Gratian, "Decretum": Inhabited Initial H
  • Eadwine Psalter: Psalm XIX (20)
  • Psalter: Psalm XIX (20)
  • Apocalypse: The third and fourth riders on the black and the pale horses
  • Apocalypse: The third and fourth riders on the black and the pale horses
  • Gilbert de la Porée, Commentary on Psalms: Initial "D" with Christ
  • Gilbert de la Porée, Commentary on Psalms: Initial "D" with Christ
  • Bestiary: Creation of Eve
  • Bestiary: Creation of Eve
  • Bestiary: The fiery stones
  • Bestiary: The fiery stones
  • Apocalypse: The second and third riders on the red and the black horses
  • Life of St Alban: The scourging of St Alban
  • Terence: Scene from the "Andria"
  • Chronicle: Pattern sheet with heads of the Virgin and Child and of Christ
  • Chronicle: Peasant threshing corn
  • Psalter: Calendar scene for September, Threshing Corn
  • Life of St Alban: Battle between pagans and Christians
  • Chronicle: Battle of Damietta
  • Lives of the Offas: Battle scene
  • Chronicle: Griffin falling from the Tower of London
  • Tartar warrior, detail
  • Villard d'Honnecourt's Pattern Book: Figure of Pride
  • Arthurian Romance: The siege perilous
  • Arthurian Romance: A joust
  • Arthurian Romance: Lancelot with the maiden in the forest
  • Mirror back with lovers on horseback
  • Arthurian Romance: Lancelot crowned by three women
  • Arthurian Romance: Lancelot kills Belyas the Black
  • Arthurian Romance: The Lady of Shalott
  • Arthurian Romance: The Lady of Shalott
  • Arthurian Romance: The Lady of Shalott
  • Somme le Roi: Moses receives the Ten Commandments
  • Somme le Roi: Moses receives the Ten Commandments
  • Somme le Roi: Moses receives the Ten Commandments
  • Somme le Roi: Moses receives the Ten Commandments
  • Somme le Roi: Moses receives the Ten Commandments
  • Somme le Roi: David and Goliath
  • Breviary: David and Goliath
  • Roman de la Rose: Copying and illuminating the folios of a manuscript
  • Choir book: Initial "S" with the Lamentation
  • The Lamentation
  • Virgin and the Writing Christ Child
  • Edward III and his family kneeling below the Adoration of the Magi
  • Life of the Black Prince: The Black Prince adoring the Trinity
  • Book of Hours: The Annunciation
  • The Annunciation
  • Book of Hours: The Virgin and Child on the Crescent Moon
  • Book of Hours: The Virgin and Child on the Crescent Moon
  • Alphabet Pattern Book: Initial "D"
  • Flyleaf with initial "V" and penwork initials
  • Flyleaf with initials "Y" and "Z" and penwork initials
  • Cutting with initial "A" (?) with Isaac and Esau
  • Book of Hours: The Annunciation
  • Book of Hours: The Annunciation
  • Pattern Book: St. Luke and the Annunciation
  • Book of Hours: The Annunciation
  • Book of Hours: King David in prayer
  • Single leaf with King David in prayer
  • Notitia Dignitatum: Coins
  • Notitia Dignitatum: The Province of Palestine
  • Notitia Dignitatum: The Province of Palestine
  • Apocalypse: The black and the pale horse
  • Frederick II, "Liber de Avibus": Figure swimming
  • Frederick II, "Liber de Avibus": Figure swimming
  • "Histoire ancienne jusqu'à Cèsar": The city of Troy
  • Histoire ancienne jusqu'à Cèsar: The city of Troy
  • Friedrich Schavard, "Collatio super urbis recommendatione": Seal of the city of Trier
  • Frontispiece to Petrarch's "Rime"
  • Frontispiece to Petrarch's "Rime"
  • The "Très Riches Heures" of Jean de Berry: The Presentation of Jesus in the Temple (fol. 54v)
  • The Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple
  • The Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple
  • The Presentation of Jesus in the Temple
  • Speculum Humanae Salvationis": The soldiers fall before Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane
  • The "Très Riches Heures" of Jean de Berry: The soldiers fall before Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane (fol. 142)
  • Cutting: The soldiers fall before Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane
  • "Belles Heures" of Jean de Berry: King David intercedes for the Plague to cease (fol. 66v)
  • Bartholomaeus Anglicus, "De Proprietatibus Rerum": God creating the World and the book presented to Charles V of France
  • René of Anjou, "Le Livre du Coeur d'Amour Epris": Cuer and Esperance at the hermit's chapel
  • Martial: Frontispiece
  • Hours of Frederick III of Aragon: The Deposition
  • Hours of Engelbert of Nassau: The Holy Family refused admittance at the Inn
Free
Description: Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
Table of Contents
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00081.001
Free
Description: Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
List of Abbreviations
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00081.002
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Description: Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
Photographic Acknowledgements
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00081.003
Free
Description: Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
This book is based on the James P.R. Lyell Lectures in Bibliography given at Oxford University Oxford University in the summer of 1983. The Electors, whom I must thank for the honour of their invitation, require the Reader to deliver five one hour lectures. I have kept the main subject divisions of the lectures as given, but I have tried to alter my spoken text to a more acceptable written version, without entirely losing the looser framework of the lecture format. I have also enlarged and …
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00081.004
Description: Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
This first Chapter aims to review the sources of information available to us concerning medieval illuminators as to their identity and the social context in which they worked. In later Chapters, I shall look at the internal evidence found in their products as to their working methods and the kinds of decisions they had to make; but here I am concerned with two types of external evidence. …
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.4-34
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00081.005

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Description: Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
In this Chapter, the surviving evidence as to the materials and the technical processes of medieval illuminators will be briefly reviewed as a prelude to asking some more general questions about the planning of the illustration and decoration of a medieval manuscript, and the instructions given to illuminators. …
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.35-51
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00081.006

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Description: Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
Turning now to look at factors which affected the planning of a programme of illumination or decoration, the patron’s wishes and the artist’s training and inclinations must have interrelated. Specific factors which will have affected the end product in varying degrees were the patron’s ability to pay, the kind of message he or she wished the work of art to convey, the artist’s training and ability to paint, the availability of materials, and the accessibility of models to copy. There were also …
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.52-71
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00081.007

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Description: Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
The importance of obedience to authority is one of the main messages of the Rule of St Benedict and, in the wider social context, a corollary of what Walter Ullmann called the descending theme of Government and Law – that is, authority imposed from on high. In this Chapter, I want to look at the illuminator’s function in the early Middle Ages from about 650 to about 1100, and to pose the question as to how far, in this early period, the task was seen as one of obedience to authority, in the …
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.72-94
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00081.008

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Description: Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
In this Chapter, I have chosen to consider the twelfth and thirteenth centuries together, in spite of the fact that this crosses the conventional stylistic division of Romanesque to Gothic illumination, usually placed around 1200. My reason is that this is, as we saw in Chapter 1, the transition period in which lay, professional illuminators begin to predominate over monastic craftspersons. …
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.95-120
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00081.009

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Description: Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
Already, early in the fourteenth century, we are made aware of a new situation for the book illuminator in relation to other practitioners of the pictorial arts. I refer to the development and spread of panel painting, a development which takes place in Italy especially and which, gathering momentum in the thirteenth century, becomes widespread throughout Europe in the fourteenth century. It may be that if larger amounts of wall painting survived from the earlier Middle Ages, more relationships …
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.121-149
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00081.010

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Description: Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
A selection of contracts for illuminators is reprinted here from older sources which are in most cases not very accessible. I have put them in date order. The last document (no. 8) is one of a number of contracts of apprenticeship included by Pansier in his book. In addition to the sources from which these contracts are taken, the following refer to, and in some cases print in full, contracts with scribes and/or illuminators: H.J. Hermann, ‘Zur Geschichte der Miniaturmalerei am Hofe der Este in …
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00081.011
Free
Description: Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
This is a list of examples compiled mainly from printed sources noted below, supplemented by my own observations or the notifications of colleagues. It does not represent any kind of systematic search either into specific collections or into published catalogues. The latter cannot be relied on to record such drawings in any case, and it is to be hoped that future cataloguers will notice them more consistently. Admirable in this respect are the catalogues by F. Avril, P. Stirnemann …
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00081.012
Description: Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
Bibliography
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00081.013

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Description: Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
Manuscript Index
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00081.014
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Description: Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
Subject Index
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00081.015
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Description: Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
Name Index
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00081.016
Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work
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