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William Granger Ryan
 
Ryan, William Granger
Ryan, William Granger
United States of America
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The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume II: From the Early Christian Era to the “Age of Discovery”, Part 1: From the Demonic Threat to the Incarnation of Sainthood
To anyone seeking information about the black, the reading of the Greek and Latin patristic writings, which span almost the entire imperial period, is quite as disappointing as research in the iconography of that time and culture. Explicit mention of persons of color is extremely rare and not very significant. The concept of the black hardly goes beyond that of skin coloration, which seems to be...
The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume II: From the Early Christian Era to the “Age of Discovery”, Part 1: From the Demonic Threat to the Incarnation of Sainthood
St. Maurice is a baffling personage. His historical existence is so doubtful that more than once the legitimacy of his cult has been vigorously contested ...
Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume II: From the Early Christian Era to...
The second half of the eleventh century was a period during which the types of relations that had existed between western Europe and the Mediterranean and Eastern world were profoundly modified. The peoples of the West had lived in a closed economy. They had been sure of being right in religion and culture, in the midst of a world awash in error. All this gave way to a prolonged phase of...
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The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume II: From the Early Christian Era to the “Age of Discovery”, Part 1: From the Demonic Threat to the Incarnation of Sainthood
The civilization of western Europe, like that of Byzantium and Islam, is at least in part a heritage from antiquity, but between the fifth and the ninth centuries Europe did not put this inheritance to use in the same way its neighbors did. As we shall see, differences in the total historical situation explain in large measure the wide range of attitudes with regard to the problems we are about to...
The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume II: From the Early Christian Era to the “Age of Discovery,” Part 2: Africans in the Christian Ordinance of the World
Africa and the Africans have not, until very recently, been in the forefront of Western man’s concerns. The study which is here brought to a close—incomplete as it still is—has revealed neither a real interest in the black world and its cultures nor an effort to capitalize on the knowledge gained of that world. One must look to reasons other than Africa’s existence as a...
The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume II: From the Early Christian Era to the “Age of Discovery,” Part 2: Africans in the Christian Ordinance of the World
The last quarter of the fifteenth century witnessed a fresh outbreak of representations of Africans. From then on the black is really “seen” and “translated” in various ways. This variety reflects the contradictions in which Europe was living. Except for the highly localized example of St. Maurice, the most traditional theme and the one most closely connected with the...
The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume II: From the Early Christian Era to the “Age of Discovery,” Part 2: Africans in the Christian Ordinance of the World
The second half of the fifteenth century saw the world change in several ways. Some of these changes were spectacular; others, deeper though less visible, foreshadowed economic, social, and political upheavals whose aftershock would be felt clear into the twentieth century. European relations with Africa and Africans became closer and more complex than anything known in the previous ten centuries....
The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume II: From the Early Christian Era to the “Age of Discovery,” Part 2: Africans in the Christian Ordinance of the World
The development of the image of the black in nonimperial Europe differed from the evolution we have so far studied. We have seen that in the empire the image developed mainly within the confines of heraldry and typology. The rest of Europe was traversed by two conflicting currents—the one traditional, with its stereotypes, the other realistic, with its concrete images derived from contact...
The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume II: From the Early Christian Era to the “Age of Discovery,” Part 2: Africans in the Christian Ordinance of the World
The first part of this volume devoted a good deal of attention to the imperial areas of Europe, a procedure dictated by the iconographic evidences found both in the Carolingian sphere and in the Germanic Empire that followed. We have seen that a wealth of themes and myths grew up around the color black, the Aethiops, Prester John, the Queen of Sheba, and the Magi, and we followed the emergence and...
The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume I: From the Pharaohs to the Fall of the Roman Empire
The Saïtic, or Twenty-sixth, Dynasty (664–525 B.C.) marked the opening of the Nile Valley to the Mediterranean world and to Greek influence; but as compared with what is conventionally called “classical civilization,” Egypt presented a strikingly different culture ...
The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume I: From the Pharaohs to the Fall of the Roman Empire
It is quite clear that the classical world came to know the blacks by way of the Nile Valley: the evidence set forth in the preceding chapters is abundant proof of this. We cannot, however, reject a priori, from the mere fact of its geographical location, the possibility that Punic (later Roman) Africa may have had direct knowledge of the black world, knowledge which in the course of time could...
The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume I: From the Pharaohs to the Fall of the Roman Empire
A vigorous civilization developed in the Upper Nile Valley, south of Egypt, at the end of the third millennium and through the first half of the second. This was Kerma, and for us it is still very much a mystery. Most likely it is...
Description: The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume I: From the Pharaohs to the Fall of...
Egypt’s geographical location in the Lower Nile Valley gives her a privileged position in Africa. From the earliest times, even before the climate changed to what it is at present, the valley of the longest river on earth has been a route of communication between the subtropical and equatorial world south of the Sahara—in other words, the black world—and the Mediterranean basin,...
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