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Description: Frederic Church: The Art and Science of Detail
Index
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00051.013
Index
A
Abstract Expressionism, 11, 173
Adams, John, 78–80
Agassiz, Louis, 61, 102–3, 111, 202–2, 210n34
Albion (newspaper), 115
allegory, 11, 123, 126–29
Alps, 45
American West, 45
The Andes of Ecuador (Church), 15, 45–51, 46
comparisons to, 51, 123, 155, 162
composition of, 48–49
details in, 1, 72
details of, 44, 47 48, 49, 50
interpretations of, 48–49
light in, 46–48, 50, 114
reception of, 7
religious aspects of, 48–50
anthropomorphism, 104, 116, 156
antiquarian history, 32, 34
Arasse, Daniel, 3, 6, 14, 19, 106, 195n24, 195n26
Arctic Circle, 70, 87, 91–92, 96, 102, 107–8
Aristotle, 121
Artforum (magazine), 185
art history: methodology of, 17–18, 221–25
task of, 6
as translation, 18
Atlantic Monthly (magazine), 73, 74, 75
A.T. Stewart’s department stores, 76–77, 77
Avery, Kevin, 10
B
Bachelard, Gaston, 68, 160
Badeau, Adam, 31, 73–74
Bal, Mieke, 194n18
Barnum, P.T., 83, 208n68
Barringer, Tim, 143
Barthes, Roland, 71–73, 100, 121, 206n25
Baudelaire, Charles, 5
Beecher, Henry Ward, 62–63, 78, 202n2
Beer, Gillian, 51
Beer, S., “Rainy Season in the Tropics” on View in Frederic Church’s Tenth Street Studio, 139, 139
Bell, Tiffany, 187, 221n19
Bethune, George Washington, 204n45
Bezanson, Walter E., 159
Bierstadt, Albert, 45, 197n59, 202n2
The Rocky Mountains, Lander’s Peak, 8
Bigelow, John, Jamaica in 1850, 141–42, 214n46
Billings, Frederick, 179–80, 219n75
Billings, Julia Parmly, 179–80, 219n75
Bishop, Elizabeth, 19, 116
Blanchot, Maurice, 104
Bloch, Ernst, 121
Blodgett, William T., 82, 202n2
the body, 155, 174
Boston Transcript (newspaper), 99
Brown, Bill, 206n43
Brownell, Charles DeWolf, 136–38
Browning, Robert, 13, 40, 201n47
Bryant, William M., 54, 130
Philosophy of Landscape Painting, 203n22
Burckhardt, Johann Ludwig, 148
Burke, Edmund, 29–30
Bushnell, Horace, 62, 204n46
C
Cabot, J. Eliot, 59
Cao, Maggie M., 194n11
Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da, The Incredulity of St. Thomas, 144, 145
Carlyle, Thomas, 140
Carr, Gerald, 10, 95, 96, 165–66, 209n13, 211n1, 213n36
Cast Iron Palace, 76, 77, 207n48
Castronovo, Russ, 32
Central Congregational Church, Hartford, Connecticut, 62
Central Park, New York City, 172–75, 181
Central Park Commission, 173, 218n28
Chambers, Robert, Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, 62
Chicago Sunday Times (newspaper), 156
Christ, Carol, 12–13, 14, 17
Christian Examiner (newspaper), 101, 103
Christian Intelligencer (newspaper), 170, 173
Church, Emma Frances, 126, 134
Church, Frederic Edwin: birth and training of, 7
Central Park Commission membership, 173, 218n28
children of, 126, 134, 178
death of, 1, 196n50, 216n53
exhibition practices of, 155–56, 190
health of, 42, 43, 147
influences on, 14, 197n69
library of, 45, 54, 175, 203n22, 203n26, 204n46, 209n8
pupils of, 59
religiousness of, 48, 54, 62
scholarship on, 10–11, 196n53
and science, 1819, 51, 54, 92
travels of, 7–8, 45, 87, 91, 96, 123, 126, 128, 133–34, 147, 168, 213n26. See also Church, Frederic Edwin, works by
Church, Frederic Edwin, works by: The Aegean Sea, 158–59, 158
The After Glow, 211n1
Andean Snow Peak, 208n63
Arch from an Aqueduct, Cuernavaca, 162, 163
Cotopaxi, 72, 72, 123
El Khazneh, Studies of Architectural Details, Petra, Jordan, 153, 154
Evening in the Tropics, 164 (detail), 179–80, 181, 219n75
Fern Walk, Jamaica, 128
Final Study for the Icebergs, 119, 119
Floating Iceberg, 87
Horseshoe Falls, 24, 25
Iceberg and Steamship, 193, 193
The Iceberg (c. 1875), 184 (detail), 191, 191–92
The Iceberg (1891), 192–93, 192
Icebergs and Wreck in Sunset, 118–19
ideological interpretation of, 10–11
Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives, 150–51, 150
To the Memory of Cole, 126–28, 127, 144, 212n6
Moonrise in Greece, 15 8
Niagara Falls, from the American Side, 33, 76
Our Banner in the Sky, 93–94, 94;
The Parthenon, 158
Rainy Season in the Tropics, 72, 138, 139–40, 139, 213n36
reception of, 1, 4, 7, 9–11, 41, 147, 195n33, 196n50, 199n18, 214n2
Sketches for Stencil Borders, Olana, 167;
Sketch of Trees for “The Heart of the Andes” 178, 178
Southwest Façade, Olana, 167
Study for “The Heart of the Andes,” 58
Sunset, Jamaica, 186, 186;
Syria by the Sea, 153, 155
Tropical Vines and Trees, Jamaica, 134, 135, 136 (detail)
Twilight in the Wilderness, 93–94, 93, 209n16
Valley of the Santa Ysabel, 165, 166
A View in Cuernavaca, Mexico, 161–63, 161, 216n53
Winter Twilight from Olana, 186, 186. See also The Andes of Ecuador; El Khasné, Petra; The Heart of the Andes; The Icebergs; Niagara; Olana; Vale of St. Thomas, Jamaica
Church, Frederic Joseph, Plan of Olana, 168, 168
Church, Herbert Edwin, 126, 134
Church, Isabel, 126, 133–34, 147, 165 169, 178, 216n1, 219n75
citizenship, 31–32, 35
Civil War, 87, 93–95, 134, 140
class, 15, 41. See also high and low culture; middle class
Cole, Theodore, 167, 178
Cole, Thomas: artistic philosophy of, 30, 199n12
“The Burial Ground at Catskill,” 127
Church and, 7, 167
The Cross and the World, 127
The Cross in the Wilderness, 127
dead trees and stumps in paintings of, 25, 126
Distant View of Niagara Falls, 35–37, 37, 38 (detail)
in Durand’s Kindred Spirits, 130–31
environmental concerns of, 176, 198n2
grottoes in work of, 112–13
Landscape Composition, St. John in the Wilderness, 119, 120
on landscape painting, 11, 46, 49–50
“Notes on Art,” 30
painted tributes to, 126–28, 127, 130–31
and the sublime, 72
The Subsiding of the Waters of the Deluge, 112–13, 113
The Voyage of Life: Youth, 115, 115
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, 91
Collingwood, W.G., 13
colonialism, 131–34, 140–43
Colt, Elizabeth Hart Jarvis, 143, 145, 214n54
Colt, Samuel, 143, 214n54
Conron, John, 170–72
consumer culture, 15, 66, 74, 76–78, 207n46
Continental Monthly (magazine), 80
Copley, John Singleton, 195n32
Corn, Wanda, 18
Cosy Cottage, Hudson, NY, 170
Crary, Jonathan, 84
Crayon (journal), 59, 73
critical history, 32
Cropsey, Jasper, 187
culture. See high and low culture
culture of detail, 14
Cuyler, Theodore, 63, 95, 97
D
Dana, Charles Anderson, 201n0
D. Appleton and Company, 103
Darwin, Charles, 45, 140, 175
Church and, 7, 19, 54–55, 203n26
The Descent of Man, 57
detail in works of, 19, 51, 54–55, 106–7
and evolution, 63
and God, 139, 183, 220n85
influences on, 54, 203n25;
on nature, 61, 102, 138–39
The Origin of Species, 15, 19, 51, 54, 62, 84, 87, 102–3, 183, 198n79
world view associated with, 15”, 54, 117, 136, 176–77, 203n23
Darwin, Emma, 183, 22on85
Daston, Lorraine, 13
Davis, John, 11, 47, 151, 152, 214n2, 215n21
death: Arctic Circle and, 105
Church’s, 1, 196n50, 216n53
of Church’s children, 126, 134
of Cole, 126–27, 127
Cole’s The Subsiding of the Waters of the Deluge and, 113
El Khasné, Petra and, 156
The Icebergs and, 108, 113, 121, 156
Icebergs and Wreck in Sunset and, 119
Jamaica and, 140
in nature, 177 (see also struggle for existence)
decadence, 79, 80
decay, 134
De Forest, Robert and Emily, Court Hall and Stair Hall, Olana, 168, 169
DeLue, Rachael, 18, 26
Dennis, Robert N., A.T. Stewart’s Building and Grace Church, New York City, 77
department stores, 15 76–77, 77, 207n46
detail: and absence, 123
analytical approaches to, 3–6
of an art work, 3, 19
art work functioning as, 160
commodity exchange as context for, 15
culture of detail, 13–14
Darwin and, 19, 51, 54–55, 106–7
digressive, 106
etymology of, 67–68
function of, in landscape painting, 3–4
generality in relation to, 1–2
historiography and, 34–35
knowledge in relation to, 67–68, 70, 183
meanings of, 2–3
in Melville’s Moby Dick, 7
negative attitudes toward, 1, 4–6, 30, 45
the picturesque and, 129
representation and, 160
science associated with, 4
significance/insignificance of, 14, 71–73, 85, 121, 193, 206n25
subordination of, to overall effect, 3, 45–46, 4850, 72, 182
unification of, 3, 21, 29–30, 46, £9
visual process based on, 2–3
Dia Art Foundation, 186–87, 190
Dia: Beacon, 190, 221n21
Dickens, Charles, 140
Didi-Huberman, Georges, 3, 67–68, 98, 100, 121, 160, 182, 219n81
Dodge, D. Stuart, 147
Dolnier, Kurt, Sitting Room, with “El Khasné, Petra” over the Fireplace, 165, 166
Downing, Andrew Jackson, 172
Durand, Asher B., Kindred Spirits, 129–31, 130, 133
Durand, John, 59
Dürer, Albrecht, 56
Dyer, Richard, 216n41
E
Eakins, Thomas, 187
earth art, 175, 181
“effect,” 3, 30
ekphrasis, 18, 66, 100, 121, 205n16
El Khasné, Petra (Church), 16, 146, 147–63
Church’s display of, 165–66, 166, 216n1
composition of, 147, 150, 160
description of, 148–49, 151, 154–55
details of, 149, 152
exhibition of, 217n1
interpretations of, 1, 152–53, 156–58, 161, 182
reception of, 156–57
tensions in, 149, 160, 215n21
verticality of, 147, 155
viewer’s experience of, 151–55
Eisner, Jaś, 18
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 4, 74
eroticism, 73, 80–81, 111
erratic boulders, 111–12
evolution, 62, 63, 103, 143
Eyre, Edward John, 140
F
faith. See religion and faith
Field, Cyrus, 45, 202n2
Fillmore, Millard, 201n40
finish, 8
Fisher, Alvan, The Great Horseshoe Fall, Niagara, 28, 28
Flavin, Dan, 17, 185–87, 189–90, 220n7, 221n19, 221n20, 221n21
untitled (to the “innovator” of Wheeling Peachblow), 187, 188
forgetting, 32, 35, 200n23
Forrest, William, 40, 92
Foster, Hal, 190
Fowler, Alexander, 147
Francis Lehman Loeb Art Center, Vassar College, 221n21
Franklin, John, 87, 91, 107–8
Friedrich, Caspar David: The Polar Sea, 117, 117, 119
Wanderer Above a Sea of Fog, 25–26, 27
Frost, Robert, 118
Froude, James Anthony, 142
G
Galison, Peter, 13
Gardner, Albert Ten Eyck, 8–9, 17, 196n42
Gaudio, Michael, 10
geography, 34–35
Gififord, Sanford, 187
Gilmore, Michael, 118
God: Darwin and, 139, 183, 220n85
nature in relation to, 50, 61–62, 116, 139
in the wilderness, 119
Gombrich, Ernst, 195n22
Gottschalk, Louis Moreau, 82
Gould, Stephen Jay, 51
Goupil & Co., 77
Our Banner in the Sky (after Church), 94
Grace Church, New York City, 77, 77
Graham, Dan, 187
great flood theory, 111
Great Ice Age, 102. See also ice age theory
Great Pictures, 7, 190, 195n32
Greenberg, Clement, 83, 175, 190
Grey, Asa, 203n26
grottoes, 111–13
H
Hake will, James, 131
Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, 30
Harvey, Eleanor Jones, 8, 10, 94, 209n18, 215n29
Hayes, Isaac, 92, 111
Heade, Martin Johnson, 166, 187, 197n59
The Heart of the Andes (Church), 5, 15–16, 51–63, 52–53, 6585
on Art in America cover, 11, 12
comparisons to, 51, 55, 57, 80, 93, 123, 144, 156, 162
creation of, 7–8
as Darwinian painting, 51, 54–55
description of, 46–49, 55–56, 70–71
details in, 1, 2, 4, 11, 15, 58–59, 63, 66–67, 69–72, 75, 121, 134, 140
details of, xii, 55, 56, 57, 60, 61, 64, 84
exhibition of, 15, 65–66, 65, 77, 78–80, 79, 83, 92, 93–95, 95, 204n1, 205n3, 2o5n4, 209n13
interpretations of, 48–49, 51, 62–63, 67–68, 73, 78–80, 102
light in, 46–50
materialism/possessiveness evoked by, 73, 76–78
music inspired by, 65, 81–82, 81, 208n63
and national identity, 78–80
purchase of, 77
and real-ideal relationship, 83
reception of, 8–9, 15, 59, 62–63, 65, 174
religious aspects of, 48–50, 55–56, 62–63
reproductions of, 40, 92
size of, 83, 93
sketches for, 58, 58, 178
tensions in, 59, 70–71 206n26
viewer’s experience of, 54, 63, 65–69, 83–84, 174, 208n69
writings on, 15, 65–71
Heidegger, Martin, 200n23
Heizer, Michael, Levitated Mass, 190
Henslow, J. S., 54
Herschel, J. F. W., Introduction to the Study of Natural Philosophy, 203n25
high and low culture, 40–41, 201n50
Hills, Granville, House and Park from Across the Lake, Olana, 171
historical memory, 34–37
historiography: antiquarian, 32, 34
critical, 32
monumental, 15, 32
nineteenth-century popular, 34–35
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 84–85
Holt, Thomas, 132
Holy Land, 147–48, 159
The Home Book of the Picturesque, 129, 172
Hopkins, Gerard Manley, 13
horizontality, 27, 80
Hovenkamp, Herbert, 62
Howat, John, 10
Hudson River School, 179, 187, 190
Humboldt, Alexander von, 7, 13, 15, 19, 45–46, 48, 51, 54–55, 61, 178, 203n15
Cosmos, 45
Hunt, Richard Morris, 167, 170
Huntington, David, 10, 14, 161, 171, 177, 185, 196n53, 208n69, 212n5
I
ice age theory, 111, 210n34. See also Great Ice Age
The Icebergs (Church), 5, 16, 87–121, 88–89
broadside for, 96–100, 97, 103, 105, 108, 110, 113–14, 116, 121
comparisons to, 93, 114–15, 156
description of, 90
details in, 120–21
details of, 86, 106, 107, 110, 114
exhibition of, 87, 93–96, 95, 97–98, 208n68, 209n13
interpretations of, 1, 99–100, 102, 105–8, 111, 113–21, 211n56
and knowledge, 117–18, 121
and national identity, 87, 93–95
Noble’s After Icebergs with a Painter and, 100–105
original version of, 87, 90, 93–103
and problems of representation, 87
reception of, 90, 209n20
religious aspects of, 90–91, 119
revision of, 105
size of, 93
sketches for, 118–19
viewer’s experience of, 96–99, 109–16, 121
writings on, 99–100
imitation, 40
Impressionism, 17
information, 2, 13
Inness, George, 5, 8
Irving, Washington, 59
J
Jamaica, 16, 131–34, 140–43
Jamaica Committee, 140
James, Henry, 9–10, 28–29, 40–41, 73, 165, 190
Jarves, James Jackson, 8, 29, 30, 41, 46, 74
Jefferson, Thomas, 78–80
Jordan, Guy, 206n26
K
Kammen, Michael, 35
Kane, Elisha Kent, 91–92
Kant, Immanuel, 13
Kelly, Franklin, 10, 194n13, 196n53
Kelly, Lawrence, 203n28
Kensett, John Frederick, 187, 197n59, 201n40
Eaton’s Neck, Long Island, 188
Key to “Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives,” 150–51, 151
Khazneh, Petra, 147–63, 215n5, 215n8
Kidd, Joseph Bartholomew, 131–33, 142, 213n23
“Belle Vue, Residence near Kingston, Stoney Hill in the Distance,” 133–34, 133, 142
“Montego Bay from Upton Hill,” 132–33, 132, 142
“Stewart Castle Estate,” 132–33, 132
Kierkegaard, Søren, 32
knowledge: The Icebergs and, 117–18, 121
information in relation to, 2, 13
Melville’s Moby Dick and, 118
role of detail in, 67–68, 70, 183
things and, 74–75
Koerner, Joseph Leo, 198n78
Kornhauser, Elizabeth, 126, 211n4, 212n5
Kriz, Kay Dian, 134
Kuspit, Donald, 191
L
labor, 8
Labrador, 87
landscape architecture, 166–67
landscape gardening, 168–69, 172
landscape painting: composition of, 3–4, 25, 58
plantations as subject of, 131–34
reproductions responsible for decline of, 41
as tonic for modern life, 73
traditional features of, 3–4, 16, 25, 49, 56, 147, 153, 161–63. See also The Andes of Ecuador; El Khasné, Petra; The Heart of the Andes; The Icebergs; Niagara; Vale of St. Thomas, Jamaica; Church, Frederic Edwin, works by; detail
Landseer, Edwin, Man Proposes, God Disposes, 116, 116
Lane, Fitz H., 197n59
Lears, Jackson, 76
Lee, Robert E., 134
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 13
Leja, Michael, 194n17
Levine, Lawrence, 40–41, 201n50
Life (magazine), 185, 185
Lincoln, Abraham, 134
Lindquist-Cock, Elizabeth, 208n69
London Times (newspaper), 59
Lord & Taylor department store, 76–77
Lorrain, Claude, 3, 25, 58, 162, 180
Lossing, Benson J., Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution, 34–35, 36
Lowenthal, David, 175
Lubin, David M., 207n46
luxury, 72–73, 79, 80
Lyell, Charles, 111
Principles of Geology, 62
M
MacLeod, William, 42
Macy’s department store, 76
Manet, Edouard, 17
Manthorne, Katherine, 10, 194n11
Marble Dry-Goods Palace, 76
Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 179
Marsh, George Perkins, Man and Nature, 175–79, 218n47
materialism: artistic, 191
sociocultural, 73–75
Maury, Matthew, 91, 209n8
McKinsey, Elizabeth, 201n52
Melville, Herman, 123, 163, 216n52
Clarel, 16, 159–61
Moby Dick, 6–7, 108–9, 117–18, 159
Pierre, 159
memory: national or collective, 21, 34–35
pastiche and, 158
the picturesque and, 129. See also forgetting
metaphor, in writing about art, 16, 69, 96, 100, 103–5, 107
Metropolitan Sanitary Fair, New York City, 78
middle class, 41, 198n4
Mill, John Stuart, 140
Miller, Angela, 10–11, 191, 197n55, 207n46, 209n16
Miller, David, 117, 180
Mitchell, W.J.T, 11, 131
modernism, 17, 83, 175, 190, 211n56
monumental history, 15, 32
Moran, Thomas, 197n59
Morant Bay Rebellion, 140–41, 143
Morse, Samuel F. B., 168–69, 172
music, 81–82
Muybridge, Eadweard, Watchtower, Panama, 163, 163
N
National Academy of Design, 7, 155–56
nation and nationalism: Arctic exploration and, 108
Church’s works and, 10, 14
The Heart of the Andes and, 78–80
historiography and, 34–35
The Icebergs and, 87, 93–95
Niagara and, 30–33, 35, 93
Niagara Falls as symbol of, 30–31
Native Americans, 35–37
nature: concepts of, 59–61
Darwin’s view of, 61, 102, 138–39
God in relation to, 50, 61–62, 116, 139
humanity’s relationship to, 175–79
in The Icebergs, 116
as a living system, 175–78
strife in, 176–77, 183 (see also struggle for existence)
in Vale of St. Thomas, Jamaica, 138
Nemerov, Alexander, 18
Newfoundland, 87
Newton, Richard, 63
New-York Daily Tribune (newspaper), 90, 105
New York Herald (newspaper), 141, 156
New York World (newspaper), 90, 99, 155–56
Niagara (Church), 15, 21–43, 22–23
comparisons to, 57, 80, 114–15
composition of, 21, 25, 29
creation of, 39
description of, 21
details in, 1, 30
details of, 20, 24, 26, 29
earnings for, 42
exhibition of, 39–40
interpretations of, 24–25, 27, 102
and national identity, 30–33, 35, 93
and real-ideal relationship, 83
reception of, 21, 29, 30, 39–40
repainting of, 42–43, 201n55
reproductions of, 39, 39, 42, 43, 200n40
tensions in, 24–25, 30
viewer’s experience of, 24, 25–26, 30, 98
Niagara Falls: accessibility of, 200n36
as national symbol, 30–31
visitors’ experience of, 26–29, 38
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 32, 34, 46. See also antiquarian history; critical history; monumental history
Noble, Louis Legrand, 8, 15, 68–71, 73, 92–93, 107, 156, 202n2
After Icebergs with a Painter, 96, 100–105, 101, 103
North Congregational Church, Hartford, Connecticut, 62
Northwest Passage, 91, 107–8
Novak, Barbara, 10, 11, 194n11, 194n13, 197n58, 197n59
O
objectivity, 13
O’Brien, Karen, 131
Offergeld, Robert, 81
Olana, 16, 165–83,169, 170
house design for, 1, 165, 166, 167–69, 167, 182, 217n9
lake of, 171, 171, 178–79
landscape design of, 1, 165–71, 173, 175–81
library in, 45
origin of name, 165–66
plan of, 168, 168
preservation of, 10, 185–86, 185
roads of, 169–71
site/property for, 167, 177–79, 204n45, 217n9;
visitors’ experience of, 167, 169–72, 174–75
Oldenburg, Claes, Proposed Colossal Monument for Central Park, N. Y. C.-Moving Pool Balls, 189, 189
Olmsted, Frederick Law, 17, 167, 172–75, 181
Olney, Charles, 43, 182, 219n81
onomatopoeia, 21
opera glasses, 65, 67, 72, 73, 83, 150–51, 175, 205n4, 208n69
Oppenheim, Dennis, 190
originality, 40
Osborn, William, 45, 202n2
P
paint application, 4–5, 8, 47, 55, 110, 162, 180
Palmer, Erastus Dow, 42, 150, 167, 170, 179
panoramic mode, 198n4
pastiche, 158, 216n41
pathetic fallacy, 99
Petra, Jordan, 147–48, 152, 215n4
Pfitzer, Gregory, 34
Phillips, Adam, 106–7, 116
the picturesque, 16–17
Central Park and, 174–75
characteristics of, 129, 131
Olana and, 168–75
pedagogical function of, 130–31, 174
plantations and, 131–33
representation and, 172
Ruskin on, 136
Smithson on, 174–75
Tropical Vines and Trees, Jamaica and, 136
in United States, 129, 172–73, 212n15
Vale of St. Thomas, Jamaica and, 129, 133–34
Picturesque America, 172
place, 34–35
plantations, 131–34, 141–43
polar sea, 91–92, 111
Pollock, Jackson, 11
Porter, J. L., Handbook for Travellers in Syria and Palestine, 152–54, 157
possession, 73, 77–78, 131
post-structuralism, 100
Pre-Raphaelites, 74
Price, Martin, 172
Price, Uvedale, 129, 131, 172, 175
Protestantism, 62
Psycho (film), 185
Puritan ethics, 74–75
R
race, 82, 131–33, 143, 201n50
realism: aims of, 83
in novels, 5
scientific, 17, 55, 59
religion and faith: The Andes of Ecuador and, 48–50
Church and, 48, 54, 62
The Heart of the Andes and, 48–50, 55–56, 62–63
The Icebergs and, 90–91, 119
Melville’s Clarel and, 159
To the Memory of Cole and, 126
questions and doubts concerning, 16, 144–45
science in relation to, 15, 62
Vale of St. Thomas, Jamaica and, 212n5. See also God
repoussoir object, 4, 25, 49, 56
representation: changes in modes of, 2
the picturesque aesthetic and, 172
problems of, 87
role of detail in, 160
traditional character of Church’s mode of, 17
repression, 32–33
reproductions, of art works, 39–42, 200n40, 201n54
Reynolds, Joshua, 14, 30, 32, 34, 35, 45–46, 199n12
Richards, Thomas, 13, 14, 207n49
Richardt, (Joachim) Ferdinand, Niagara, 28, 28
Robbins, Horace Wolcott, 133, 134, 213n27
Roberts, Jennifer, 18, 190, 219n69
Robertson, George, 131
Robinson, Michael, 108
Romanticism, 13, 17, 117
Ruskin, John, 14, 59, 69, 73, 74, 99, 136, 140, 197n69, 205n16
Russell’s Magazine, 63
Ryan, James, 169
S
Sachs, Aaron, 203n15
Samuels, Maurice, 34
Schama, Simon, 128
Schor, Naomi, 2, 6, 7, 9, 19, 71, 196n44, 206n25
science: Church and, 18–19, 51, 54, 92
religion in relation to, 15, 62
Scientific American (magazine), 8
scientific realism, 17, 55, 59
Scully, Vincent, 173
Sendak, Maurice, 168
Sheldon, G.W., 4
Shelley, Mary, Frankenstein, 91
signature, artist’s, 56–57, 106, 107
Simon, Janice, 59–60, 73
sketches and studies: Andes paintings composed from, 46
Church’s working habits concerning, 215n29
current location of, 220n7
for The Heart of the Andes, 58, 58, 178, 178
Humboldt on, 46
for The Icebergs, 118–19
for Niagara, 24–25, 39
at Olana, 187
in Petra, 150, 153
of the tropics, 128
slavery, 131–32, 140, 142, 143, 214n46
Smithson, Robert, 17, 174–75, 181–82, 190–91
The Broken Circle, 181
Spiral Hill, 181
The Spiral Jetty, 181
Snow, Edward, 198n78
Soby, James Thrall, 173
Sontag, Susan, 85
the South, 78–80, 82
Southern Literary Messenger (magazine), 77
speculative painting, 105
Spencer, Herbert, 140
The Spirit of the Times (newspaper), 77
Stepan, Nancy Leys, 202n5
stereoscopes and stereographs, 83–85, 208n69
Stewart, Alexander Turney, 76
Stillman, William James, 8, 59
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 74
Strabo, 165
Strong, George Templeton, 69
structuralism, 100
struggle for existence, 51, 54, 85, 136–38, 176–77, 183, 203n23
studies. See sketches and studies
sublime, 16, 29–30, 35, 41, 72, 136, 139
Sweeney, J. Gray, 212n6
T
Taylor, Bayard, 202n2, 203n16
Taylor, Edward, 31
Tennyson, Alfred, 13
Tenth Street Studio, 65, 77, 105, 139, 213n27
things, 74–75
Thirteenth Amendment, 142, 143
Thomas the Apostle, Saint, 144
Thoreau, Henry David, 1, 4, 54, 75, 107–8, 171, 175, 182, 183, 203n23
time, concepts of, 117
transcendence, 32
Traveller’s Club, 202n2
trees: in The Heart of the Andes, 56
in landscape painting tradition, 25
in Niagara, 24–25
at Olana, 177–79
tropics and the tropical: American identity and, 79–80
Church on, 58–59, 136–38
Humboldt and, 45, 54, 202n5
ice age theory and, 102
negative attitudes toward, 82, 131
the polar in relation to, 92–93
Trumbull, John, Niagara Falls from Below the Great Cascade on the British Side, 28, 28
tube, for viewing pictures, 200n25. See also opera glasses
Tuckerman, Henry, 4, 40, 128, 200n25
Turner, J. M.W, 14, 27, 197n69
Twain, Mark, 15, 66–68, 73, 75, 78, 90, 174
U
unification: aesthetic sense of, 3, 21, 29–30, 42, 46, 59, 182
cultural/political sense of, 21, 30–35
Union Patriotic Fund, 95
United States: and Jamaica, 141–43
the picturesque in, 129, 172–73, 212n15
and slavery, 142
slavery in, 214n46. See also Civil War; nation and nationalism
universal, in relation to the particular, 11–13
V
Vale of St. Thomas, Jamaica (Church), 16, 123–45, 124–25
absence as characteristic of, 123, 126–29, 133, 139, 141, 143–45
and allegory, 123, 128–29
commission for, 143
comparisons to, 149
composition of, 133
description of, 123
details in, 123, 128, 131, 134, 140
details of, 122, 126, 137
interpretations of, 1, 123, 126, 128–29, 139, 143–45
nature in, 138
and the picturesque, 129–30
religious aspects of, 212n5
Vaux, Calvert, 167, 172–73, 181
Vendler, Helen, 216n52
verticality, 27, 80, 116, 152, 155
Victorian poetry, 13
vision and viewer’s experience, 65–69
art-viewer relationship and, 83
Cole’s Distant View of Niagara Falls and, 35–37
in consumer culture, 76, 77
detail and, 85
El Khasné, Petra and, 151–55
The Heart of the Andes and, 54, 63, 83–84, 174, 208n69 (see also opera glasses)
The Icebergs and, 96–99, 109–16, 121
limits of, 26, 30
Niagara and, 24, 25–26, 30, 98
Olana and, 167, 169–72, 174–75
the picturesque and, 129–31
tube for viewing pictures, 200n25
A View in Cuernavaca, Mexico and, 162–63
W
Wallace, Alfred Russel, 203n26
Wallach, Alan, 198n4
Wanamaker’s department store, 207n48
Warner, Charles Dudley, 167, 216n53
Warner, Mrs. Charles Dudley, 216n53
Warren, George William, 65, 81–82
Washington, George, 78–80
Watson, Tim, 143
wedding presents, art reproductions as, 41
Whitman, Nicholas: South Façade of Olana, 168, 169
View South through the Bell Tower at Olana, 170
whiteness, 117–18
Whitman, Walt, 74–75, 78, 80–81
Williams, Stevens, Williams and Company, 39, 77
Wilmerding, John, 10
Winthrop, Theodore, 15, 49, 68–69, 80
Wolf, Bryan, 11, 18, 48
Wölfflin, Heinrich, 195n22
Woloch, Alex, 5, 153
word-painting, 70
Wright, Joseph, of Derby, 163
Grotto by the Seaside in the Kingdom of Naples with Banditti, Sunset, 112, 112;
A Grotto in the Gulf of Salerno, Sunset, 112, 112