It is a pleasure to acknowledge the friends and colleagues who helped improve this book in concrete ways. I am indebted to Philip Benedict, Joseph Bergin, Richard Brilliant, Richard Cleary, Joseph Connors, and Sarah McPhee, who read the manuscript in whole or in part; their insights, corrections, and suggestions were enormously valuable and made the writing of this book a learning process to the very end. For their help in unraveling historical puzzles, answering queries, reacting to my thoughts, and providing advice, my thanks go to James Ackerman, Nicholas Adams, Christy Anderson, Robert Berger, Giuseppe Dardanello, Elizabeth Easton, Pierre Force, Alice Jarrard, Susan Klaiber, Polly Maguire, Tod Marder, Claude Mignot, John Pinto, Orest Ranum, Victoria Sanger, John Beldon Scott, Peter Smith, Cathryn Steeves, Katherine Tachau, Patrice de Vogüé, and Carol Willis. The doctoral students whom I have been privileged to teach at Columbia University and my colleagues in the Department of Art History and Archaeology gave me the opportunity to present work in progress and enriched my work in significant ways. I do, indeed, feel fortunate to be part of this community of scholars.
Research for this book was undertaken mostly in the Archives Nationales, the Bibliothèque de l’Institut, and the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. I thank the many conservators and archivists in those institutions who facilitated my work. Writing began during a year at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, where Irving Lavin created a tremendously stimulating environment.
It is my good fortune to work with Patricia Fidler, Curtis Scott, and Elizabeth Steiner at Princeton University Press; I am grateful for their attentiveness, efficiency, and editorial skill. A word of thanks as well to the Graham Foundation and the Millard Meiss Publication Fund of the College Art Association for the publication subventions they granted this book.
Finally, the contribution of my family, which was not at all concrete: it was impalpable, pervasive, and essential. I am incomparably blessed to be the mother of Sophie and Charles and to journey through life with Orin Kramer, my husband, to whom I dedicate this book.