List of illustrations

  • The Virgin Mary cared for by her parents; Homilies of James Kokkinobaphos, fol. 46v
  • The Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple
  • Pendant with Aphrodite arranging her hair
  • Women picking grapes and harvesting grain; Octateuch, fol. 203r
  • Icon of the Annunciation
  • The personification of Ktisis (Foundation); mosaic floor fragment
  • Personifications of Nike (Victory) and the Tyche (Fortune) of the city of Nikomedeia surround the winning charioteer, Porphyrios; base of a stele from the Hippodrome of Constantinople
  • Crowds venerate figures of Aphrodite, above, and Artemis, below; Homilies of Gregory the Theologian; fol. 164r
  • Statuette of a City Tyche
  • Follis with Bust of Roma, mint of Trier
  • Follis with Bust of Constantinopolis, mint of Constantinople
  • Solidus of Constantius II with Roma and Constantinopolis, mint of Arles
  • Solidus of Valentinian II with Seated Constantinopolis, mint of Constantinople
  • Solidus of Theodosios II with Seated Constantinopolis, mint of Constantinople
  • Solidus of Pulcheria with Seated Constantinopolis from mint of Constantinople
  • Ring with Personification of Constantinople
  • Solidus Weight with Moneta
  • Empress Bust Weight, Steelyard, and Collar with Chains (with detail)
  • Empress Bust Weight and Hook
  • Empress Bust Weight
  • Empress Bust Weight
  • Athena Bust Weight
  • Weight with Imperial Busts and Local Official, Egypt
  • Follis of the Empress Helena with Securitas, mint of Antioch
  • Follis of the Empress Fausta with Spes, mint of Ticinum
  • Solidus of Constantine VI, mint of Constantinople
  • Follis of Constantine VI, mint of Constantinople
  • Histamenon of the Empress Theodora, mint of Constantinople
  • Miliaresion with the Empress Maria, mint of Constantinople
  • Seal of the Patriarch Athanasios with Enthroned Virgin, Constantinople
  • Seal of the Metropolitan Constantine with Hosia Theodora, Mytilene (Lesbos)
  • The widow Danielis travels in a litter to meet the emperor Basil I, Chronicle of John Skylitzes
  • The empress Theodora venerates an icon in her rooms at the palace, Chronicle of John Skylitzes
  • Portrait Head, Perhaps of Fausta or Helena, Rome?
  • Portrait Head of a Young Woman
  • Portrait Head in the Type of Flacilla, Constantinople?
  • Head of a Female Figure, Possibly an Empress
  • Head of a Female Figure, Possibly an Empress, rear view
  • Statuette of an Imperial Woman, northern Syria?
  • Solidus of the Augusta Eudoxia,, mint of Constantinople
  • Solidus of the Augusta Pulcheria, mint of Constantinople
  • Solidus of the Augusta Galla Placidia, mint of Ravenna
  • Tremissis of the Augusta Eudokia, mint of Constantinople
  • Solidus of the Augusta Aelia Verina, mint of Constantinople
  • Follis of Justin II and Sophia, mint of Constantinople
  • Solidus with Theophilos, Theodora, and Daughters, mint of Constantinople
  • Solidus of Theodora as Renent, mint of Constantinople
  • Solidus of Theodora and Michael III, mint of Constantinople
  • Solidus of Basil I with Eudokia Ingerina, mint of Constantinople
  • Solidus of Zoe Karbounopsina as Regent, mint of Constantinople
  • Tetarteron of Theodora as Sole Ruler, mint of Constantinople
  • Histamenon of Eudokia Makrembolitissa as Regent, mint of Constantinople
  • Marriage Histamenon of Eudokia and Romanos IV, mint of Constantinople
  • Tetarteron of Eudokia and Romanos IV, mint of Constantinople
  • Tetarteron of Michael VII Doukas and Maria of Alania, mint of Constantinople
  • Assarion of Anna of Savoy and John V Palaiologos, mint of Thessaloniki
  • Seal of Anna Doukaina, Sebaste
  • Seal of Maria Komnene
  • Votive Cross, Syria-Palestine
  • Chalice Dedicated by Sarra, Syria
  • Chalice Dedicated by Anthousa and Ardabarios, Syria ?
  • The Virgin Blachernitissa, apse mosaic of Hagia Sophia
  • Representation of the Icon of the Virgin Hodegetria
  • The Icon of the Virgin of Vladimir with the Story of Its Miracles
  • The Icon of the Virgin of Vladimir Met at the Gates of Moscow
  • Conical Seal Stamp
  • Seal of Leon Skleros
  • Seal of the Protoproedros of the Dikaspoloi
  • Seal of Constantine Keroularios
  • Solidus of the Emperor Leo VI, mint of Constantinople
  • Histamenon of the Emperor John I Tzimiskes, mint of Constantinople
  • Miliaresion of the Emperoro Romanos III Argyros, mint of Constantinople
  • Miliaresion of the Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos, mint of Constantinople
  • Aspron Trachy Nomisma of the Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, mint of Constantinople
  • Aspron Trachy Nomisma of John III Doukas, Emperor of Nicea, mint of Constantinople
  • Hyperpyron of the Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos, mint of Constantinople
  • Ostrakon with Hymn to the Virgin, Egypt
  • Votive Cross, Syria-Palestine
  • Pectoral Cross-Reliquary with Saints
  • Cross with Prayer to Thekla
  • Medallion of Thekla Bound to Two Beasts, Egypt
  • Joseph fleeing Potiphar's wife, with domestic scene of women tending children and spinning; Vienna Genesis, fol. 16r
  • Dancer performing before the imperial family, detail on pyxis
  • Homiletic Fragment Advising Women on Public Conduct, Egypt
  • Icon of the Birth of John the Baptist, Novgorod School
  • Plaque with Adam and Eve at the Forge, Constantinople
  • Seated Dancer, Eastern Greece
  • Gable of a Funerary Stele with Family and Domestic Implements, Asia Minor
  • Spindle
  • Needle
  • Needle
  • Needle
  • Needle
  • Weaver's Comb
  • Textile Fragment with Flourishing Vine, Egypt
  • Roundel with Multicolored Ivy Leaves, Egypt
  • Eight-Pointed Star Tapestry, Egypt
  • The Annunciation, Touton, Fayum
  • Tapestry hanging showing Hestia Polyolbos
  • Vessel depicting a dancing girl, Paphos, Cyprus
  • Architectural Frieze with Portraits in Medallions, Bawit (?)
  • Plaque with a Woman Carrying a Basket, Egypt (?)
  • Plaque with a Maenad, Egypt (?)
  • Plaque with a Maenad, Egypt (?)
  • Plaque with a Nereid Egypt (?)
  • Textile Fragment with Jeweled Border, Egypt (?)
  • Textile Fragment with Braid Motif, Egypt (?)
  • Textile Fragment with Leaf Motif, Egypt (?)
  • Fragments of a Textile Hanging with Female Busts, Egypt
  • Fragments of a Textile Hanging with Female Busts, Egypt
  • Tapestry Roundel with Eros and Horse, Egypt (?)
  • Tapestry Band with Female Bust, Egypt
  • Textile Roundel with Apollo and a Muse, Egypt
  • Textile Panel with Duck, Egypt (?)
  • Silver Dish with Female Rider, Constantinople
  • Silver Bowl
  • Bowl with Incised Leopard Attacking a Rabbit
  • Plate with Incised Bird
  • Plate with Incised Geometric Design
  • Two-Handled Ewer with Animal and Human Figures, Greece or Syria (?)
  • Two-Handled Ewer with Animal and Human Figures, Greece or Syria [?], detail
  • Two-Handled Amphoriskos, Bodrum (?)
  • Jug, Heliopolis (now Baalbek), Lebannon
  • Glass Flask with Inscription
  • Polycandelon, Egypt or Eastern Mediterranean
  • Polycandelon, Bawit (?), Egypt
  • Lamp, Karpathos, Greece
  • Lamp, Eastern Mediterranean
  • Lampstand, Eastern Mediterranean
  • Lampstand with Aphrodite, Egypt, detail
  • Lampstand with Aphrodite, Egypt
  • Incense Burner with the Queen of Saba (?), Egypt
  • Lamp/Incense Burner with Scens from the Life of Christ, Palestine
  • Miniature Codex Containing "Oracles" in Sahidic, Egypt
  • Icon Pendant with Saint George
  • Icon with Koimesis of the Virgin, Constantinople
  • Icon with Koimesis of the Virgin, Constantinople
  • Icon of the Virgin and Child, Serbia or Crete
  • Icon of Saint Paraskeve (Saint Friday), Russian School
  • Icon Triptych with Feast Scenes, Greece, Cretan School
  • Icon Triptych with Feast Scenes, Greece, Cretan School, detail
  • The Marriage at Cana, south chapel, church of Saint Nicholas Orphanos
  • The marriage of Theophobos to the sister of the emperor Thophilos, crowned by the patriarch; Chronicle of John Skylitzes, fol. 53v
  • The marriage of David and Michal, found at Cyrene, Cyprus
  • Gold Ring with Clasped Hands
  • Gemstone Ring with Clasped Hands
  • Seal Ring with Facing Busts
  • Seal Ring with Facing Busts
  • Marriage Ring with Facing Busts
  • Ring with Busts Flanking a Cross
  • Ring with Busts Flanking a Cross
  • Marriage Ring with Christ and Couple Flanking Cross
  • Marriage Ring Bezel with Bride and Groom Flanking Christ
  • Octagonal Marriage Ring, Constantinople (?)
  • Marriage Belt with Bridal Couple, Chrit, and Pagan Dieties, Antioch or Constantinople [?], detail
  • Marriage Belt with Bridal Couple, Chrit, and Pagan Dieties, Antioch or Constantinople (?)
  • Belt Buckle with Bridal Couple, Bellerophon, and Chimera, Rome (?)
  • Aphrodite and Projecta, the Projecta Casket
  • A lady adorning herself, Sidi Ghrib, Tunisia
  • The Muse casket
  • Portrait of a Woman with Earrings, Antino√∂polis, Egypt
  • Portrait of a Woman in a White Tunic, Egypt
  • Drop Earrings
  • Basket Earring
  • Basket Earring
  • Peacock and Cross Earrings, Constantinople (?)
  • Earrings with Dedication
  • Earring in the Shape of a Female Nude, Egypt
  • Openwork Ring
  • Double Ring, Yakhmour, Syria (?)
  • Bracelet with the Personification of Charis, Eastern Mediterranean
  • Bracelet with Bust of Athena, Rome
  • Bracelet with Animals in Relief, Balkans (?)
  • Necklace with Cross Pendants
  • Necklace with Pendants
  • Pyxis with the Judgment of Paris, Egypt
  • Hairpin Fragment in the Form of a Woman's Head, Tipasa, Algeria (?)
  • Hairpin in the Form of Aphrodite, Egypt (?)
  • Hairpin with Decorated Top
  • Hair Comb, Akhmim, Egypt
  • Spoon
  • Pyxis
  • Toiletry Box, Egypt (?)
  • Bottle
  • Jar
  • Tunic Fragment with Four Figures under Arches, Egypt (?)
  • Tunic Fragment with Birds, Flowers, Lions, and Dancers, Egypt (?)
  • Tapestry Band with Knot Motif, Egypt (?)
  • Textile Roundel with Figural Decoration, Egypt
  • Tapestry Panel with Inscription, North Syria (?)
  • Textile Fragment Depicting a Rabbit, Egypt
  • Rebecca giving birth to Jacob and Esau, Octaeuch, fol. 46v
  • Saint Sisinnios (the Holy Rider) killing the demon Alabasdria (Gylou), Bawit Monastery, Egypt
  • Medicine Box with Hygieia, Egypt
  • Amulet Portraying the Woman with the Issue of Blood, obverse, Egypt (?)
  • Chnoubis Ring with Octagonal Band, Asia Minor
  • Amulet with Holy Rider and Evil Eye, Vicinity of Nazareth, Palestine (?)
  • Amulet with Holy Rider
  • Amulet with Holy Rider and Virgin Enthroned, Eastern Mediterranean, obverse
  • Amulet with Holy Rider and Evil Eye, Asia Minor
  • Token with Holy Rider, Asia Minor
  • Hystera Amulet with Saint Theophano
  • Hystera Amulet with Saints Helena and Constantine
  • Prayer for Pregnancy, Upper Egypt (?)
  • Protective Tablet
  • Necklace with Cross and Phylacteries, Eastern Mediterranean
  • Seal Ring with Virgin and Child
  • Ring with Virgin and Christ
  • Ring with Virgin and Child
  • Oval Medallion with Virgin and Child
  • Roundel with Virgin's Presentation
  • Intaglio Ring with Koimesis of the Virgin, Constantinople (?)
  • Oval Pendant with Thekla, Eastern Mediterranean
  • Double-Sided Pendant with Saint Marina
  • Icon of Saint Marina, Tripoli (?)
  • Bilateral Icon: The Birth of the Virgin / Saints John of Novgorod, Sumeon the Stylite, and Nikita, Novgorod or Northern Province of Novgorod
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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
Contents
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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
We at the Harvard University Art Museums are committed to advancing the knowledge and appreciation of art through exhibitions and their attendant publications. Often these derive from seminars taught by our colleagues elsewhere in the university. Byzantine Women and Their World began life as one such seminar and, with the help of Andrew W. Mellon...
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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
Through artifacts and images, this exhibition presents the environment and concerns of women in Byzantine society. It grew out of a graduate seminar, “Women in Byzantine Art,” that I offered in the Department of History of Art and Architecture at Harvard during the spring of 1999. The dynamic exchange that this topic generated in class discussion and...
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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
Lenders to the Exhibition
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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
Contributing Authors
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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
Notes on the Catalogue
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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
Maps
Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
The modern perception of women in the medieval world has suffered from a lack of adequate textual sources and material evidence relating to women’s lives. This...

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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
The image of Byzantium in scholarly as well as popular perception has long suffered from two historical accidents. The first is the fact that one of the greatest masters of English historical prose turned his unsympathetic attention to the history of Byzantium. Edward Gibbon’s The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, with its memorable turns of phrase, has done a great deal to...

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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
Catalogue of the Exhibition
Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
Images of women had a prominent place in Byzantine civic life. Statues of goddesses, female allegories, and empresses dominated...

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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
Women from imperial and aristocratic families had great influence in Byzantine society. In exceptional cases, such as that of the mid-eleventh-century empress Theodora...

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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
Although recent generations have perceived Mary as a delicate and tender Virgin, Byzantines saw her as a woman of power...

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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
Regarding her occupation, a woman of the Byzantine Empire had few choices. Girls were expected to marry young, have children, and take care of their families and households...

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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
Although Byzantine women were not sequestered in the home, the public realm was a primarily male domain, and the domestic sphere was under the purview of women...

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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
Early Byzantine stories of female saints’ lives celebrated the penitent prostitute and the consecrated virgin, but these moral extremes...

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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
Early Christian Church writers, from Saint Paul to Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, and John Chrysostom, strongly criticized the wearing of makeup...

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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
Health problems considered minor today often turned into lifelong ailments in the Byzantine period, when effective drugs were lacking...

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Appendix: Byzantine Empresses
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Bibliography
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Index
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Description: Byzantine Women and Their World
Illustration Credits
Byzantine Women and Their World
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